Jalalayn: Ayat-Ayat Quran yang Dibatalkan Jihad

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Jalalayn: Ayat-Ayat Quran yang Dibatalkan Jihad

Post by Kibou »

Ayat-Ayat Quran yang Dibatalkan oleh Jihad Menurut Tafsir Jalalayn

Sekilas mengenai Tafsir Jalalayn:
“The fifteenth-century Qur’anic commentary or Tafsīr of ‘the two Jalāls’ (al-Jalālayn) — the Egyptian Shafi‘i-madhhab scholar Jalāl al-Dīn Muḥammad b. Aḥmad al-Maḥallī (d. 864 AH / 1459 CE), and his (also Egyptian) student the famous ‘ālim and polymath, Jalāl al-Dīn 'Abd al-Raḥmān b. Abī Bakr al-Suyūṭī (d. 911 AH / 1505 CE) — is one of the most popular Tafsīrs in the Islamic world, perhaps even the most popular Tafsīr. Copies of it are available in almost every bookshop and library in the Arab and Islamic world, in dozens of different editions, and it sits, well-loved and respected, in countless homes, schools and mosques all over the world.”

“...it is by far the shortest and easiest to read and understand.”

“...for millions of students and adults who never go further into the subject, it is the only Tafsīr they ever come to know extensively.”

“...it is habitually used as an instant reference work for words in the Qur’an whose meaning is not immediately clear to the modern reader, and this arguably is its real forte.”

“It is thus an immensely successful and influential work not just as the classic introduction to Tafsīr, but also as the standard reference work for the language of the Qur’an.”

“...its primary and overriding goal — one might say its ‘categorical imperative’ — is only to clarify the immediate sense of the Qur’anic text, thereby facilitating the reading of the Qur’an. There are no digressions, no distractions, no embellishments, nothing superfluous, and nothing whose sole purpose is not to elucidate an ambiguity in the text of the Qur’an or to explain something that is not self-evident.”

“In this sense the Tafsīr al-Jalālayn is what the word ‘Tafsīr’ literally means — an ‘explanation’ — and not what the word has come to mean by extension (namely: ‘commentary’ or ‘interpretation’). This is doubtless what makes the Tafsīr al-Jalālayn invaluable as an introductory classical tafsīr, and is the secret of its timeless popularity.”

“Living as they did, more or less after the end of the Classical Tradition of Commentary, its two authors had the advantage of having easy access to the great works of Classical Tafsīrs and to their methods, but they deliberately summarized, streamlined or simplified these in order to stay focused on their one overriding aim: to make the literal meaning of the Holy Qur’an completely intelligible in the simplest possible way!

“There are numerous editions of the Tafsīr al-Jalālayn. This work is based on a recent and good edition by 'Abd al-Qādir al-Arnā'ūṭ and Aḥmad Khālid Shukrī (Damascus and Beirut: Dār Ibn Kathīr, 1998), which I collate with the much older Cairo version (Būlāq, 1280/1863).”
Sekilas mengenai Jalāl al-Dīn 'Abd al-Raḥmān al-Suyūṭī (d. 911/1505):
"Of the ‘two Jalāls’, however, by far the more prolific and better known is al-Suyūṭī, who also lived most of his life in Cairo. At a very young age, he was already teaching Shāfi'ī law, even giving some fatwas, and, as the famous Ibn Ḥajar al-'Asqalānī had once done, al-Suyūṭī dictated ḥadīth in the mosque of Ibn Ṭulūn, where al-Suyūṭī’s father had been a preacher. Al-Suyūṭī had a prodigious memory (as he himself was sometimes wont to note), and it is said that he knew by heart all the ḥadīths that had come to his knowledge (some 200,000)."

"As well as being a legal expert, al-Suyūṭī wrote on history: his best-known works in this field are the Ta'rīkh al-khulafā' (‘History of the Caliphs’), and his Egyptian history, Ḥusn al-muḥāḍara (‘The Excellent Lecture’). He was also interested in the sciences related to the Arabic language, as can be seen in the Jalālayn commentary. Other well-known works are al-Durr al-manthūr fī'l-tafsīr bi'l-ma'thūr (‘The Scattered Pearls Of Traditional Exegesis’), focusing exclusively on ḥadīth, and his Lubāb al-nuqūl fī asbāb al-nuzūl (‘The Prime Entries Concerning the Occasions of Revelation’), dealing with the circumstances of Qur'ānic verse revelation, which one frequently finds appended in the margins of modern editions of the Tafsīr al-Jalālayn;[20] in addition to these one might also mention his al-Itqān fī 'ulūm al-Qur'ān (‘Mastery of the Sciences of the Qur'ān’). On a personal level, al-Suyūṭī was a devoted Sufi and in a number of works he sought to explain the harmony that must exist between commitment to the Sufi ṭarīqa and the individual’s obligation to the Divine sharī'a."
Dalil pembatalan ayat dalam Quran:
When the disbelievers began to deride the matter of abrogation, saying that one day Muhammad enjoins his Companions to one thing and then the next day he forbids it, God revealed: And whatever verse (mā is the conditional particle), that has been revealed containing a judgement, We abrogate, either together with its recital or not [that is only its judgement, but its recital continues]; there is a variant reading, nunsikh, meaning ‘[Whatever verse] We command you or Gabriel to abrogate’, or postpone, so that We do not reveal the judgement contained in it, and We withhold its recital or retain it in the Preserved Tablet; a variant reading [of nunsi’hā] is nunsihā, from ‘to forget’: so ‘[Whatever verse We abrogate] or We make you forget, that is, We erase from your heart’; the response to the conditional sentence [begun with mā] is: We bring [in place] a better, one that is more beneficial for [Our] servants, either because it is easier [to implement] or contains much reward; or the like of it, in terms of religious obligation and reward; do you not know that God has power over all things?, including abrogating and substituting [verses]?
Keterangan Profesor Kamali mengenai pembatalan:
“The knowledge of the Meccan and the Madinese contents of the Qur’an gives one an insight into the context and circumstances in which the ayat were revealed; it is particularly relevant to the understanding of the incidence of abrogation (naskh) in the Qur’an. To distinguish the abrogating (al-nasikh) from the abrogated (al-mansukh) portions of the text depends on determining the chronological order in the revelation of the relevant ayat.”

“The distinction between the Meccan and Madinan parts of the Qur’an is based on the information that is provided mainly by the Companions and the following generation of the 'successors': the Prophet himself has said nothing on the subject. The distinction is also facilitated considerably by internal evidence in the Qur’an, such as the theme itself: ayat about warfare were, for example, revealed only after the Hijrah, but references to Abu Lahab in sura 111 and to the battle of Badr (3: 123) indicate the Meccan origin of the suras in which they occur."

“With regard to distinguishing the Makki from the Madani contents of the Qur’an, the ulema have applied three different criteria: 1) The time of the revelation, meaning that the part of the Qur’an which was revealed prior to the Prophet’s migration to Madinah is classified as Makki and the remaining part which was revealed after the occasion is identified as Madani regardless of the locality in which they were received. In this way the ayat which were actually revealed in Mecca after the Year of Victory (‘am al-fath) or during the Farewell Pilgrimage (hajjah al-wida) are accounted as Madani. This is
considered to be the most preferred of the three methods under discussion
. 2) The place of revelation, which means that all the ayat that were revealed while the Prophet was in Mecca, or its neighbouring areas, are classified as Makki, and ayat that were actually revealed in Madinah or its surrounding areas are classified as Madani. This criterion is, however, not conclusive in that it leaves out the ayat which were received while the Prophet was travelling to places such as Jerusalem or Tabuk. 3) The nature of the audience, which means that all the parts of the Qur’an which are addressed to the people of Makkah are classified as Makki and those which are addressed to the people of Madinah are classified as Madani. In this way all passages which begin with phrases such as 'O mankind' or ‘O people' are Makki and those which open with phrases, such as 'O believers' are typically Madani. [Cf. Qattan, Tashri’, 69-70.]”
Contoh ayat-ayat Quran yang dibatalkan demi Jihad:

Tafsir Jalalayn:
After the Prophet (s) was prevented from [visiting] the House in the year of the battle of Hudaybiyya, he made a pact with the disbelievers that he would be allowed to return the following year, at which time they would vacate Mecca for three days. Having prepared to depart for the Visitation [‘umra], [he and] the believers were concerned that Quraysh would not keep to the agreement and instigate fighting. The Muslims were averse to becoming engaged in fighting while in a state of pilgrimage inviolability in the Sacred Enclosure [al-haram] and during the sacred months, and so the following was revealed: And fight in the way of God, to elevate His religion, with those who fight against you, the disbelievers, but aggress not, against them by initiating the fighting; God loves not the aggressors, the ones that overstep the bounds which God has set for them: this stipulation was abrogated by the verse of barā’a, ‘immunity’ [Q. 9:1]

So if they, the disbelievers, dispute with you, O Muhammad (s), concerning religion, say, to them: ‘I have surrendered my countenance to God, [that is to say] I have submitted to Him, I, and whoever follows me’ (wajh, ‘countenance’, is chosen here because of its noble character, for the other [parts of the body] will just as soon [surrender once the countenance has]); and say to those who have been given the Scripture, the Jews and the Christians, and to the uninstructed, the Arab idolaters: ‘Have you submitted?’, that is to say, ‘Submit!’ And so if they have submitted, they have been guided, from error, but if they turn their backs, to Islam, your duty is only to deliver, the Message; and God sees His servants, and so requites them for their deeds — this [statement] was [revealed] before the command to fight [them] had been revealed.

Whoever obeys the Messenger, verily obeys God; and whoever turns his back, [whoever] avoids obedience to you, do not be concerned with them: We have not sent you as a watcher over them, to keep watch over their deeds, but as a warner. Their affair is Ours [to deal with] and We will requite them. This [statement] was before the command to fight [them was revealed].

Except those who attach themselves to, [who] seek refuge with, a people between whom and you there is a covenant, a pledge of security for them and for whoever attaches himself to them, in the manner of the Prophet’s (s) covenant with Hilāl b. ‘Uwaymir al-Aslamī; or, those who, come to you with their breasts constricted, dejected, about the prospect of fighting you, [being] on the side of their people, or fighting their people, siding with you, in other words, [those who come to you] refraining from fighting either you or them, then do not interfere with them, neither taking them as captives nor slaying them: this statement and what follows was abrogated by the ‘sword’ verse.

O you who believe, do not profane God’s sacraments (sha‘ā’ir is the plural of sha‘īra), that is, the [ritual] ceremonies of the religion, by hunting [game] while you are on pilgrimage, nor the sacred month, by fighting in it, nor the offering, that is, the boon offered in the [Meccan] Sanctuary, by interfering with it, nor the garlands (qalā’id, is the plural of qilāda, and these, made from the trees around the Sanctuary, were placed around it [the offering] to protect it), in other words, do not interfere with these [offerings] or with those who place them; nor, violate the sanctity of, those repairing, those heading, to the Sacred House, by fighting them [who are], seeking bounty, provision, from their Lord, through commerce, and, His, beatitude, by resorting to Him, as they [the Meccans pagans] falsely claimed (this was abrogated by the barā’a verse [of sūrat al-Tawba, Q. 9:4]).

God says: So because (bi-mā, the mā is extra) of their breaking their covenant, We cursed them, We removed them from Our mercy, and made their hearts hard, unyielding to the acceptance of faith; they pervert words, pertaining to the descriptions of Muhammad (s) in the Torah and other things, from their contexts, those in which God has placed them, in other words, they substitute them; and they have forgotten, they have abandoned, a portion, a part, of what they were reminded of, [of what] they were enjoined to in the Torah, in the way of following Muhammad (s); and you — addressing the Prophet (s) now — will never cease to discover some treachery on their part, in the way of breaking a covenant or some other matter, except for a few of them, who have submitted themselves [to Islam]. Yet pardon them, and forgive; surely God loves the virtuous: this was abrogated by the ‘sword’ verse [Q. 9:5].

Your people have denied it, the Qur’ān. Yet it is the truth. Say, to them: ‘I am not a guardian over you, to requite you. I am only a warner and your affair is left to God — this was [revealed] before the command to fight [the idolaters].

And forsake, leave alone, those who take their religion, with which they have been charged, as a game and a diversion, making a mockery of it, and whom the life of this world has deluded, and so do not interfere with them — this was [revealed] before the command to fight [them].

Had God willed, they would not have been idolaters; and We have not set you as a keeper over them, a watcher, so that you might then requite them for their deeds; nor are you a guardian over them, so that you might [be able to] coerce them to faith — this was [revealed] before the command to fight [them].

And so We have appointed to every Prophet an enemy, just as We have appointed these your enemies (and this [‘adūwwan, ‘an enemy’, is substituted by [the following, shayātīn, ‘devils’]) devils, the rebels, of mankind and jinn who inspire, whisper, fine speech to each other, the falsehood that is disguised as such [fine speech], in delusion, that is, in order to delude them; yet, had your Lord willed, they would never have done it, that mutual inspiration. So leave them, let the disbelievers be, with what they fabricate, of disbelief and otherwise, of what has been adorned for them — this was [revealed] before the command to fight [them].

Those who have sundered their religion, by being at variance over it, accepting some [aspects] of it and rejecting others, and have become differing parties, sects with regard to such [matters] (a variant reading [for farraqū, ‘they have sundered’] has fāraqū, meaning that they have abandoned the religion to which they were enjoined, and they are the Jews and the Christians), you have no concern with them at all, in other words, do not be concerned with them. Their case will go to God — He will take charge of it — then He will inform them, in the Hereafter, of what they used to do, and requite them for it: this was abrogated by the ‘sword’ verse [Q. 9:5].

And to God belong the, ninety nine, Most Beautiful Names — mentioned in hadīth — (al-husnā is the feminine for al-ahsan) so invoke, name, Him by them, and leave those who blaspheme His Names (yulhidūn, ‘they blaspheme’, from [fourth form] alhada or [first form] lahada, meaning ‘those who incline away from the truth’), by deriving from them names for their gods, as in the case of al-Lāt, from Allāh (‘God’), al-‘Uzzā, from al-‘Azīz (‘Mighty’), and Manāt, from al-Mannān (‘Lord of Favours’). They will be requited, in the Hereafter, the requital, for what they did — this was [revealed] before the command to fight [them].

And if they incline to peace (read silm or salm, meaning, ‘settlement’), then incline to it, and conclude a pact with them: Ibn ‘Abbās said, ‘This has been abrogated by the “sword verse” [Q. 9:5]’; Mujāhid said, ‘This [stipulation] applies exclusively in the context of the People of the Scripture, for it was revealed regarding the Banū Qurayza; and rely on God, put your trust in Him; truly He is the Hearer, of words, the Knower, of actions.

If they deny you, then say, to them: ‘Unto me is my work, and to you your work, that is, for each there will be a [due] requital of his deeds; you are innocent of what I do, and I am innocent of what you do’: this was abrogated by the ‘sword’ verse [Q. 9:5].

Leave them, the disbelievers, O Muhammad (s), to eat and to enjoy, this world of theirs, and that they be diverted, distracted, by hope, of a long life and other [such] matters, [that keep them] away from faith, for they will come to know, the sequel of their affair — this was [revealed] before the command to fight [them].

We did not create the heavens and the earth and all that is between them save with the Truth. And truly the Hour shall come, without doubt, whereupon every person will be requited according to his deeds. So be forgiving, O Muhammad (s), to your people, with gracious forgiveness: turn away from them without [any feeling of] anxiety — this was abrogated by the ‘sword’ verse [Q. 9:5].

So proclaim, O Muhammad (s), what you have been commanded, to [proclaim], in other words, declare it openly and carry it out, and turn away from the idolaters — this was [revealed] before the command to struggle [against the idolaters].

But if they turn away, [if] they reject Islam, your duty, O Muhammad (s), is only to convey [the Message] plainly — this was [revealed] before the command to fight [the disbelievers].

Call, mankind, O Muhammad (s), to the way of your Lord, [to] His religion, with wisdom, [with] the Qur’ān, and fair exhortation, its [the Qur’ān’s] fair exhortations, or with gentle words, and dispute with them by way of that which, that is, by way of that [manner of] disputation which, is best, such as calling [them] to God by way of His signs and calling [them] to His definitive arguments. Truly your Lord knows best, that is, He is fully knowledgeable [of], those who stray from His way and He knows best those who are guided, and will requite them — this was [revealed] before the command to fight [them].

Your Lord knows you best. If He will, He will have mercy on you, by way of [granting you] repentance and faith, or, if He will, for you to be chastised, He will chastise you, by having you die in disbelief. And We did not send you to be a guardian over them, and so compel them to [embrace] faith — this was [revealed] before the command to fight [them].

So be patient with what they say — this is abrogated by the ‘fighting’ verse [cf. Q. 2:190ff]

And if they dispute with you, in the matter of religion, say, ‘God knows best what you do, and will requite you for it — this was [revealed] before the command to fight [them].

Ward off with that which is better, that is to say, with the [better] trait of pardoning and shunning them, the evil [act], the hurt they cause you — this was [revealed] before the command to fight [them]. We know best what they allege, [what] they invent of lies and [what they] say and so We will requite them for it.

and to recite the Qur’ān, to you as a call to faith. So whoever is guided, to it, is guided only for his own sake, since the reward for his being guided will be his; and whoever goes astray, from faith and errs from the path of guidance, say, to him: ‘I am just one of the warners’, the threateners, and therefore my duty is only to deliver [the Message] — this was [revealed] before the command to fight [against the disbelievers].

So turn away from them, and wait, for the chastisement to be sent down on them. They too are waiting, for your death to take place or [for you] to be killed and so be rid of you — this was [revealed] before the command to fight them.

So to that then, [to that] affirmation of [God’s] Oneness, summon, O Muhammad (s), people, and be upright, in [summoning them to] this, just as you have been commanded, and do not follow them in their desires, to abandon it. And say: ‘I believe in whatever Book God has revealed. And I have been commanded to be just between you, in passing judgement. God is our Lord and your Lord. Our deeds concern us and your deeds concern you, and so each [one of us] will be requited according to his [own] deeds. There is no argument, [no] dispute, between us and you — this was [revealed] before the command to struggle [against them]. God will bring us together, at the [time of the] Return to decide [definitively] between us, and to Him is the [final] destination’, the [ultimate] return.

But if they are disregardful, of answering [God], We have not sent you as a keeper over them, to keep [track of] their deeds by securing what is demanded of them. Your duty is only to deliver the Message — this was [revealed] before the command to struggle [against them].

God, exalted be He, says: Then disregard them, leave [them] be, and say, ‘Peace!’, from you — this was [revealed] before he was commanded to fight them.

So be on the look out, await their destruction. Indeed they [too] are on the look out, for your death — this was before the revelation of the command to struggle against them.

Tell those who believe to forgive those who do not anticipate, [those who do not] fear, the days of God, the events which He precipitates, that is to say, forgive the disbelievers the harm which they have caused you — this was before the command to struggle against them [had been revealed].

We know best what they, the disbelievers of the Quraysh, say, and you are not [to be] a coercer of them, so as to coerce them to [embrace] faith — but this was [revealed] before the command to struggle [against these disbelievers].

So shun him who turns away from Our Remembrance, that is, [from] the Qur’ān, and desires nothing but the life of this world — this was [revealed] before the command to struggle [against the disbelievers].

God does not forbid you in regard to those who did not wage war against you, from among the disbelievers, on account of religion and did not expel you from your homes, that you should treat them kindly (an tabarrūhum is an inclusive substitution for alladhīna, ‘those who’) and deal with them justly: this was [revealed] before the command to struggle against them. Assuredly God loves the just.

So be patient — this was [revealed] before he [the Prophet] was commanded to fight — with a graceful patience, that is, one in which there is no anguish.

and bear patiently what they say, that is, the disbelievers of Mecca, in the way of their maltreatment [of you], and part with them in a gracious manner, without any anguish — this was [revealed] before the command to fight them.

So respite, O Muhammad (s), the disbelievers; grant them respite ([reiterated as] an emphasis, one enhanced by the use of a different form [mahhil, amhil]), that is to say, put them off, for a little (ruwaydā is a verbal noun emphasising the import of the operator, and is the diminutive form of rūd or irwad, with shortening of final consonant [ruwaydan, ruwaydā]). Surely enough God, exalted be He, seized them at Badr and abrogated [the dispensation of] ‘granting respite’ by the ‘sword’ verse, in other words, by the command to fight and struggle.

you are not a taskmaster over them (a variant reading [for musaytir] has musaytir, that is to say, [not one who has been] given authority over them) — this was [revealed] before the command to struggle [against the disbelievers].
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