SUMBER UTAMA RUJUKAN ESAI
“A matter must be established by the testimony of two or three witnesses.” - Deuteronomy
Dengan mengikuti prinsip kesaksian lebih dari satu sumber, tulisan ini memakai tiga sumber utama yaitu:
1. Tafsir Quran oleh Ibn Kathir.
2. Reliance of The Traveller, terjemahan Inggris dari Umdat Al Salik oleh Nuh Ha Mim Keller.
3. Principles of Islamic Jurisprudence oleh Profesor M.H. Kamali.
Semua sumber di atas mewakili pandangan Islam Sunni. Rujukan kepada sumber lain akan digunakan sebagai pelengkap ketiga sumber di atas.
SEKILAS MENGENAI KETIGA SUMBER RUJUKAN
Sebelum menuju ke pembahasan, ada baiknya kita kenali lebih dulu ketiga sumber utama esai ini yaitu:
1. Mengenai Tafsir Quran oleh Ibn Kathir (https://www.kalamullah.com/ibn-kathir.html
“The Qur'an is the revelation of Allah's Own Words for the guidance of His creatures. Since the Qur'an is the primary source of Islamic teachings, the correct understanding for the Qur'an is necessary for every Muslim. The Tafsir of Ibn Kathir is among the most renowned and accepted explanation of the Qur'an in the entire world. In it one finds the best presentation of Hadiths, history, and scholarly commentary.”
“One of the greatest books that Ibn Kathir wrote was his Tafsir of the Noble Qur'an, which is one of the best Tafsir that rely on narrations [of Ahadith, the Tafsir of the Companions, etc.]. The Tafsir by Ibn Kathir was printed many times and several scholars have summarized it.”
Ibn Kathir adalah seorang mujtahid (ahli bahasa Arab, Quran, Hadits, dan Fiqh):
Also, the renowned historian Abu Al-Mahasin, Jamal Ad-Din Yusuf bin Sayf Ad-Din (Ibn Taghri Bardi), said in his book, Al Manhal As-Safi, "He is the Shaykh, the Imam, the great scholar ` Imad Ad-Din Abu Al-Fida'. He learned extensively and was very active in collecting knowledge and writing. He was excellent in the areas of Fiqh, Tafsir and Hadith. He collected knowledge,authored (books), taught, narrated Hadith and wrote. He had immense knowledge in the fields of Hadith, Tafsir, Fiqh, the Arabic language, and so forth. He gave Fatawa (religious verdicts) and taught until he died, may Allah grant him mercy. He was known for his precision and vast knowledge, and as a scholar of history, Hadith and Tafsir."
Beberapa kesaksian mengenai karakter Ibn Kathir:
Ibn Hajji was one of Ibn Kathir's students, and he described Ibn Kathir: "He had the best memory of the Hadith texts. He also had the most knowledge concerning the narrators and authenticity, his contemporaries and teachers admitted to these qualities. Every time I met him I gained some benefit from him."
International lslamic Publishing House Arab Saudi menulis mengenai Ibn Kathir:
...His Tafsir (explanation) has been recognised by the majority of the scholars as one of the best. His excellence stemmed from the fact that he adopted the standard and correct method in approaching this work which is, the explanation of the Qur'ân by the Qur'ân itself, then by the Sunnah, then by the Companions, then by language and lastly by the opinion of the scholars of the Sunnah, in that order. By maintaining this order, Ibn Kathir has preserved the Book of Allah from the false interpretations of the philosophers and rationalists....
We ask Allah, the Majestic, to make this book a source of inspiration to those who strive in His Cause and a proof against those who try to distort the truth by deviant Tafsir.
Muhammad Abdul Muhsin AI Tuwaijri
International lslamic Publishing House
Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
2. Mengenai Reliance Of The Traveller (https://archive.org/details/RelianceOfT ... edLawumdat
"Ahmad ibn Naqib al-Misri (d. 769/1368) is the author of the basic text, 'Umdat al-salik wa 'uddat al-nasik [The reliance of the traveller and tools of the worshipper], which is vowelled in the Arabic."
"In an age when some Muslims are calling for an end to the four schools of jurisprudence in order to make way for a single school exclusively taken, it is claimed, from the texts of the Koran and hadith, it might be wondered: why offer Muslims a book from a particular school at all? The answer, in part, is that each school does not merely comprise the work of a single Imam, but rather represents a large collectivity of scholars whose research in Sacred Law and its ancillary disciplines has been characterized by considerable division of labor and specialization over a very long period of time."
“Among the specialists in the field of hadith, for example, who were Shafi'is are such scholars as Bukhari, Muslim, Tirmidhi, Nasa'i, Ibn Majah. Abu Dawud. Ibn Kathir, Dhahabi, and Nawawi; while the school has also had many Koranic exegetes, scholars of the sciences of Arabic, and legal specialists, most of whom were actively involved in contributing to the school's jurisprudence. The result of this division of labor has been a body of legal texts that are arguably superior in evidence, detail, range, and in sheer usefulness to virtually any recent attempt to present Islam as a unified system of human life. For most nontraditional works seen up to the present have been one-man efforts, while the classic texts have been checked and refined by a large number of scholars, and the difference is manifest."
"As for sources, the authors translated are, with few exceptions, well-known scholars of the Shafi'i school of jurisprudence and Ash'ari school of tenets ot faith as appears in their biographies. The many who were Sufis were of the strictest observance of the Sacred Law. While such affiliations, and indeed much of what can be termed traditional Sunni Islam, have not been spared the criticism of certain post-caliphal Muslim writers and theorists. The authors of the present volume and their positions do represent the orthodox Muslim intellectual and spiritual heritage that has been the strength of the Community for over a thousand years, and the means through which Allah has preserved His religion, in its purest and fullest sense, to the present day."
Beberapa kesaksian atas terjemahan Inggris Umdat Al Salik:
"Praise be to Allah, Lord of the Worlds. Allah bless our liegelord Muhammad, his folk, and his Companions and give them peace. The writer of these words, 'Abd al-Wakil Durubi, says: Brother Nuh Ha Mim Keller has heard from me all the chapters of this book, whose basic text is 'Umdat al-salik wa 'uddat alnasik, together with the additions he has made to the text from the commentary entitled Fayd al-Ilah ai-Malik, as well as other chapters on principles of law and faith (usul) and particular rulings (furo') that he has placed before and after the main work; he understands the texts of this volume and is qualified to expound it and translate it to his native English. This took place in sessions, the first of which was in the month of Rajab, AH. 1405, and the last of which was in the month of Sha'ban. A.H. 1408. Written by the slave in need of Allah Most High, Sha'ban, A.H. 1408 [April, 1988] 'Abd al-Wakil Durubi [stamped]
Imam of the Mosque of Darwish Pasha
"Praise be to Allah, Lord of the Worlds. May Allah bless our Liegelord Muhammad and give him peace, and his folk and Companions one and all. To commence: I have read all the chapters of this book, whose basic text is 'Umdat al-salik wa 'uddat al-nasik, made notes on some matters of it, and reviewed it with brother Nuh Ha Mim Keller in numerous sessions, the first of which was in the month of Safar, A.H.1405, and the last of which was in the month of Jumada II, A.H. 1409; during which I found the above-mentioned brother knowledgeable in what it contains and qualified to expound it and translate it into his native English, and I observed his accuracy and integrity in quoting the texts he has added before and after the main work, of principles of law and faith (usul) and particular rulings (furu'). He has interspersed the texts of the above mentioned work with passages from its commentary entitled Fayd al-Ilah alMalik, and he was successful in this, choosing passages needed to clarify the text and distinguishing the latter from the commentary with symbols. I ask Allah to give him success, reward him the best reward for it, and to benefit him and benefit others through him. May Allah bless our liegelord Muhammad and give him peace, and his folk and Companions. Composed in Jumada II, A.H. 1409 [February, 1989] and written by:
Nuh 'Ali Salman [signed]
Mufti of the Jordanian Armed Forces"
Kesaksian International Institute of Islamic Thought:
"Report on the English translation of' Umdat al-salik by Ahmad ibn Naqib al~Misri al-Shafi'i undertaken by the scholar Nuh Ha Mim Keller:
(1) There is no doubt that this translation is a valuable and important work, whether as a textbook for teaching Islamic jurisprudence to English-speakers, or as a legal reference for use by scholars, educated laymen, and students in this language,
(2) As for the correctness of the translation, its accuracy, and its fidelity to the meanings and objects, we had our colleague in the~Research Department of the International Institute of Islamic Thought, the scholar Yusuf Talal DeLorenzo, member of the Fiqh Council of North America and former chief of the Translation Bureau at the International Islamic University, Islamabad, review its texts and check it against the Arabic original. He found that the translation presents the legal questions in a faithful and precise idiom that clearly delivers the complete meaning in a sound English style. The translation is far from literalism, but does not exceed the author's intent, thereby demonstrating the translator's knowledge of Sacred Law and ability in jurisprudence as well as his complete command of both the Arabic and English languages.
(3) In view of the utility of this eminent work of Islamic jurisprudence and its rank among well known standard Shafi'i legal texts, its translation into English is regarded as a useful, auspicious step, as is the translator's work, which, in clarifying fine shades of meaning and abstruse legal questions, succeeds in serving the book, making its objects accessible, and rendering it of general benefit to both followers of the Shafi'i school and others of the Muslim community. The book will be of great use in Southeast Asia in particular, and in America, Britain, and Canada.
(4) From a purely academic point of view, this translation is superior to anything produced by orientalists in the way of translations of major Islamic works, in that while faithfully maintaining the required scholarly level, its aim is to imbue the consciousness of the non-Arabic-speaking Muslim with a sound understanding of Sacred Law, and the success of the translator lies in the notes, commentaries, appendices, and indexes he has added that help give the Muslim access to what will benefit him in his religion and this-worldly concerns and earn him the pleasure of Allah Most High. And this is the great triumph.
Dr. Taha Jabir al-'Alwani [signed]
President of the International Institute of Islamic Thought
Member of Islamic Fiqh Academy at Jedda
President of the Fiqh Council of North America"
Islamic Research Academy
General Department for Research, Writing, and Translation
Mr, Nuh Ha Mim Keller
Peace be upon you, and the mercy of Allah and His blessings. To commence: In response to the request you have submitted concerning the examination of the English translation of the book 'Umdat al-salik wa 'uddat alnasik by Ahmad ibn Naqib in the Shafi'i school of jurisprudence, together with appendices by Islamic scholars on matters of Islamic law, tenets of faith, and personal ethics and character: we certify that the above-mentioned translation corresponds to the Arabic original and conforms to the practice and faith of the orthodox Sunni Community (Ahl al-Sunna wa al-Jama'a). There is no objection to printing it and circulating it. The stamping of the pages of the above-mentioned work with the seal of the department has been completed. May Allah give you success in serving Sacred Knowledge and the religion. Peace be upon you, and the mercy of Allah and His blessings. Composed on 26 Rajab 1411 A.H.l11 February 1991 A.D.
General Director of Research, Writing, and Translation
Fath Allah Ya Sin Jazar [signed]"
3. Mengenai Principles of Islamic Jurisprudence (https://www.kalamullah.com/Books/Princi ... udence.pdf
This third edition of the best-selling title Principles of Islamic Jurisprudence has been completely revised and substantially enlarged. In this work, Prof Kamali offers us the first detailed presentation available in English of the theory of Muslim law (usul al-fiqh). Often regarded as the most sophisticated of the traditional Islamic disciplines, Islamic Jurisprudence is concerned with the way in which the rituals and laws of religion are derived from the Qur’an and the Sunnah—the precedent of the Prophet. Written as a university textbook, Principles of Islamic Jurisprudence is distinguished by its clarity and readability; it is an essential reference work not only for students of Islamic law, but also for anyone with an interest in Muslim society or in issues of comparative Jurisprudence.
Mengenai Profesor M.H. Kamali (http://www.worde.org/specialists/mohammadhashimkamali/
He is currently a Fellow of that Institute and also a member of the Royal Academy of Jordan. He was a member and Chairman of the Constitution Review Commission of Afghanistan (2003). He is on the International Advisory Board of eleven academic journals published in Malaysia, USA, Canada, Kuwait, India, Australia and Pakistan. Professor Kamali has served as a UN consultant on constitutional reforms in the Maldives, and as a Shariah expert on the constitution of Iraq (2005 – 2006).
He is currently a member of the Global Expert Finder Network of the UN Alliance of Civilisations, Chairman of the CIMB Shariah Committee and Chairman of Shariah Board, Stanlib Corporation of South Africa. Professor Kamali is a signatory to the “Common Word” between Muslims and Christians worldwide, has addressed over 120 national and international conferences, published 16 books and over 110 academic articles. He delivered the Prominent Scholars Lecture Series (Silsila Muhadarat Ulama’ alBarizin) No. 20 at the Islamic Research and Training Institute of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, 1996 and the Multaqa Sultan Ahmad Shah Lecture in Kuantan 2002. Professor Kamali has featured frequently on the print media, radio, TV and the internet. He featured a full page article in Berliner Zeitung just before the Taliban blew up the Bamian Statues and on the Iran Television network just before the US invasion of Afghanistan. He also appeared on RTM Malaysia, Afghanistan Ariana TV, TV Kuwait, Al Arabiya, The Maldives TV, and AlJazira, the last just before the Archbishop of Canterbury spoke on recognition of aspects of Shariah in Britain. He received the Isma’il alFaruqi Award for Academic Excellence twice in 1995 and 1997, and he is listed in a number of leading Who’s Whos in the World.
Prof Kamali dan Paus Benedict
Prof Kamali dan Paus Francis