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Wanita2 PRA-Islam, benarkah jahiliyah ?

Budaya2 PRA-Islam, apa, siapa dan betulkah jahiliyah ? Bgm pengaruh budaya2 purba itu pada Islam ?

Postby ali5196 » Fri Feb 29, 2008 5:56 am


Female leaders and women in other positions of political authority
of independent states and self-governing understate entities
http://www.guide2womenleaders.com/women ... ower01.htm

1-6M Reigning Dowager Empress of China
Image The widow of emperor Lui Xin (BCE 5-CE 1), she reigned together with Minister Wang Mang in the name of the nominal emperor Liv Kan. The Han dynasty ended in year 8 after a reign of more than 200 years, during which the methods of bureaucracy was developed, which held the vast empire together.

Image Around year 1 Queen Medb of Connaught (Ireland). Also known as Maeve, she was daughter of the high king of Ireland, Ouchu Feidlich, and married King Ailill mac Mata of Connaught. It seems that she was once married to Conchobor mac Nessa, the king of Ulster. She was powerful enough to be euhemerized in myth as a triune goddess of fertility and nature.

3-40 Regent Queen Antonia Thryphaena of Pontus (Turkey)
38-40 Regent of Thrace
Ruled in the name of son King Polemos who succeeded her mother in Pontus in Asia Minor. He succeeded a brother, Rhoemetaces, who had become king after the murder of her husband, Kytos.

7/8-23 Queen Pythodoris I Philometer of Pontus (Turkey)
Pantos Pythodorida succeeded husband, Polemon I, and married King Archelaos of Cappadocia. Succeeded by daughter and her son.

11-40 Joint Reigning Queen Shaqilat I of the Nabataean Kingdom (Jordan)
Appeared on the coins together with her husband king Aretas IV, indicating a joint rule.

Around year 12 Queen Regnant Nawidemak of Meroe (Sudan)
Also known as Naldamak, she succeeded her mother, Amanitore, who reigned from BCE 12. Nawidemak is portrayed on a pyramid as Osiris, a male god sheltered by the wings of the great goddess Isis. An unknown queen ruled before her. She was married to prince Apedemakhe, and her son Arikharer [Arikhankharer] ruled in 10-15.

Image 14-29 De-facto Co-Regent Augusta Livia of the Roman Empire

Livia Drusilla Augusta was a member of the ancient, wealthy and powerful patrician gens claudia, the Claudian family. Octavian divorced his first wife Scribonia and forced Livia to divorce Tiberius so they could marry in 38 BCE. It was a political marriage in the tradition of the Republic, intended to bring together the wealth and might of the gens claudia and the gens julia, the Julian family, into which Octavian had been adopted by Julius Cæsar. The marriage thus formed an important part of Octavian's strategy in the intense power struggles of the late Republic. The dynasty they founded is known as the Julio-Claudian dynasty. Though their union was political in nature, there were warm feelings between the two, at the very least a profound sense of mutual loyalty. Their marriage lasted 52 years, until the death of Augustus in 14 CE. Livia never bore him any children, but Augustus Adopted Tiberius after a number of other possible heirs all died. Livia's son Drusus died in an accident in 9 CE. Livia was quite influential, through her personal wealth, through her intelligence and political sense, and through her marriage. She played a central role in the establishment of the Principate, along with Augustus and M. Agrippa. Livia's influence continued when her son Tiberius became emperor, until her death in 29 CE at the age of 85. She was deified by her grandson Claudius in CE 41, and lived (BCE 58-CE 29).

Until ca. 23 Queen Regnant Candace of The Meroe (Sudan)
Sudan was concord by the Romans.

30-40 Joint Princess Regnant Helena of Adiabene (North Iraq)
Reigned jointly with husband Bazeus Monobazus. The rulers of the territory had converted to Judaism.

Image 35 Queen Sivali of Sri Lanka
Succeeded to the throne upon the death of her older brother, king Surabaya, but after four months her nephew, Ila Naga dethroned her and raised the parasol of sovereignty in the capital.

35-65 Queen Regnant Candice of Meroe (Sudan)
One of the many female rulers of the territoriy.

39-41 Queen Regnant Gepaepyris of the Bosporanian Kingdom (Georgia)
Succeeded husband, Aspurgos, the widower of Queen Dynamis as ruler of the Kingdom in the Crimean by the Black Sea.

Image 39-43 Joint Reigning Queen Trúng Trac of Parts of Vietnam
The two sisters lead a defending army against the Chinese occupation-forces, they ruled over a territory until they were defeated. They are today seen as national heroes and known as Hai Ba Trung (The Trung Sisters).

Ca. 40-70 Joint Queen Regnant Shakilat of the Nabataean Kingdom 70-76 Regent Dowager Queen of Nabatea (Jordan)
The daughter of Aretas IV, she reigned jointly with her husband and brother, king Maliku III also known as Malichus and after his death she was regent for son, Rabbel II. The Nabataeans were an Arabian people, occupying Edom, southern Transjordan, and South Eastern Syria, with its capital at Petra.

Ca. 40-60 Queen Regnant Cartimandra of The Brigants (Brigantia) (United Kingdom)
Brigantia was a British tribe in Yorkshire. She signed a treaty with the Romans, placing herself under their protection. Her tribe was opposed to this treaty and there were several revolts. In 48, she asked for and received Roman help in fighting the rebellion. Cartimandua's consort, Venutius attempted to have her overthrown but he was unsuccessful after the Romans came to her aid. For a while Cartimandua ruled jointly with Venutius, but when he made another attempt to overthrow her, she took Vellocatus, a royal armor-bearer, as her consort. She sent Vellocatus to fight Venutius and, again, asked for Roman help. Ca.69, Cartimandua "retired" and in 71, Rome annexed Brigantia after they easily defeated Venutius, Vellocatus and the Brigantes in battle.

Ca. 50-60 Queen Regnant Garsemot Kandake of Ethiopia
Her relation to the other rulers is not known.

Around 50 Military Leader Hau Mu-Lan in China
In the Mid-first century she became one of the country's most famous warriors when, disguised as a man, she took her father's place in battle for 12 years. She was celebrated in plays and poems. Her commanding officer was so impressed with her military skills that he offered his daughter in marriage to what he thought to be his greatest male warrior.

Image Around 52 Co-Ruler Princess Julia Berenice of Judea (Israel)
Daughter of Herod Agrippa I, who ruled Judea from 37-57, and shared the Chaleis throne and the business of the kingdom in Atonal and Taconites in Southern Syria with her brother Agrippa II, who succeeded their father in 44. They lived together causing scandal among the Jews. She continued to live with him after his brief marriage to another eastern Princess. Emperor Titus of Rome, 13 years her junior became infatuated with her, and wanted to marry her, which scandalized the court and forced him to abandon her.

Image 54-56 Regent Augusta Iulia Agrippina of the Roman Empire
Youngest of three daughters of Germanicus and Agrippina the Elder. She was 34 years old when she married emperor Claudius, who was nearing the end of his life. During the last five years of Claudius’ reign, she grew more and more powerful. Her son Nero succeeded her husband at the age of 17 and could not legally rule in his own name. Agrippina acted as his regent and was a powerful controlling influence on him even after he came of age. After about a year, Nero moved her out of the imperial palace. She began to denounce her son more and more in public. After the tension between mother and son grew to a critical level, Nero determined to be rid of her, and had her killed. She lived (16-59).

Around 60 Queen Regnant Pythodoris of Colchis (Georgia)
Colchis was an ancient country on the eastern shore of the Black Sea and in the Caucasus region. Centered about the fertile valley of the Phasis River (the modern Rion), Colchis corresponds to the present-day region of Mingrelia in Georgia. She was a vassal of the Roman Empire.

Image 60-61 Queen Regnant Boudicca of the Iceni-Tribe in Norfolk (United Kingdom)
The Iceni was a people who lived in the present-day counties of Norfolk and Suffolk. She led a rebellion against the Roman authorities as a result of their mistreatment of her family and people after the death of her husband, Prasutagus, who may have been a Roman client-ruler, in 60 AD. She and other disaffected tribes, sacked the cities of Colchester, St. Albans and London and, it is estimated, massacred approximately 70.000 Roman soldiers and civilians in the course of the glorious, but ill-fated rebellion. The rebels were finally defeated in battle by a force led by the Roman governor of Britain, Suetonius Paulinus, after which she took her own life by ingesting poison together with her two daughters, Camorra and Tasca or, according to legend, Voada and Voadicia. She lived (15-61).

Around 60 Military Leader Queen Aife of Alba in Scotland (Uinted Kingdom)

In Celtic mythology she was a female warrior from Alba. She gave her lover, Cuchulainn, his spear, Gae Bulg. They had one son, Connla.

Image 62-85 Queen Regnant Amanishipalata of Meroe (Nubia) (Sudan)
Marching at the head of her army, Amanirenas reached the strategic city of Qasr Ibrim, south of the Egyptian city of Aswan. There she confronted the Roman general Petronius, who told her that Emperor Augustus was willing to lay aside the arms if Amanirenas would negotiate a settlement with him to which she agreed. She sent her ambassadors to the Greek Island of Samos to meet with the representatives of Rome.

Ca. 71-90 Queen Regnant Gamilat of Nabataea of the Nabataean Kingdom (Jordan)
Reigned jointly with king ar-Rabil II also known as Rabbel Soter. They were client monarch of Rome, (1st cent. BCE-1st cent. A.D). Women played a significant role in Nabatean society.

88-97 Regent Dowager Empress Tou Hsien of China
Also known was Dou, she took over the regency for Liv Chao (Hedi) (79-88-106). She led the court audiences (linchao), and her brother Dou Xian took over the governmental affairs. An eunuch of Emperor Hedi called Zheng Zhong finally destroyed the power of the Dou clan and grasped the power himself. They belonged to the Later Hou and Eastern Han Dynasty, which was able to keep China united for about 200 years.

Image 105-106 Regent The Dowager Empress of China
After the death of Emperor He, she announced that he had left two young sons who had been brought up outside the palace, but that the elder brother, Liu Sheng, was suffering from an incurable illness and was unfit to rule. She therefore placed the younger, Liu Long, upon the throne, and even when he died a few months later, aged just over a year old, she again passed over Liu Sheng in favour of Liu You, a nephew of Emperor He, later known as Emperor An (reigned 106-125). Inevitably, much of the information formed an intimate secret of the state, and all the decisions and announcements were made on the authority of the Dowager alone.

Image 105-21 Regent Dowager Empress Deng of China
Her son, Aiu Long (Aidi) (105-06) was only 13 at his throne accession, and together with her brother Deng Zhi, she controlled him, who was nominal ruler during the Han-Dynasty period. Later she placed her grandson, Shang, on the throne when he was barely 100 days old, despite having two older brothers who were born from a consort. She also raised Liu Hu, the twelve-year old cousin of Shangdi and future Emperor Han Aidi, in the palace as the successor to the throne as insurance against the baby emperor's death. Liu Hu ascended to the throne when Shang passed away in 106; however, she still remained as the regent. A decree by her during this reign shed light on bureaucratic inefficiency. Also influential during the reign of her grandson. When she died her most prominent relatives chose suicide. She lived (80-121).

112-? Regent Dowager Queen Gespaepyris of Pontus (Turkey)
Gespaepyris was born as Princess of Thrace and ruled on behalf of her son Mithridates VI. in the kingdom in Asia Minor.

114 Queen Regnant Yasovati of Kashmir (India)
The contemporary sources says abut her; "The ruins of Martanda and other old temples are even now called 'Pandawa Houses' and Kalhana says it was at Lord Krishna's advice that Yasovati was made Queen regent of Kashmir after Krishna had defeated King Damodara, Yasovati's husband".

120-25 Politically Influential Empress Yan of China
After Dowager Empress Deng's death, she dominated the court together with the eunuchs Li Run and Jiang Jing, and her brother Yan Xian.

Image 130-? Reigning Dowager Queen Laodike II Nysa of Cappadocia (Turkey)
Following the death of her husband, Ariarathes V, she poisoned 5 stepsons and ruled in the name of her own son.

135-49 Regent Dowager Queen Ghadana of Iberia (Georgia)
The widow of King Pharasmenes II Kveli (ca. 116-32), she reigned for grandson Pharasmenes III (135-185) after the death of her son Rhadamiste I (or Ghadam). She was daughter of King Sanatroukes of Armenia (b. ca. 100).

144-50 Regent Dowager Empress Liang Na of China
When her husband, Emperor Shun died, she assumed the regency for his only son, the infant Emperor, Hong, who died the following year. In these circumstances an empress-dowager of Han acquired even greater power, for she had undisputed authority to choose the next emperor from any of the male members of the imperial family. The precedent for this dated back to Former Han, but had been decisively confirmed by the Dowager Deng in 105 and 106. Three weeks later she choose the 8-year-old Liu Zuan, a great-great grandson of Emperor Zhang, who also died after one year on the throne and Liu Zhi was placed upon the throne. For the next few years she held formal control of the government in association with her brother Liang Ji. The historians praised her for her devotion to duty in the difficult times, which followed the second great rebellion of the Qiang people in the northwest and a series of frontier disturbances with the Xiongnu of the north. Inside China, reflecting these troubles, there were frequent small-scale rebellions, increased feuding amongst local gentry and a gradual alienation from the imperial regime. Apparently she appointed good officials, sent out troops to deal with disorder, and all the empire was settled by her efforts. Emperor Huan came of age in 148, but she maintained her regency, on the grounds of the disturbances in the empire. She formally relinquished her office in the first month of 150, and she died a few weeks later. She lived (116-150).

Around 150 Joint Queen Regnant Ulfan of Elymias (Iraq)
Reigned together with Orodes IV of the Helleno-Iranian kingdom located in what are now southeastern Iraq and the Zagros Mountains of Iran. Its name is a Hellenization of "Elam", an ancient state in roughly the same region. Its capital was Susa, the centre of the Achaemenid Persian kings.

Image 168-72 Regent Princess Dou Shi of China
Ruled in the name of her son Liu Hong (168-89). During the end of the Han Dynasty, the rulers became more and more dissolute. But more importantly, they were unable to deal with two factors: a population shift from the Yellow River in the north to the Yangzi in the south; and they simply could not control barbarian tribal raiders from the north, which were one reason why people were moving to the south. Eventually, in 220, the centre had lost so much control to the provinces that it collapsed (a small rebellion in the north helped), plunging China into 350 years of chaos and disunity.

180-90 Queen Regnant Somâ of Fu-Nan (Cambodia and Vietnam)
Soma succeeded her father, and ruled over a kingdom which extending over much of present-day Cambodia and southern Vietnam from the 1st to the 6th centuries. It owed its prosperity to its position on the great trade route between India and China and subsequent Khmer dynasties viewed Funan as the state from which they were descended. The name is a transliteration of the ancient Khmer form of the word phnom (= hill).

Ca. 188-248 Queen Himiko of Yamataikoku (Japan)
卑弥呼 is also referred to as Pimiko, she was ruler of an ancient state-like formation thought to have been located either in the Yamato region or in northern Kyushu of present-day Japan. Few records are available and little is known about her, and the location of Yamataikoku is the subject of a great, often emotionally charged, debate that has been raging since the late Edo period. According to an ancient Chinese history book, Chronicles of the Three Kingdoms she was a shaman who controlled people through her paranormal abilities. The Nihonshoki, an old Japanese history book, notes that Himiko was actually Empress Jingū Kogo, the mother of Emperor Ōjin, but historians disagree. Some speculate that she is conflated with Amaterasu, the Japanese sun goddess. The Chinese chronicles book from 297 refers to the inhabitants of the Japanese islands simply as the Wa, literally, "The Little People", and dscribes a fragmented political structure of more than a hundred or more separate tribes, nominally ruled by a female shaman. According to an ancient Korean history book, Samguk Sagi, she sent an embassy to King Adalla of Silla in May 172. However, Chinese history books record Silla as having been established on 356, which casts doubt on this claim. Himiko never married and it is recorded that her younger brother assisted her as a political advisor. She is said to have had one thousand female servants and to have never appeared in public. There are indications that a tribal king, posthumously now known as Emperor Shujin, raised military host against her or her successor - reportedly another shamaness, her niece or other relative, ultimately conquering their position and establishing male rule with headquarters in central Japan. Himiko may have been a Chinese corruption of Himemiko, princess-priestess, or lady shaman. The name is said to mean "Sun Daughter" and there are also assessments that she is the real person upon whom the myth of sun goddess Amaterasu is built. Also Known as Yamatohime no Mikoto (d. 248)

189 Politically Influential Empress Dowager He Mou of Han China
Chief consort of Emperor Ling of Han Dynasty China. Along with her half-brother He Jin, she was able to temporarily dominate power at the imperial court after the death of Emperor Ling in 189, during the reign of her son Liu Bian (b. 176); they presided over the imperial court. Throughout much of the year, she acted as balancing force between the eunuch faction, led by Jian Shuo and Zhang Rang, and the official faction, led by He Jin and Yuan Shao. The climax of the struggles came in September, when He Jin was assassinated by the eunuchs at the imperial palace. In the chaotic fighting which followed, she lost all the members of her clan of political importance, including her brother He Miao and mother, the Lady of Wuyang. Her son was deposed in favour of his younger half-brother Liu Xie. Empress Dowager He was accused of the murder of Empress Dowager Dong and ordered to move to the Yongle Palace, outside the main palace complex. She was poisoned there by order of Dong Zhuo on 30 September 189. She was originally from a butcher's family from Wan county in central China.

190-203 Politically Influential Lady Wu of Wu (China)
The chief consort of Emperor Ling of Han Dynasty China. Along with A master swordsman, she was the advisor of her oldest son, Sun Ce, and helped in directing military and state affairs. When Sun Ce died in 200, she asked the ministers to support her second son, Sun Quan and since he was still young, she assisted in administering the army and state. He ruled 200-222 as Wu Wang (King of Wu) and 222-252 as Emperor of the Wu Dynasty, and when he was proclaimed emperor, he conferred the posthumous title of Empress Wulie on her and the title of of Emperor Wulie Huangdi on his father. Mother of 5 sons and 1 daughter. (d. 203).

Image 193-217 Joint Ruler Iulia Domna of the Roman Empire
One of the most powerful people in the Roman Empire. While her emperor husband, Septimius Severus, was fighting rivals, pursuing rebels, and subduing revolts in the far corners of the empire, she was left to administer the vast Roman Empire. She played one powerful general or senator against another, while keeping herself from falling into the many traps set by political enemies at court. Caracalla had murdered his brother Geta in her private apartments even as the younger son sought protection in her arms. After Macrinus had murdered Caracalla and seized the throne in 217, he sent her away from Antiochia after it was reported that Julia was inciting troops to rebel against him. At this time, she was believed to be about fifty years old and was suffering from a painful illness, probably cancer of the breast. Rather than face exile and the humiliation of being reduced to the status of a private citizen, she decided to commit suicide by starving herself.

Image 200-69 Regent Dowager Empress Jingo-Kogo of Japan
A semi-legendary regent, descending from the legendary Empress Jummu (Sanohiko), she was daughter of Prince Okinaga no Sukune and married to Chuai-Tenno, who ruled (192-200). He died on the way on an expedition to conquer Korea and though she was pregnant, she went on to Korea and brought the kings of Koryo, Pekche and Silla under her suzerainty. She returned to Japan and gave birth to Prince Homuda, the future Ojin-Tenno. She refused to ascend to the throne, but ruled as regent. According to the Korean historians the invasion took place in 346 and she died 380. She was succeeded by son, and lived (169-269).

Ca. 216 Queen Regnant Wakana of Ethiopia
Ruled for 2 days before she was deposed.

Image 218-222 (†) Joint De-facto Ruler Iulia Soaemias Bassiana of the Roman Empire
Plotted together with her mother, Julia Maesa, to substitute the usurper, Macrinus, by her son Varius Avitus Bassianus (Heliogabalus) (203-218-222). As the emperor's mother, with the title Iulia Soaemias Augusta, she played a great role in government and administration and was in fact the de facto ruler of Rome, since her son was concerned mainly with religious matters. Their rule was not popular and soon discontent arose. The Praetorian Guard killed Julia Soaemias and Heliogabalus in 222, and she was declared public enemy and her name erased from all records. She lived (ca. 180-222).

Image 218-222 Joint De-facto Ruler Iulia Maesa of the Roman Empire
222-225/26 (†) Joint Regent of the Roman Empire
First she plotted together with her daughter, Julia Soaemias Bassiana to have her grandson Elagabaleus placed on the throne and later she was joint regent with her other daughter, Julia Masaea and her son, Alexander Servus. She was sister of Julia Domna and closely related to the Imperial family and grew up in Syria.

219-245 Queen Wu Mu of Hanzhong (China)
Also known as Lady Wu her husband the warlord Prince Liu Bei, named her as Queen of Hanzhong. It was period of many uprisings and various Emperors. When he became Emperor in 221, she was named Empress to serve the ancestral temple and be mother over the empire. His successor, Liu Shan, named her as the Empress Dowager. She (d. 245).

Image 222-228 (†) Regent Dowager Empress Iulia Mamaea of the Roman Empire
Behind the plot that ousted her sister, Julia Soaemias Bassiana, and her son and had her infant son, son Alexander Servus, placed on the throne. She ruled together her mother, Julia Mamesa and 16 senatorsm but as they were unable to defend the empire from the attacking Germans, the Army killed both her and her son.

Ca. 222-248 Army Leader Trieu Au (Trieu Thi Trinh) Vietnam
Sometimes referred to as the "Vietnamese Joan of Arc", she was a rebel leader at the time when Vietnam was a territory of China. She led an army from the mountains, which won more than 30 major battles against the Chinese. She then set up her own administration in the freed territory, which she kept independent for several months. She was defeated in 248 and committed suicide. Also known as Ba Trieu – Lady Trieu.

238-41 Regent N.N. of the Roman Empire
Her name is not known, but she was the daughter of Emperor Marcus Antonius Gordianus Sempronianus Romanus Africanus (Gordian I) and married to a senator, whose name is also not known. After Emperor Maximus I Thrax was murdered, her 13-year-old son, Emperor Gordianus III (225-38-44) was placed on the throne with her in charge of the regency.

Ca. 250-66 Queen Regnant Toyo of Japan
Succeeded her relative Himiko. In 266 she was mentioned in the Chinese annals for sending an envoy to China.

Around 256/74 Queen Regnant of Vakataka in Bhadramukhas (India)
The wife of Rudrasena II of Bhadramukhas (256-274), she ruled independently for 20 years.

266-283 Queen Regnant Maleqorobar of Meroe (Sudan)
Also known as Malegereabar.

Image 268-71 Queen Regnant Zenobia of Palmyra (Syria)
Following the assassination of her husband, King Odenathus, in which she is believed to have been implicated, Zenobia succeeded to power as regent for their young son. Within three years, she extended her rule to all of Syria, to Egypt, and to most of Asia Minor, ostensibly in alliance with Rome. In 271, however, because of Zenobia's aggressiveness in the East, the Roman emperor Lucius Domitius Aurelian took up arms against her. After gaining control of nearly Zenobia’s entire domain, Aurelian besieged the city of Palmyra. It fell, and Zenobia was captured and taken to Rome. Later she was given an estate at Tibur (now Tivoli, Italy), where she spent the rest of her life in pensioned retirement.

Image 275 Sole Regent Dowager Empress Ulipia Serverina of The Roman Empire (March-September)
Reigned alone after her husband, Aurelianus' death until Tacitus was named emperor.

Around 280 Mahrani Regnant Prabhavati Gupta of Magadha (India)
Her Poona plate mentions her as the daughter of Chandra Gupta II and Kubera Naga, who ruled independently and issued charters without the sanction of any extraneous higher authority. Though not much evidence is available, from the available records it is understood that Sri Gupta could be the first King of the Gupta lineage who at the time ruled in the Bengal. She was married to Sri Gupta (240-280).

290-291 Co-Ruler Dowager Empress Yang Zhi of China
Married Emperor Wu after the death of her cousin, Empress Yang Yan in 276. Their only son, Sima Hui died in 283. After he conquered Eastern Wu in 280, he became largely obsessed with feasting and women, and tired of handling important matters of state and her father, Yang Jun and uncles Yang Yao and Yang Ji became those who made actual decisions and became very powerful. She was instrumental in keeping Crown Prince Zhong's wife Jia Nanfeng from being deposed after she personally had several of the crown prince's pregnant concubines killed. After her husband's death her father became regent for the mentally deficient new emperor. The regent quickly showed himself to be autocratic and incompetent, drawing the ires of many other nobles and officials. He ordered that all edicts should be signed by both the emperor and Yang Zhi before they could be promulgated. When the allies of Empress Jia attacked, she wrote an edict ordering assistance for Yang Jun and put it on arrows, shooting it out of the palace, but then made the bold declaration that the Dowager Empress was committing treason. Her father was quickly defeated, and her clan was massacred. Yang Zhi was deposed from her position and made a commoner, and her mother, Lady Phang was executed and Yang Zhi committed suicide by refusing to eat. (d. 292).

Image 291-300 De facto Ruler Empress Jia Nanfeng of China

When her mental deficient husband, Emperor Sima Zhong, succeeded to the throne the father of his stepmother, Dowager Empress Yang Zhi was named regent, and they kept her away from the government. She staged a coup deposing Yang Zhi and her father, Yang Ju and taking over power and since then made all the important decisions for the state and effectively ruled the country. She eliminated any who appeared to be a threat to her position, including a her husband's pregnant concubines, and in 291 she deposed her husband's stepmother, Empress Yang Zhi and her father, Yang Jun, who was the regent., In addition, her victims even included the Crown Prince. In 300 the King of Zhao led a coup against her, and she was killed along with several others in her faction. In addition, Emperor Zhong was placed under house arrest. Not long after putting down this insurrection and regaining power, the kings began to fight amongst each another.

300-308 Queen Regnant Patrapeameni of Meroe (Sudan)
Also known as Nahidemani. The Meroeans developed a unique form of art uniting styles from Black Africa and Mediterranean Egypt.

308-320 Queen Regnant Amanipilade of Meroe (Sudan)
The kingdom declined under attacks by little known invaders, desert nomads, called the Blemyes and Nobatae by around 200. Meroe was finally taken over by Axum.

310-32? Regent The Dowager Queen of Persia (Iran)
Her husband Hormozd II died before the birth of their son Shahpur II the Great (310-79), who was elected king before his birth, or possibly as an infant after her brother-in-law Adarnarseh had been on the throne for a short while. During her son's minority reign Persia had a weak government of regents and suffered raids from its neighbours, particularly the Arabs who invaded southern Persia. Rome, however, which had gained some of the western Persian cities in Mesopotamia during the reign of Narse, Shahpur's grandfather, left Persia in peace.

Image Around 317 Queen Regnant Une' B'alam of Tikal (Guatemala)
The state was an important Classic-Age Mayan city-state located in northwestern Guatemala. Her name means Baby Jaguar, and she was succeeded by king K'inich Muwaan Jol.

Ca. 325-ca.34 Queen Regnant Zaela Ahyawa of Ethiopia
Also known as Ahyawa Sefya or Eguala Anbasa, she succeeded her husband and converted to Christianity 327.

Image 325-28 Regent Dowager Empress Yu Wenjun of Eastern Jin (China)

Joint regent with two others for Sima Yan (321-25-42) of the Eastern Dong (Jin), in a period that saw a severe fragmentation of central authority, as northern barbarians succeeded in laying waste too much of China, and establishing their own states in turn.

Image 343-380 Jingû-Kōgō Tennō of Japan
The widow of Chuai Tenno. In 366 she led a Japanese invasion of Korea. Empress Jingo was pregnant when she invaded Korea and therefore had to have adjustable armour made. She possibly reigned 201-269.

343-357, 364-365 and 373-76 Regent Dowager Empress Chu Suanzi of the Eastern Jin Kingdom (China)
When her husband, Sima Yue, died after 1 year as Emperor Kang, her 1-year-old son Mu succeeded with her as regent. During the next years many of Later Zhao's southern provinces switched their allegiance to Jin, but not firmly so and a number of military campaigns followed. In 357, as Emperor Mu turned 14 and she officially stripped herself of her role as regent, and moved to Chongde Palace, which would be her residence for the rest of her life. But 4 years later, her son died without heirs, and she named cousin Prince Sima Pi of Langye as Emperor Ai. In 364 he was poisoned by pills given by magicians he was taking trying to seek immortality and could not handle matters of state. She again served as regent. After he died sonless in 365, she ordered that his younger brother Sima Yi succeed him (as Emperor Fei). After some years he was deposed and replaced by Emperor Jianwen, who died in 372, and when his son Emperor Xiaowu succeeded him, she was persuaded to become regent again until he turned 14 in 376. For the rest of her life, she was again referred to as Empress Dowager Chongde. She lived (324-384).

349 Regent Empress Dowager Liu of the Kingdom of Later Zhao (China)
After Later Zhao’s founding emperor Shi Le captured her father, the last Han Zhao emperor, Liu Yao, in 329, she fled together with her brothers Crown Prince Liu Xi and Prince Liu Yin of Nanyang from the capital Chang'an to Shanggui. Soon after her brothers were defeated and killed and she was captured by Zhang Chai. In 348 Emperor Shi Hu picked their son as his Heir and she was named Empress. When the Emperor grew ill the following year, he appointed his two sons as joint regents for her son, Shi Shi, but when he died she took over as regent for her son, holding power jointly with her husband. She tried to placate the sons of the later Emperor giving them high posts, but instead they marched on the capital. She then tried to placate them by offering them the office of regent and the nine bestowments, but instead he executed her husband, and then forged her to sign an edict deposing her son. She was given the title of Princess Dowager of Qiao, but soon both she and her son were executed. She lived (318-349).

Ca. 370-80 Queen Regnant Mavia of the Saracens (Egypt)
Succeeded her husband as head of the Bedouin tribe, which lived in the area around the Sinai Peninsular. She organized raids against Rome's eastern frontier into Phoenicia and Palestine. Her troops defeated a Roman army and she made peace only on the condition that a hermit named Moses was appointed Bishop of her tribe. She married her daughter to a Roman commander in chief. She is probably the same person described as Mawi, Queen of Syria and possibly she was from Ghassar, an Arab Kingdom in the Sinai Peninsular.

Around 371 Arabian Leader Mauriya of the Nabatan (Arabia)

The Nabatan was an old people in Arabia, and is believed to have invented the basis for the Arab script.

375-83 Joint Ruler Dowager Empress Iustiana of the Roman Empire
383-? Regent
Reigned together with son Gratianus and regent for Valentianus II (383-92), who ruled the Western division of the Empire, encompassing Rome itself together with Italy, Gaul, Britain, Iberia, and northwestern Africa, though the state was already disintegrating faced with the barbaric invasions.

378 Queen Regnant Zarmandukht of Greater Armenia
Her name is also spelled Zarmandux, she was widow of King Pap, who was known to have been gay and was killed on the orders of the Byzantine general Terent. In the first instance his cousin Varazdat was king until 378. She took power, but from 378 until his death in 385, Manuel Mamikonean, was the real ruler of Armenia. He ruled as a "trustee" of the monarchy in the name of her son, and kept both of them in the king's place and causing them to circulate around in honour. He nourished her two sons Arshak and Vagharsha as his foster-children and honoured her.

378 De-facto Regent Dowager Empress Domnica of The Byzantine Empire (Covering what is now Greece and Turkey)
Held the City of Byzanz after the death of her husband, Valens and defended the city against the attacks of the Goths, before the arrival of the successor, Theodosios.

390 Queen Regnant Prabhavati Gupta of the Deccan Region (India)
As ruler of the Deccan region, she introduced the Gupta culture of northern India to the Vakata Kingdom. (Probably the same as in 280).

Ca. 390-410 Regent Dowager Queen Sita Mahadevi of Vakatakas (India)
After the death of her husband, Rudrasena II who died five years after coming to the throne, she took over the reins for their under-age sons, and had coins struck in her name. She was daughter of Chandra Gupta II. In the early part of the Christian Era when Bharasivas were suzerains, we have the seal of Mahadevi Rudramati, the last royal document of the Vakatakas before the state virtually became a part of the Gupta empire.

Image 449/50 Augusta Justa Grata Honoria of the Roman Empire (in the West)
The sister of Valentin III, she acted in her capacity as Augusta.

Image 400-04 De-facto Ruler Empress Eudoxia of The Byzantine Empire (Covering what is now Greece and Turkey)
A significant figure in the government because she had the ear of her husband Emperor Arcadius of the East Roman Empire until her own death in 404. She was strong and strident, dominating her weak and passive husband.

Image 414-55 De-facto Ruler Augusta Pulchera of The Byzantine Empire (Covering what is now Greece and Turkey)
At the age of 15 Princess Aelia Pulcheria was crowned Augusta and assumed a dominant role in guiding the affairs of state. In 420/22 she may have organized the Byzantine campaign against Persia, she replaced the emperor as director of power, but the ultimate power resided with her brother. In the mid-420s she engaged in a power struggle with her sister-in-law, Eudokia, and Pulchera was forced into semi-retirement. She established herself as a holy virgin dedicated to God, and this gave her access into the altar to receive the communion with priests and deacons, something normally barred to women. When her brother died in 450 she took control of the government of the Eastern Empire, and married Marcian, Army Chief of Staff, and named him co-Emperor. She spoke Greek and Latin and had a deep interest in medicine and natural science lived (399-453).

421-442/443 Politically influential Empress Athenais-Eudokia of The Byzantine Empire (Covering what is now Greece and Turkey)
In 423 her husband, emperor Theodosius II gave her title of Augusta. She fought for power and influence over emperor with her sister Pulcheria, was very well educated and was involved in the founding of an university in Constantinople. 442/443-460 she was in exile in Jerusalem. The daughter of the philosopher Leonciushe, she died in 460.

Image 423-50 Regent Dowager Empress Galla Placidia of the Roman Empire (Covering Italy, Spain, France and Northern Africa)
In Rome at the time of its sack by Alaric and the Visigoths, and after Alaric’s death in 414, she married his brother and successor as king of the Visigoths, Athaulf. After his death, Placidia returned home in 416 to marry Constantius, who was made Co-augustus in the West in 421 and became the Roman emperor Constantius III. He died of pleurisy after a reign of only seven months. In 423 her brother Emperor Honorius died and Galla Placidia was made Augusta and regent for her six-year-old son Valentinian III. Placidia proved to be a hard-nosed ruler who knew how to manage a declining economy and rebellious subjects. Even after her son's death, she managed the Roman government in the West for twenty years during one of the most perilous periods of its existence. She lived (388-450).

Image 465-71 and 476-90 Regent Dowager Queen Feng Shi of Touba Wei (China)
Also known as Wenming, she dominated politics in Northern Wei for twenty-five years as regent during the reigns of two emperors: Xianwen (Toba Hong) (465-76) whom she had poisoned in 476, then her grandson, Xiaowen (476-99). Xiaowen is known for his sinicization zeal, as flamboyantly demonstrated by moving the capital from Datong to Luoyang, forbidding Xianbei clothes and language, legislating Han names, and encouraging intermarriage and Chinese law. The Xianbei aristocracy was against full-scale sinicization and even though the opposition was contained by Xiaowen, the dissent later split the Northern Wei into Eastern and Western Wei. She was Han - a member of the Northern Yan imperial family who entered the Northern Wei court as a concubine after Wei conquered Northern Yan. In the south, a series of ethnically Chinese dynasties managed to endure on the lower Yangtze. She lived (441-90).

Image 474-84 Politically Influential Empress Verina of The Roman Empire and Byzantine (Italy etc, Greece and Turkey)
Her husband, Leo I was succeeded by their grandson Leo II (seven years old), who appointed his father Zeno as Co-Emperor with her support, but after Leo's death in November 474 she fought for power with Zeno. In January 475 he was overthrown by her and her allies. She wanted to make her brother Bazyliskos, and Patrikios, Emperors. She planned to marry Patrikios. She personally crowned her brother, but he killed Patrikios, and she again entered into an alliance with Zeno, who regained the throne in 476. Afterwards Veria became one of the most influential and powerful persons on the court and later fought for power with Illus. In 477-78 she organized two unsuccessfully coup d'etats against Illus, who took her hostage. In 481 her daughter, Empress Ariane, organized an unsuccessful coup d'etat against Illus to free her, the same year the emperor forced Illus to leave for Constantinople, where he announced a patrician Leoncius as the real emperor. Veria joined to him, and at 19th July 484 she personally crowned Leoncius. She published a document for the administrators of provinces and for the citizens of Antiochia, where she wrote, that the imperial power belonged to her. She had, after her husband's death, chosen Zeno as Emperor, but she had not know, that Zeno was so greedy, and therefore she now wanted to a pious and just Christian as Emperor, who would repair the state and bring peace. This is seen as an example of the fact that public and political personal power could pass down trough the female line in The Byzantine Empire. The Augusta could legitimize the rule of their husband's or others. But all power was vested in the Emperor, and everybody else - including officials at court - depended on his will. One of her three daughters, Ariane was married to Emperor Zeno. She died in 484.

Image Ca. 490 Queen Regnant Lobamba of Kuba (Congo-Brazzaville)
Daughter of Loko Yima and succeeded by Woto. The state developed east of the confluence of the Sankuru and Kasai rivers, before the Kubans migrated to its present habitat in the Kuba area.

Image 491 Regent Dowager Empress Ariane of The Byzantine Empire (Covering what is now Greece and Turkey)
Also known as Aelia Ariadane, she was the daughter of Leo I (447-74). She was married to Tarasicodissa, who became Emperor Zeno, and after his death in 491 the Senate officially requested her to choose another candidate to rule and she married Anastasios I, who became emperor.
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Postby ali5196 » Fri Feb 29, 2008 10:05 pm

http://www.guide2womenleaders.com/women ... ower02.htm


Early 500s-520s Khanum Regnant Bogharik of Sabir (Russia)
Head of the Hunnic normanic tribe that briefly established a powerful state north of the Caucasus. They may have been attested to as early as 124 BCE, in which case they are ultimately Sarmatian or Scythian in origin. They were allied with Sassanid Persia until c.550, when they were enticed to join a Byzantine-led coalition.

511-527 Lady Ix Yo K'in of Tikal (Guatemala)
Also known as Lady Kalomte', she succeeded her father Chak Tok Ich'aak II at age six. While she was considered the queen and nineteenth successor, she ruled the important Classic-Age Mayan city-state located in northwestern Guatemala with a coregent, Kalomte' B'alam a prominent warrior. Her name means Baby Jaguar, and she was succeeded by king K'inich Muwaan Jol.
515-20 and 525-28 Regent Dowager Queen Ling *** Hu of Touba Wei (Northern China)
A member of the Ziongnu Dynasty in Northern China, she executed lovers, forced a rival into a convent and had her executed. I in 528 she executed her son, Yuan Xu (Emperor Xiao Mingdi (515-28), who ruled in a period with 9 pretenders and is described as a forceful leader with an exceptional energy. As regent, she carried on imperial sacrifices in place of her son, issued edicts, competed in archery contests with her officials, travelled around the country side to receive petitions, personally interviewed new candidates for office, and took frequent pleasure trips to sacred and scenic spots. She was removed from office but later reinstated. She was the last member or the Tabatch dynasty to display the ancient strength, but her extravagant spending in favour of Buddhism resulted in a revolt, she sought refuge in a Buddhist nunnery, but she and her son were thrown into the Yellow River and around 1.000 courtiers were murdered. In the following chaos the Northern Wei-Empire (Bei Wei) were divided among various warlords.
518-65 Co-Ruler Empress Theodora of The Byzantine Empire (Covering what is now Greece and Turkey)

Before becoming Empress, she was an actress. During this time in history the theatre was looked down upon and in fact banned by the church. She later became a devote Christian and married Emperor Justinian, who viewed her as an equal and accepted her many ideas. She was influential in changing the administrative and legislative sectors. She was an advocate of women’s rights. The Empress, along with her husband changed laws on guardianship to include women, and created a law that allowed women to own property. The two also rebuilt cities that were ruined during earthquakes, and built the church Hagia Sophia. In 532, mobs attempted to overthrow Justinian, causing the Emperor the desire to flee his city. But it was his wife who convinced him to stay.

520 Snake Lady Naah Ek' of Palenque (Mexico)
According to the historic texts, she was the first Snake Lady to arrive to the kingdom. Her name meant "House Star", and is specifically said to have been u nahtal ix kan ajaw, "the first Snake Queen" a position with geat significance and political power. She is also said to have been the wife of Tuun K'ab' Hiix (ruled ca. 520-ca. 550), one of the great early rulers of the Snake Kingdom, who on La Corona Stela 1 is associated with rites in 544 that may be part of the founding of the site.

528... Queen Regnant Boa of the Sabira Tribe (Caucasus)
A political ally of Emperor Justinian and Empress Theodora of the Byzantine Empire.

528 "Reigning Queen" of Northern Wei (China)
When her son Suzong was killed after having asked Er-zhu Rong, the Xiongnu leader in Shansi, to free him from her Chinese advisors, she she placed her infant grand-child on the throne, but it was a girl and this turned out to be unacceptable and the infant was replaced by Gaozu’s two-year-old grandson by the Xiongnu and Xianbei leaders, who had brought their troops to the capital.
526-34 Regent Princess Amalasuentha of the Ostrotoths (Italy)
534-35 Joint Reigning Queen
Daughter of King Theodoric and Audofleda, a sister of King Clovis. Exceptionally well educated, she studied both Greek and Latin and took a keen interest in art and literature. Married to Eutharic at the age of 17, she found herself Queen in 522, following the deaths of both her father and her husband. She served as regent for her 10-year-old son, Athalric. Like her father, she maintained a pro-Byzantine policy, which was not popular with the Ostrogothic nobles. She suppressed a rebellion and executed three of its leaders. She also purged her lands of dishonest office holders and limited the power of grasping landowners. After her son died, in 534, she shared the throne with her cousin, Theodahad who later led a palace revolution and caused her to be exiled to an island, where she was strangled in her bath as an act of vengeance by relatives of the nobles she had executed.

529 Army Leader Princess Halima of the Ghassan Kingdom (Arabia)
Leader of a battle against the Labmidians who had sacrificed her brother to their goddess. Daughter of King al-Harit (529-69).

554... Regent Queen Hind al-Hirah of Lakhm (Syria)
A Christian Princess of either Ghassan or Kindah origin who married Mundhir al Mundhir III, whose mother was Mariyah or Mawiya. He raided Byzantine Syria and challenged the kingdom of Ghassan. After his death, she was regent for their son, Amr ibn-Hind, and she ruled as an independent and resourceful Queen.

556-78 Political Influential Lady Lu Lingxuan of Northern Qi (China)
Nurse of Emperor Gao Wei (556-78), the fifth and last ruler of Northern Qi. He was only 12 when his father died and his political survival in the years between his father’s death and the fall of the dynasty was in many ways due to her assistance and support. She was promoted to the post of Female Attendant of the Palace that gave her – a grade equivalent to that of a second class official in the outer bureaucracy. Her relatives were all given official positions. The emperor's confidence in her was almost absolute and she was careful not to damage the relationship by antagonizing the Empress Dowager who was afraid of her son. For a short while she was also promoted to the post of Empress of the Left but later stripped of the title. She died by her own hand when she heard that her son had defected to Northern Chou on the eve of Northern Qi’s defeat. Emperor Gao Wei (Houzhu) and Empress Mu were both executed by the Chou in 578; the Empress Dowager was captured and survived into the Sui era. She (d.578).

565-572 and 574-578 Co-ruler Empress Sophia of The Byzantine Empire (Covering what is now Greece and Turkey)
572-574 Sole Regent
The niece of Empress Theodora and married to emperor Iustinus II (565-578), and sole regent during her husband's mental illness. She nominated his two successors without marrying either, and continued exercise a high degree of influence on the government and is believed to have played a major role in various financial measures and took an active part in foreign politics, mainly in her dealings with Persia.
575-84 Regent Dowager Queen Brunhilde of Austrasia and Burgundy (France)
Also known as Brunhildis, the Visigoth Princess exerted great influence over political life in the Frankish kingdoms of Austrasia, Neustria, and Burgundy. She married King Sigebert of Austrasia in 567, while her sister Galswintha, married his brother Chilperic, king of Neustria. Rivalry between the brothers developed into open war when Chilperic had Galswintha murdered. When Sigebert was assassinated on the orders of Fredegunde - Chilperic's second wife - in 575, Chilperic claimed his lands. Brunhilde resisted this claim in the name of her son Childebert II. However, her nobles deserted her and she fled to Burgundy. Childebert remained in Austrasia and in 592 inherited Burgundy. When Childebert died in 595, Brunhilde attempted to assert her control as regent over Burgundy and Austrasia, which her grandsons Theodoric II and Theodebert II had inherited. In 612 Theodoric murdered his brother at her instigation. Theodoric himself died in 613. When Brunhilde tried to make her great-grandson Sigebert II king, the nobles rebelled and acknowledged Clotaire as king. In the autumn of 613, near Dijon, France, Clotaire had both Sigebert and Brunhilde executed.
Ca. 575 Queen Regnant Gokadi of Kuba (Congo-Brazzaville)
Another version of her name is Ngokay. She was ruler in the legendary period where the Kuba people moved to its present location, and was succeeded by king Bonga Mashu Mashi.
583-605 Ruler Lady Yohl Ik'nal of B'aakal (Palenque) (Mexico)
Ascended to the throne after the deah of Kan B'alam I, who was probably her father, and remained in power for over 20 years, as one of the few women in the Classical Mayan period to carry full royal titles and enjoy a full term. She was succeeded by son, Aj Ne' ohl, as head of the Mayan Empire at Palenque in the Yucatan. Alternative versions of her name are Lady Kanal Ikal, Ix Yohl Ik'nal, Lady Olnal, Kan-Ik, Lady Ik, or K'anal-Ik'al.
584-94 Regent Dowager Queen Fredegundis of France
Fredgunde or Fredegunda was a slave-girl at the court of Neustria when she came to the attention of Chilperic I, Merovingian King of Soissons (Neustria). She became his mistress and then eventually third wife. She persuaded Chilperic to repudiate his first wife Audovera and was said to be the driving force behind the murder in 568 of Chilperic's second wife Galswintha. Fredegunda also engineered the murders of Audovera's three sons and Sigibert of Austrasia, Chilperic's brother. Finally her husband was murdered or assassinated, shortly after the birth of their son Lothair in 584. Fredegunda seized her late husband's wealth and fled to Paris with her remaining son Lothair (Clotaire II), and persuaded the Neustrian nobles to recognize her son as the legitimate heir to the throne and she took over the regency and continued her longtime power struggle with Guntrum of Burgundy (d.593) and Brunhilda, Queen-Mother of Austrasia (d.614), whom she defeated around 597. Fredegunda (d. 598).
590 Reigning Dowager Queen Theodolina of the Lombards (Italy)
615-25 Regent of the Kingdom
Co-ruler with husbands, king Autharis (584-90) and Agilulf (591-615) and regent for son King Adololdo of the Lombards or Langobards, who was deposed by her son-in-law. She was instrumental in restoring Athanasian Christianity - the ancestor of modern Roman Catholicism - to a position of primacy in Italy against its rival, Arian Christianity. With a stable base in Italy thereafter, the Papacy could begin subduing those it regarded as heretics elsewhere.
592-628 Suiko Tennō of Japan
推古天皇 was the 33rd imperial ruler in succession to a brother, and even though ancient Chinese history records earlier reigning women, and in spite of the regency of Jingo-kogo (200-69), she was the first reigning Empress listed in Japanese history. She was a daughter of the Emperor Kinmei and after the death of her half-brother and husband, Emperor Bidatsu, she had some influence in politics. But after she ascended the throne she took little active part in affairs of state, which were handled by her nephew and son-in-law Prince Shotoku. During her reign, the total supremacy of the monarch was established, and she was one of the first Buddhist monarchs in Japan and had taken the vows of a nun shortly before becoming empress. She sent many embassies to China. The mother of 5 children, she was succeeded by Jomei, the grandson of her husband and brother of Emperor Bidatsu. Her posthumous name is Toyomike-Kashikiya-hime no Mikoto, and she lived (544-628).

Ca. 600 Army Leader Kahula in Arabia

An army commander in the battle of Yermonks, she joined her forces with those of another female commander, Wafeira. Together they turned back the Greek army.

606-47 Politically Influential Queen Rajyasri of Kanyakubja (India)

Regularly took a seat of honour beside her brother king Harsa, and shared in state deliberations.
612-15 Ruler Zac-Kuk of B'aakal or Palenque (Mayan Empire at Palenque in the Yucatan - Mexico)
The Princess was the great-granddaughter of Kanal-Ikal and succeeded father, Aj Ne' ohe. Zak means white and Kuk means quetzal. ak Kuk was a powerful woman. She manipulated facts to secure her son, Pakal's divine right to rule, thus restoring her family's reign following a devastating defeat from a neighbouring city. She resigned in his favour, and died in 640.
618-34 Politically Influential Queen Mother Lady Batz' Ek' of Caracol (Mexico)
At the age of 18, she arrived in the centre of Oxwitza in 584, and married king Knot Ajaw of the Mayan kingdom of Caracol, who had already been in power for 31 years. Her prominence in the sources suggests that she took a very prominent and politically influential role during the reign of her son K'an II (618-58) until her own death.

Ca. 618-23 Military Leader Princess Pin-yang of China
Helped her father, the first Tang emperor, Li Yuan (618-26), overthrow the Sui by organizing the "Woman's Army". Her husband, Cai Shao was the leader of the palace guards protecting the Sui crown prince. She also made allies of other rebel forces in the region who began to join her when they heard of her father’s successes, and the rural people saw her forces as liberators rather than conquerors, offering them food and drink upon arrival. After her victories, her army would distribute food and win over the people in the captured territories. When her army grow to 70.000 troops, the Sui took her seriously and launched an attack but were defeated. When her father became emperor, she was made a marshal allowing her to have her own military aides and staff just like a prince would be entitled to. (ca.600-623).

624 Opposition Leader Hind al-Hunnud in the Arab World
A member of the Quaish Tribe in the Kingdom of Kindah, she was one of the leaders of the opposition to Muhammed. She led a battle against him in 624, where her father and brother were killed and she then led a battle of vengeance against Muhammed. In the end she submitted to him and became a Muslim convert.
626-72 Co-Ruler Ahpo-Hel of Palenque (Mexico)
The primary wife of Hanab Pakal (603-15-83). Some archaeologists think that he made his her a co-ruler. This would be very unusual. They had no children for the first nine years of heir marriage, but in the end they had at least two sons.

626-36 Politically Influential Empress Zhangsun of China
Married to Emperor Taizong (Li Shimin) of the Northern Wei Dynasty. She was of Xianbei (an ancient ethnic) group in China origin and grew up on the central plains and received a very good education there, having a particularly good command of literature and history. At the time of Li Shimin's rivalry for the throne with his royal brothers, Zhangsun repeatedly cleared Li Shimin before Emperor Gaozu of the misdeeds with which he had been falsely framed. During the Xuanwumen Mutiny in which Emperor Gaozu's sons fought for the throne, she made a personal appearance in order to raise the army's morale, thus ultimately helping Li Shimin get rid of his political enemies. She continued to assist in the handling of state affairs after her husband became emperor, and lived (600-36).

630-31 Queen Regnant Purandokht of Persia (Iran)
Also known as Buran or Poran, she was daughter of the King Khosrau II of Persia (590–628), and ascended to the throne after the murder of the general Shahrbaraz, who killed her brother Ardashir III, she brought stability to the empire by a peace treaty with the Byzantine Empire, the revitalization of the empire through the implementation of justice, reconstruction of the infrastructure, lowering of taxes, and minting coins. She was largely unsuccessful in her attempts to restore the power of the central authority which was weakened considerably by civil wars, and resigned or was murdered soon after. Ferdowsi refers to Purandokht in his epic poem the Shahnameh. She was committed to reviving the memory and prestige of her father, during whose reign the Sassanid Empire had grown to its largest territorial extent. Succeeded by sister Azarmidokht.
631-32 Queen Regnant Azarmedukht of Persia
After the death of her sister Purandokht, Gushnasp Bandah ascended the throne, but he was deposed within a few weeks. The next person to ascend the throne was , a distant cousin of Khushrow Parvez, but he was dethroned within a few weeks. Azarmidokht, a young and very beautiful daughter of Khushrow Parvez succeeded him. Farrokh Hormazd, powerful but an aged commander made a bid for the throne. His plan was to occupy the royal palace by force, marry her and establish his own dynasty, but she had him murdered before he could attack, but his son murder attacked the palace, captured the her and killed her after about 18 months on the throne.

631-56 Politically Influential 'A'ishah Bint Abi Bakr in the Arab World
A powerful force in the political turmoil that followed the death of her husband, the Prophet Muhammed. She became an authority on Muslim tradition, and very important for her role in the civil war. She was defeated and captured in a battle in 656 and only released on promising to abandon political life. Her religious teachings became important for the Shiite branch of the Muslim faith. She lived (613-78).
632-47 Queen Regnant Sondok Yo Ju of Silla (Korea)
Also known as Sondok Yowang, she succeeded father and she was generally known as a strong Queen who continued Silla's conflict with the two other Korean kingdoms of Koguryo and Paekche. She formed an alliance with China and chose general Kim Yusin to direct the military. She also encouraged students to go to China to study Buddhism and administration. Today, she is perhaps best known for the cultural impact of her reign, she finished the Buddhist temples at Punhwangsa and Yongmyosa, and the nine-tiered pagoda of Hwanguyongsa was built in her reign. One of the other lasting monuments from this era is the oldest observatory in Asia. Her tomb is part of the major gravesites in Silla. Succeeded by her cousin, Queen Jindeok.
639-42 Regent Dowager Queen Nanthildis of Neustrasia and Burgundy (France)
Nanthilde, Nanthechilde or Nantechildis was a former servant and married the Merovingian king Dagobert I (604-29-35) after he had divorced his childless consort, Gomatrud. After Dagobert's death her son, Chlodwig II was appointed king of Neutrasia and Burgundy and his older half-brother, Sigibert III king of Austrasia. She received 1/3 of the royal treasure. She acted as regent together with the Major Domus Aega. As he attacked the Burgund farons she protected them and 642 she reformed the office of Major Domus of Burgundy and appointed the Frankish Flaochad to the office. She lived (ca. 610-642).

639-40 Rani Regnant of Sindh and Baluchistan (Pakistan)
Successor of her husband Shasri Rai II. The name Baluchistan came into existence with the arrival from Iran of the tribes called Baluch.
641 Regent Dowager Empress Martina of The Byzantine Empire (Covering what is now Greece and Turkey)
After the death of her husband, Herakleios, she was first co-ruler with stepson, Constantinos III, whom she was accused of poisoning. She took power but was deposed together with son Heraklonas, who was still a minor. They were both mutilated and sent into exile.

642-49 Member of Regency Council Dowager Empress Gregorina of The Byzantine Empire (Covering what is now Greece and Turkey)
Widow of Herakleios-Constantinos and her son, Constans, was chosen as Emperor after Martina and Heraklonas, and though the sources does not mention the members of the Regency Council it can be assumed that she was one of the members. She was a niece of Emperor Herakleios II.
642-45 Kōgyoku Tennō of Japan (First reign)
655-61 Saimei Tennō (Second reign)
皇極天皇 or 斉明天皇 was granddaughter of Prince Shōtoku, who was regent in 593-621, she first married Yomei-Tennō (586-87) and then her uncle Jōmei-Tennō (629-41), whom she succeeded. Two ministers, who were killed on the instigation of her brother, Kotoku, influenced her and she abdicated the next morning in his favour. After his death 10 years later she re-ascended to the throne, and this time she did not allow herself to be influenced by the ministers. She subdued the Ebisu of Ezo, and in 661 she led a naval expedition to Paekche. She died on the way to rescue the Korean kingdoms of Koma and Kudara from Chinese attack. Born as Princess Takara her posthumous name is Ame Tokyo Takara Mige Fi Tarsi Hime, she had three children, and Lived (593-661).
647-54 Queen Regnant Chindok Yo Ju of Silla (Korea)
Also known as Jindeok or Chindok Yowang, she succeeded her cousin Queen Sondok, and continued her alliance with the Chinese and emphasized the dress, organization, and literary cultures from the T'ang Dynasty. She started the use of a Chinese calendar and put down rebellions against her pro Chinese policy. While some criticized her closeness to the T'ang government, later historians have seen her reign as giving Silla a "breathing space" to grow strong against her enemies.

650/750 Queen Regnant of Waka (Guatemala)
In 2004 scientists have recovered her grave that shows all the trappings of a Maya ruler, but does not reveal her name. The artefacts indicate that she lived between 650 and 750.
Until 653 Queen Regnant of the Champa Kingdom (Vietnam)
Her name has been lost, but her predecessor ruled from 645.The ancient kingdom of Champa was situated in the central coast of Viet Nam at one time stretched from the Ngang Pass (present Quang Binh province) to the upper basin of Dong Nai river. The Cham people are believed to be of the same Javanese stock as many of the creators of the Dong Son culture further to the north. As they were intrepid seafarers, and as their land was well placed not far from the sea route from India to China, the Chams were exposed very early to Indian culture and its Brahman religion. Today they are one of the 55 ethnic minorities; they are Muslims and live in the Mekong Delta.

After 655 Governor Princess Vijaya Bhattarika of a Province in Chauleskyas (Chalukya) (India)
Appointed to the post by King Vikramaditya I of Chalukya (655-681).
657-64/65 Regent Dowager Queen Bathildis of Neustrie, Bourgogne and Austrasie (France)
Also known as Bathilde or Baldechildis, she was born in England, and taken to Gaul as a slave and about 641, Erchinoald, mayor of the palace of Neustria, bought her. She married Clovis II in 648. The future Lothair III was born in 649, and she had two more sons, Theoderic and Childeric, who also eventually became rulers. Balthildis' influence during her husband's reign was considerable, since she controlled the court and the allocation of charity money, and had strong connections with Church leaders. After Clovis' death in 657 she took over the regency for her son Lothair III and embarked on a policy of unifying the Frankish territory by controlling Austrasia through imposing her son Childeric as Prince and absorbing Burgundy. She lost her political power when Lothair came of age and was forced to retire to the convent of Chelles, which she had founded and endowed with much of her personal wealth in 664. She died in 680 in Chelles, and was later declared a saint.

660-705 Regent Empress Consort Wu Zetian of China
690-705 Emperor of the Empire
Favourite concubine of Emperor Kao Tsung as she gave birth to his sons. Within five years of their marriage, her husband suffered a crippling stroke, and she took over the administrative duties of the court. She created a secret police force, and cruelly jailed or killed anyone who stood in her way - including the co-wife of her husband, Empress Wang. After her husband's death, she managed to outflank her eldest sons in favour of the youngest, who abdicated in 690 after which she was declared emperor of China. She was an able administrator: Reduced the army's size and stopped the influence of aristocratic military men on government by replacing them with scholars. Everyone had to compete for government positions by taking exams, thus setting the practice of government run by scholars. She also was fair to peasants, lowering oppressive taxes, raising agricultural production, and strengthening public works. In 705, she was pressured to give up the throne in favour of her third son. Wu Zetian died peacefully the same year, after having lived (625-705).

662 Regent Dowager Queen Himnechilde of Austrasia (France)
After the death of her husband, Sigebert III, she was joint regent for her son, Childéric II together with the Major Domus (Major of the Palace) Wulfoald.

664-66 Regent Dowager Queen Sexburga of Kent (United Kingdom)
Eldest daughter of King Anna of East Anglia and his second wife, Saewara. She married King Erconbert of Kent, and after he died of the "yellow plague", she reigned on behalf off her son, Egbert I. After he came of age, she became abbess of Minister-in-Sheppey and later of Ely, where her sister, St. Etheldreda of Ely had been Abbess. Another sister and both of her daughters; Ermengilda and Ercongota was Saint and the same was the case of her grandchildren; St. Werburga of Chester, St. Wulfade and St. Rufinus. She lived (Ca. 636-around 700).

664 Presiding over the Synod of Whitby Abbess Hilda of Whitby and Hartlepool in the United Kingdom
In 657 she had founded a double monastery of both monks and nuns at Whitby. She was a patroness of the arts and was a notable teacher, whose advice was sought by Kings and Abbots alike. At the Synod of Whitby it was decided that the Northombian Church it should follow the teachings of the Roman Church rather than those of Celtic Irish Iona. Hilda herself was, of course, sympathetic to the latter party, but she accepted the council's ruling. After her death, after a long and painful illness lasting some six years, miracles were soon reported at her tomb. She was venerated as a saint and her bones suitably enshrined. St. Hilda was the daughter of Prince Hereric of Deira, and lived (614-680).

Ca. 669-74 Regent Empress Aelia Sofia of The Byzantine Empire (Covering what is now Greece and Turkey)
Handled the affairs of state for her insane husband Justinos II (58-95 and 705-11), who was killed.

672-74 Queen Regnant Seaxburh of Wessex (United Kingdom)
Successor of her husband, Cenwealh, who was king (642-72), and was followed by Centwine, son of former king Cynegils.

674-710 Sovereign Princess Qabaq Hatun of Bahura (Bokhara) (Uzbekistan)
Also known as Qabagh Khatun, she ruled the khanate cantered around Bokhara, an ancient city about 200 miles west of Samarkand. The Khanate has led an unstable history, of times under vassalage to more powerful neighbours, but an important centre of Islamic civilization at times. The principality was under the Gök Turks from the 680's and was under the suzerainty of the Caliphate 710-867.

677 Snake Lady of Palenque (Mexico)
Arrived to the Kingdom on the very day of one of the greatest victories for the Kan Kingdom, when Calakmul's major rival for domination of the Maya lowlands, Tikal, was defeated in battle. This Snake Princess is said to have been the wife of the local ruler, K'inich Yook (ruled 667-ca. 682), who in turn is said to have been the yajaw, or "vassal of," Yukno'm Ch'e'n II (636-686), the greatest king of Calakmul. The position of Snake Lady was both significant and politically influential.

Ca. 680-713 Queen Regnant Jaya Devi of Chenla (Cambodia)
Succeeded king Jayavarman II in a period during which the kingdom was in a state of anarchy. In an inscription at Angkor Wat, Queen Jayadevi laments the bad times. The state is normally known by its Chinese name, Chenla - in Khmer it was called Kambuja - was a more direct ancestor of the Khmer Empire. Its history first appears in the Chinese Chronicles as a Funan's vassal state who gained its independence from Funan around the year 550 A.D. Later on Chenla was divided into northern and southern states, of which the Chinese Chronicles refers to as "Chenla of the Land" and "Chenla of the Sea", respectively. The centre of the northern Chenla was at the Champassak province of today southern Laos, whereas that of the Southern Chenla occupied the former Funan's territory along the Mekong Delta and the coast. In 715, both Chenla states were further broken up into several smaller states.

681 Khanum Regnant Pisutu of Uighuristan (Central Asia)
The Uighur Khans governed portions of Central Asia in the centuries immediately following the Muslim expansion, and then fade from view. It is not entirely clear that the Turkic people called Uighurs who now dwell mostly in Western China are the same folk; the name is the same, but later-arriving tribes could have adopted it. The Got Turks invaded the country in 681.

After 681 Politically Influential Queen Vijaybhattarike of Chandraditya (India)
A well-known poet, she is mentioned as reigning for a time in the absence of her husband King Chandraditya who was the brother of Vikramaditya I (655-681).

682-741 Lady Six Sky of Uac Cab'nal (Naranjo in Guatemala/Belize)
Alternative versions of her name were Lady Wac Chanil Ahau, Lady of Dos Pilas and Lady of Tikal. She arrived "here" in 682 as the daughter of King B'alaj Chan K'awiil of Dos Pilas. She was never invested as a Naranjo ruler, she assumed every other prerogative of kingship, portraying herself on monuments and performing key calendrical rituals. This even extended to military symbolism. It is clear that she assumed the role of Queen regnant and effectively ruled, then perhaps co-ruled for a substantial period. She seems to have been the mother of king K'ak Tiliw Chan Chaak, but the sources never mention his father. She was the central figure, even after the formal enthronement of her son (at age five). She waged war in his name, and remained an important force to until her death at the age of 77. She lived (664-741).

686-90 Regent Empress Jitō of Japan
690-97 Tennō Regnant
697-703 De-Facto Ruler
持統天皇, was daughter of Tenji Tennō, who was regent 661-68 and Emperor 668-71. Her husband and uncle, Temmu Tennō, had withdrawn to temple-life and left the throne to their son in 886 with her as regent and later successor. She made important administrative reforms, encouraged the development of agriculture and had the first silver coin stuck. Abdicated in favour of her nephew (and grandson) Mommu, In 697 she abdicated in Mommu's favour, but she continued to hold power as a cloistered ruler, which became a persistent trend in Japanese politics, and was the first to take the honorary title for past emperors - Dajo-Tennō. She lived She lived (645-703).

687 Politically Influential Queen Lady K'atun Ajaw of Piedras Begras (Mexico)
The sources indicate that she, as wife of King K'inich Yo'nal Akh II yielded considerable political power during his reign. She was born as Princess of Amana.

690-710 "Chief Administrator" Shangguan Wan'er in China
Had been Empress Wu Zetian's trusted aide prior to her enthronement, and for several decades the destiny of the Tang Empire was in the hands of these two exceptional women. Historical data show that they were instrumental in maintaining the stability, prosperity and development of the Tang Dynasty. Her grandfather was involved in a power struggle during Emperor Gaozong's reign and was, along with her father, executed by Wu Zetian. Wan'er learned reading and writing from female officials in the imperial palace, and was later given the responsibility of drafting edicts. Eventually all memorials submitted to Wu Zetian were first read by Wan'er for her opinion before being approved by the empress. By the age of 19, Wan'er was the second most powerful person in the imperial court, second only to Wu Zetian herself. Wan'er was appointed Zhaorong and responsible for the imperial harem. During the reign of Emperor Zhongzong, Wan'er proved an invaluable helpmeet. In one palace coup, she coolly and efficiently directed the guards to attack leaders of the rebellion, and so suppressed the uprising. Wan'er was also a positive influence on the Emperor, and encouraged him to build schools and so foster literary talent. After Wu Zetian's resignation Shangguan Wan'er sought the new Empress Wei's patronage. The empress enjoyed power for only a short time and was put to death when Li Longji, Prince of Linzi, stormed the palace. As a member of Empress Wei's clique, Shangguan Wan'er was also killed. Shangguan Wan'er lived (664-710).

Ca 690-701 Queen Regnant Dahlia al-Chain of the Moors (Berbian tribe in Tunisia)
Her name means the "priestess" or the "prophetess", and she assumed personal command of the Barbarian forces, and under her leadership, the Arabs were briefly forced to retreat, but since the Arabs were relentless, she ordered a scorched earth policy. After her defeat, Dahia al-Kahina took her own life, and sent her sons to the Arab camp with instructions that they adopt Islam and make common cause with the Arabs. Ultimately, these men participated in invading Europe and the subjugation of Spain and Portugal.

692 Regent Queen Dowager Clothilde of Neustria and Bourgogne (France)
Reigned for a few months for son Childéric. She is also known as Rothilde, Chrothéchildis or Doda (d. 694/9).

685-99 Regent Dowager Princess Spram of Girdyaman (Azerbaijan)
Reigned in the name of Varaz-Tiridat I of the Mihranid Dynasty, which ruled (680-699). She was succeeded by Sheraye.

Ca. 700 Queen Magajiya Kufuru (Kofana) (Nigeria)
The first of 15 successive Queens, she was followed on the throne by Gino (Gufano), Yakunya (Yfakaniya), Walzamu (Waizam), Yanbam Gizirigzit (Gadar-Gadar), Imagari (Anagiri), Dura, Gamata, Shata, Batatume, Sandamata, Jamata, Hamata, Zama and around 1000 Shawata.

704-05 De Facto Ruler Dowager Grand Queen Khri ma lod of Tibet
After her husband, Grand King 'Dus-srong (676-704), was killed in battle she quickly dethroned his son King Lha in favour of the infant Rgyal Gtsug ru. Revolts and initiated the executions of her opponents until Khri-Ide-btsug-brtan, came on the throne, and ruled Tibet 705-755. He retaliated with more raids. He married a Chinese Princess and, needing help against Arab invasions, made peace with China in 730.

705 Presiding over the Synod of River Nith Abbess Elfleda of Whitby in England
Successor of Abbess Hilda, who also presided over a Synod. Before that five Abbesses were present at the Council of Becanfield in 694, where they signed the decrees before the presbyters. Later Abbess also took titles from churches impropriated to her house, presented the secular vicars to serve the parochial churches, and had all the privileges of a landlord over the temporal estates attached to her abbey. The Abbess of Shaftsbury held of the king by an entire barony, and by right of this tenure had, for a period, the privilege of being summoned to Parliament.

705-10 Politically Influential Princess Anle of China
After the death of Empress Wu Zetian, the court of the reinstalled emperor Zhongzong was controlled by the clan of his wife, Empress We, her daughter Princess Anle and Wu Sansi, a relative of late Empress Wu Zetian. In 710 Empress Wei enthroned the minor Li Chongmao (posthumous Tang Shaodi). Only the rebellion of Li Longji could re-establish the power of the house of Li, and the deposed emperor Ruizong was reinstalled. Princess Taiping was the last to challenge the ruling house, and in 712 Ruizong abdicated in favour of Li Longji.

707-15 Genmei Tennō of Japan
元明天皇, also known as Gemmyo, she was daughter of Tenji Tennō (622-673-686) and succeeded her son Mommu as the 43rd imperial ruler. She proved an unusually able ruler. She coined the first copper money and caused scribes to write down the ancient traditions lest they be lost, and in 708 she moved the capital city of Japan from Fujiwara to Heijo-Kyo, thus giving the Nara period of Japanese history its name. Married to her first cousin and nephew, Kusakabe no miko, the son of Emperor Temmu of Japan and Empress Jito of Japan, she abdicated in favour of her daughter, Empress Gensho-Tennō. She lived (661-722).

710 Regent Dowager Empress Wei Shi of China
Reigned in the name of Emperor Li Chan Mao of the Tang Dynasty. She tried to rule as hard as Empress Wu and to be named Emperor in her own right. She sold offices and Buddhist monk hoods, and she was behind other corruption at court, and in 712 she was ousted from power and killed.

710 Politically Influential Princess Taiping of China of China
Together with her nephew Xuanzong she conspired to put an end to Empress Wei's attempted usurpation of power. He killed Empress Wei, the wife of his recently dead uncle Emperor Zhongzong, in a palace coup that placed his own father, Emperor Ruizong, on the throne. Xuanzong himself succeeded the throne in 712.

Ca. 710-34 Princess Regnant Libuše Vyšehrad of Bohemia
According to legend, Libuse inherited rule over the Czech tribes from her father, Krok. As ruler of the lands, she was also the highest 'court of appeal' for disputes among the people. Przemysl Ploughman (Premysl Orac in Czech) came to Vysehrad and married Libuse and took over the job of ruling the unruly Czechs and they founded the Przemyslid Dynasty, which ruled over the Czech lands till the 14th century

714 Acting Major Domina Plectrudis von Ecternach of Neustraia, Austria, Aquitania and Burgundy (France)
Also known as Plectrud or Plectrude, she engaged in a power-struggle with her stepson, Charles Martel after the death of her husband, Pipin II d'Heristal. She favoured the succession of one of her grandsons to the office of Major Domus. Her forces were finally defeated in 719. She was daughter of Count Palatine Hugobert von Ecternach (d. 697/698) and inherited "The Lands between the Rhine, Moselle and Meuse" after her mother Irmina, was Abbess of Oeren and was later declared a Saint. She lived (Before 665-ca.725).

715-24 Genshō Tennō of Japan
元正天皇 succeeded her mother, Gemmei Tennō, mainly for the purpose to hold the throne until her nephew Shōmu would be mature enough ascend to the throne. Fujiwara no Fuhito, who had been the most powerful courtier in her mothers court, remained so until his death in 720. After his death her cousin, Prince Nagaya, seized the power. Under her reign, the edition of Nihonshoki, the first Japanese history book was finished in 720. Organisation of the law system was being continued, and the taxation system, which had been introduced by Empress Jitō in the late 7th century, was reformed to promote agricultural production. She also encouraged the arts, letters and science, continuing the works of her mother. When her nephew reached the age of 25 she abdicated. Gensho was born as Princess Hidaka and also known as Yoro. She was unmarried and lived (679-748).

720-... De facto Joint Ruler Hababa of Bagdad (Iraq)
A slave singer of the 9th Ummayyad Caliph, Yarzid II Ibn 'Abd al-Malik who was hostage to her charm. She choked on a pomegranate seed and he died of grief a few weeks later. Later historians stigmatized him and held him in contempt for letting himself be infatuated by a slave.

720s-31 Princess Regnant Prisbit of the Khazars (Russia)
The Khazars were a Jewish semi-nomadic steppe-people that lived in southern Russia between the Volga and Don rivers, northwest of the Caspian Sea.

721 Snake Lady Ti' of Palenque (Mexico)
Came to Sak Nikte' in 721 and is described as the yatan, or "wife of," Yuknoom Took' K'awiil, the last great ruler of Calakmul (ruled ca. 702-ca. 731). The date of her arrival is most interesting as it falls 26 years after a major victory by Tikal over Calakmul, in which the power of the Snake Kingdom was overthrown and its influence in the Petén was seriously curtailed. In addition, this arrival occurred only a dozen years before another major clash between Tikal and Calakmul, in which the former again appears to have successful. This information, in combination with the iconography of the tablet, suggests that Lady Ti's arrival served to re-establish, after a lengthy absence, the presence of Calakmul in the Petén. In this light, we can begin to appreciate the pairing of the Creation and War palanquins, and the role of the Snake Queens at Sak Nikte'.

722 Army leader Queen Aethelburgh of the Saxons (United Kingdom)
According to The Anglo Saxon Chronicles her forces destroyed the City of Taunton.

734-41 Khatun and Regent Mo-ki-lien of Mong (Mongolia)
Known as Khatun Mo-ki-lien, which was the name of her husband. His minister poisoned him, and she acted as regent for their son, Yu-jan, who was again succeeded by her minor brother, Tängri Khagan, who died in 741.

748-58 Koken Tennō of Japan (First Reign)
764-70 Shōtoku Tennō (Second Reign)
孝謙天皇 or 称徳天皇 was the 46th imperial ruler of Japan. She was born as Abe-naishinno, as daughter of Shomu-Tennō, who abdicated in her favour and joined a convent. She was an ardent Buddhist, and assembled priests and exacted severe penalties for the killing of any living thing. More interested in religion than government, she was persuaded to abdicate in favour of kinsman, Junnin. She was influenced by the Buddhist priest, Dokyo, who took up arms against Junnin, who were banished to the island of Awaji, where he died one year later. Dokyo tried to persuade her to abdicate in her favour, but she refused. Shōtoku died of smallpox, after which she was succeeded by her first cousin twice removed, Emperor Kōnin. Her posthumous name is Takano Hime Abenno Nai Sin Wo, and she lived (717-770).

748-54 Regent Dowager Princess Hiltrude of Bavaria (Germany)
After the death of her husband, Odilo I of Bavaria, she assumed the regency for their son, Tassilo. Daughter of Charles Martell, Mayor Domus in Austrasia (719-741), Duke of Franks (737-741). She (d. 754).
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Postby ali5196 » Fri Feb 29, 2008 10:15 pm

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Around 750 Queen Regnant Nang Chamthewi of Hariphunchai (Thailand)
Also known as Channa Devi, Channadevi or Queen Jamadevi, and according to the Chamadevivamsa and Jinakalamali chronicles the city was founded by the hermit Suthep in 661, and the ruler from Lopburi sent his daughter Jamadevi as the first queen. However, this dating is now usually considered wrong, and the actual beginning is now placed at around 750. At that time most of central Thailand was under the rule of Mon city-states, called the Dvaravati kingdom. She gave birth to twins, the older one succeeding her as the ruler of Lamphun, the younger one became ruler of neighbouring Lampang.

Ca. 750 Legendary Queen Wanda of Poland
According to legend her father, king Krak was succeeded by one brother, but was killed by another. The Councillors broke with tradition in asking Wanda to rule over her people. Peace and prosperity prevailed over Krakow, but in the west, the Germans grew in strength and began attacking Polish hamlets and cities. The German commander, Rytygier, wanted to make Wanda his wife, and to avoid this and save her people, she wandered to the top of a cliff over the Wisla river, she threw herself into the river.

751-58 Reigning Dowager Duchess Scaunipirga of Benevento (Italy)
Ruled alone after the death of her son Gisolfo II.

Ca. 772-98 Joint Reigning Queen Cynethryth of Mercia (United Kingdom)
Married to Offa II, the Saxon King of Mercia (757-96), and acquired notoriety as a tyrannical Queen. She was the only Queen consort ever allowed to issue coins in her own name, and they carry vivid portraits, the earliest portrait of an Englishwoman. Her daughter, Eadburgh, acquired a still worse reputation.

Ca. 774 Governor Cara Zon of Carcasson (Spain)
According to legend she was daughter of Abderame, or Ennis-Al-Moumenin, Lord of the Believers, and married to Al-Babel, king of the region of Carcassonne and Narbonne, who was assassinated. To save her life, she had to flee to her town, swearing to take revenge upon her husband’s murderers. She believed that Charles the Great (Charlemagne) was associated with them. She defends the town, first with her men and then alone, but leaving the impression that she still has plenty of men and food, which makes Charles decide to leave, and then a horn blows on top of the walls. Dame Carcas sonne (she blows her horn). Overwhelmed by the satisfaction of seeing such a mighty warrior giving up because of her creative obstinacy is surrendering and presenting to the emperor the keys of her town. She asks to be baptized and is married to one of Charles' vassals named Roger, who gives his name to the illustrious counts of the city. Charlemagne makes it a personal point that the name of the city remains Carcassonne to honour such a great Lady.

775-809 Politically Influential Al-Haizuran of Bagdad (Iraq)
Also known as Khayzuran (literally, Bamboo) she was a slave, born most likely in Yemen, and gained substantial influence during the reigns of her husband, al-Mahdi (775-785), who allowed her to make many important decisions. After his death, it was Khayzuran who kept the peace by paying off the Caliph's army in order to maintain order. She arranged for the accession of her son, al-Hadi, even when he was away from the capitol. When al-Hadi proved less tolerant of Khayzuran's political manoeuvrings than had al-Mahdi, it was speculated that it was Khayzuran who arranged his murder in favour of her second, more tolerant son, Harun. Whatever the truth, Khayzuran is more fondly remembered than many of the caliphs themselves.

779–794 Joint Ruler Empress Shila-Mahadevi of Rashtrakuta (India)
Reigned jointly with her husband, Emperor Dhruva, and had the right to make large grants independently.

780-90 Regent Dowager Empress Eirene of The Byzantine Empire (Covering what is now Greece and Turkey)
787 Presiding over the 7th Ecomenical Synod (Council)
792 Joint Ruler of the Empire
797-802 Reigning Empress
Also known as Irene, she dominated her husband Emperor Leo IV (775-780), and after his death she took over the regency for son, Constantine VI. Irene generally undermined Constantine's authority when he tried to push her aside, she deposed him in 797 - he was seized, flogged and blinded. Irene began her reign as the first Byzantine Empress, and did not recognize Charlemagne as Holy Roman Emperor in 800. After the death of his wife, Liutgard, the same year, Charlemagne sought her hand in marriage - but nothing came out of this proposal. Soon revolts against Irene rule broke out and she was deposed by the leading Patricians. Irene was then exiled to island of Lesbos, where she supported herself by spinning. Irene died the following year and her former finance minister succeeded as Emperor Nicephorus I. She lived (752-803)

Until 783 Politically Active Queen Berta of France
During the reign of her husband, king Pepin, and her son, king Charles the Great, she was especially active in diplomacy.

783-784 Politically Active Queen Fastrada of France
Involved in politics during the reign of her husband, king Charles the Great, until her death.

793-ca. 810 Regent Kanza of Idrisis of Saghir (Morocco)
Ruled in the name of her son Idris II ibn Idris of Saghir (793-823) who was prince from his birth.

806-810 Politically Influential Imperial Consort Fujiwara Kusuko of Japan
In 807 she accused some members of the other branches of the Fujiwara clan of conspiring against her husband, Emperor Heizei. Shortly after the plot, Emperor Heizei retired, citing health problems, and was succeeded by his younger brother, Emperor Saga. When Heizei recovered from his illness, she and others worked to get him reinstated to the throne. In response, Saga dismissed her from her very important administrative post as was Superior of the Ladies-in-Waiting (naishi-no kami), where her duty was to transfer of the emperor's decrees and she had very often formulated the emperor's decrees. The following day she and her husband left the capital and headed east to raise troops and retake the throne. But their uprising quickly failed. Ex-emperor Heizei became a priest, her brother Nakanari was executed and she committed suicide. The incident brought intense scrutiny to the political activities of women in the inner palace. and after this incident, women in the inner palace were unable to publicly engage in politics and receded to the background.

811 Regent Empress Theopano of The Byzantine Empire (Covering what is now Greece and Turkey) (26.07-2.10)
A relative of Empress Irene, she had married Staurakios in 807. He was was paralyzed by a sword wound near his neck, and was saved by the imperial guard which retreated from the battlefield during his father's expedition against Krum of Bulgaria in 811. As his father had been killed in the same battle, and he was hastily crowned at Adrianople, and named her as regent, but when he tried to name her as his designated successor, a coup d'etat with the participation of the Patriarch Nikephoros forced him to abdicate and against her protests to name his brother-in-law, Michael Rangabe as the new emperor. He retired to a convent and died a few months later.

811-13 Politically Influential Empress Prokopia of The Byzantine Empire (Covering what is now Greece and Turkey)
Her husband, Michael I Rhangabe became emperor and she is said to have been a dominant force at court until his abdication.

818-before 843 Politically Active Empress Judith of the Holy Roman Empire
Involved in politics during the reign of her husband, Emperor Ludwig the Devout (778-840), and son, Karl the Bald.

824-mid 800's Countess Åsa Haraldsdottir of Agder (Norway)
The territory was situated in the southernmost tip of Norway, just west of Vestfold and the Oslo region.

Before 825 Heiress Esyllt ferch Cynan of the Kingdom of Gwynedd (Wales in the United Kingdom)
Also known as Ethil, she was the heiress of her father, King Cynan
Dindaethwy of Gwynedd. She was married to king Guriat of Ynys Manaw (Isle of Man). After the death of her uncle in 825, the throne was secured for Merfyn. He crossed from Isle of Man, where he was almost certainly already King, to bring a new stability as well as a new dynasty to Gwynedd after many years of Civil War. He reigned for 19 years but an absentee monarch left Manaw open to invasion. The Hiberno-Viking, Godred mac Fergus established himself there in 836 and the country was never recovered.

Before 825 Regent Dowager Queen Angharad Ferch Maredudd Llewellyn of Powys, Holderness, Skipton and Cockermouth (Wales and England in the United Kingdom)
Reigned in the name of her son.

829-30 Member of Regency Council Dowager Empress Euphrosyne of The Byzantine Empire (Covering what is now Greece and Turkey)
Daughter of Emperor Constantinos VI who divorced her mother, Maria of Amnia (ca. 770-ca. 830) and send both of them to a monastery, where they stayed until 820 when Michael II of Amorion usurped the throne and married Euphrosyne in order to legitimize his reign. After his death, she was probably member of the regency council for his son, Theophilos, though the sources are not clear about this. After she helped select his wife, Theodora, she retired to a convent, though she did not stay totally out of politics. She (ca. 790-after 840).

832-ca.38 Queen Regnant Pramodo Vardhani of Central Java (Indonesia)
Succeeded her father Taga Samara-tunga and was succeeded by her husband, Pikatan, who reigned 838-51. In 835 the Sanjaya Dynasty conquered the island.

842-56 Head of the Regency Council Dowager Empress Theodora of The Byzantine Empire (Covering what is now Greece and Turkey)
The widow of Theophilos (829-42), she was leader of the regency for her son Michael III (838-42-67). She restored the veneration of icons, brought back the deposed holy Patriarch Meletios and convened a Council, at which the Iconoclasts were anathematized. When Michael came of age, she spent 8 years in the monastery of Saint Euphrosynia, in ascetic deeds and the reading of Divine books (a copy of the Gospels is known of, copied by her hand). She died peacefully in about the year 867. Later declared a saint.

842 Member of the Regency Council Princess Tekla of The Byzantine Empire (Covering what is now Greece and Turkey)
Also known as Tecla, she was sister of Michael III, and in theory co-regent with Theodora.

842-52 Joint Ruler Queen Mother Ch'en of Tibet
Reigned jointly with Ch'ilihu in succession to Lang Dharma.

846-85 Ruler Ela Giudit of Aksum (Ethiopia)
Also known as Terda’e Gomaz Yodit, she was grandchild of Demawedem Wechem Asfare (790-820)

Around 846 Mahrajadhiraja Parmesvari Tribhuvana Mahadevi I of Kara in Tosala and Kongoda (India)
Used the alternative title Parambhattarika and was member of the Majhapit-Dynasty, which later immigrated to Indonesia. After the death of king Subhakara Deva III, she was asked by the chiefs to ascend the throne. Interestingly she was asked to do this and save the kingdom as Devi Gosvamini did in olden days, indicating that women had ruled before. Married to king Lalitahara (ruled around 829) and was succeeded by king Santikara II.

848-851 Consors Regni Empress Irmingard de Tours of The Holy Roman Empire
Even though her husband, Lothar I, was only Emperor in parts of the realm (Italy and Burgundy), she held the title of Consors Regni - co-ruler. She was mother of 9 children, and lived (ca. 800-851).

851–875 Consors Regni Empress Angilberga de Spoleto of The Holy Roman Empire and Italy
As “consors regni” she officially acted as co–ruler of her husband, Emperor Ludwig II, especially after he was hurt in a hunting accident in 564. She was especially active in her native Italy, and very politically active in the efforts to secure the succession to her husband, since their two daughters were barred from inheriting. After her husband's death, she became Abbess of San Sisto in Piacanzam and lived (ca. 825-896/901).

853-55 Pope John VIII of the Catholic Church
John Anglicus was a ninth century Englishman, who after having stayed in Athens came to lecture at the Trivium in Rome. He became a Cardinal, and when Pope Leo IV died in 853 CE, he was unanimously elected pope. As Pope John VIII he ruled for two years. However, while riding one day from St. Peter's to the Lateran, he had to stop by the side of the road and, to the astonishment of everyone, gave birth to a child. According to one legend, the people of Rome then tied her feet together and dragged her behind a horse while stoning her to death. Another legend has it that she was sent to a far away convent and that her child became Bishop of Ostia. It is not known whether the story of Pope Joan is true. The first known reference to her occurs in the thirteenth century, 350 years after her supposed reign. The Catholic Church at first seemed to accept the reality of Pope Joan. Marginal notes in a fifteenth century document refer to a statue called "The Woman Pope with Her Child" that was supposedly erected near the Lateran. There was also a rumour that for some years the chairs used during papal consecrations had holes in their seats, so that an official check of the pope's gender could be performed. During the Reformation in the sixteenth century, the Catholic Church began to deny the existence of Pope Joan, and modern scholars have been unable to resolve the historicity of Pope Joan/Giovanna/Johanna/Jeanne.

Ca. 866-76 Queen Regnant Xiuhtlacuilolxochitzin of Quauhtitlan (Guatemala and Mexico)
The Aztech sources say about her: "In 11 Rabbit the Lady Xiuhtlacuilolxochitzin became ruler, and she had her straw-house in Tianquiztenco. Where it was is now Tepexitenco. And the reason the nation had been left to this Lady, they say, is that she was Huactli’s wife-also she knew how to invoke the devil Itzpapalotl.”

877-79 Presiding over the Court Queen Engelberge of the Franks
Played a prominent role during the reign of her husband, King Louis II of the Franks (846-77-79), who was succeeded by two of their sons, Louis III (863-79-82) and Carloman. Engelberge (d. 890).

884-97 Politically Influential Imperial Consort Shukushi of Japan
Adopted sister of the Fujiwara-regent and de-facto ruler, Mototsunes. It was apparently her influnence that secured the succession of Emperor Kōkō (884-887). She was mother of the later Emperor Uda (887-897), whose succession to the throne she also made possible.

After 885 Mahrajadhiraja Parmesvari Tribhuvana Mahadevi II of Kara in Tosala and Kongoda (India)
Also known as prthvi Mahadevi, she was the widow of Subhakara and was ousted by King Santikara III.

887-897 Queen Regnant Chinsong Yo Ju of Silla (Korea)
Also known as Chinsong Yowang, she succeeded brother. Unlike the previous Queens, she ruled during an era of decline. Local warlords were increasing in power and Chinsong was unable to collect the taxes needed for a central army Most of her reign was spent in putting down rebellions One of the warlords managed a successful rebellion against her.

887-96 Regent Countess Dowager Ermengarde of Provence (France)
In 876, she married Boso V, Count of Vienne, who declared himself King of Provence in 879. In May 878 they sheltered Pope John VIII, who was taking refuge from the Saracens, in Arles. After her husband's coup d'état in October 879, she helped defend his cities from her Carolingian relatives. In 880, she successfully defended Vienne itself, the capital, from the combined forces of Charles the Fat and the kings of France, Louis III and Carloman. In August 881, the newly-crowned Emperor Charles the Fat pillaged and burned Vienne, focing her and her children to take refuge in Autun with her brother-in-law Richard, Duke of Burgundy. Meanwhile, Boso fled into Provence. On Boso's death in January 887, the Provençal barons elected her to act as regent for her son Louis II, with the support of Richard. In May, she travelled with her son Louis to the court of Charles the Fat, and received his recognition of the young Louis as king. Charles adopted Louis as his son and put both mother and son under his protection. In May 889, she travelled to Charles' successor, Arnulf, to make submission anew. She was daughter of Louis II (822/4-75), king of Italy (844), Holy Roman Emperor (850) and count of Provence (863-69). She (d. 896/96).

891 Regent Dowager Queen Hint bint Isaq of Tihama (Arabia)
Together with three others she was regent for Abd' Allah (981-1018).

894 Politically Influential Dowager Queen Ageltrudes di Benevento in Italy
After the death of her husband, the Holy Roman Emperor and King of Italy, Wido di Spoleto, she supported her son, Lambert, against other claimants and helped him gain control over most of Italy.

Around 900-after 915 Senatrix Theodora I of Rome (Italy)
Married to senator Theopylakt and very influential in Rome. She installed the popes Lando (913-14) and John X, whom she controlled. Mother of Marozias I and Theodora II.

Around 900 Mahrajadhiraja Parmesvari Gauri Mahadevi of Kara in Tosala and Kongoda (India)
King Santikara III (Subha Kara Devi) was succeeded by Subhakara V who was married to Gauri Mahadevi and Vakula Mahadevi. Gauri Mahadevi was succeeded by her daughter Dandi Mahadevi and Dandi Mahadevi conquered the throne.

Around 900 Reigning Queen of Orissa (India)
Elected as ruler after the death of her son, Lolitabharana Deva.

900 Governor Revvaka Nammadi of Edatore (India)
A Princess of Rashtrakuta.

902-04 Regent Sugandha Rani of Utpala (India)
904-14 Rani Regnant
Initially regent for Gopala Varman (902-04) and Samkata Varman (904) until she became ruler in her own name. She allied herself with the Ekangas in order to maintain her control of Kashmir as a whole. In 914 a clash between the two Factions, her forces were defeated, leaving the Tantrins in complete control, and her deposed.

908-32 Politically Influential Shaghab of Baghdad (Iraq)
Successful in maneuvering the religious and military elite into recognizing her only 13-year-old son, Muqtadir, as caliph. She had originally been a slave.

911-918 Sovereign Lady Æthelflæd of Mercians (United Kingdom)
Also known as Ethelfleda, Eþeleda, Aethelfled, Æthelfleda or Æthelflæd, she became ruler after her husband, Aethelred or Ethelred, Earl of Mercia, died after the Battle of Tettenhall, she became ruler of the territory. She was a formidable military leader and tactician. She ruled for five years from the newly fortified capital at Stafford, and under her reign, it is likely that the English county of Staffordshire first came into being. She fortified her existing borders and re-took Derby. She died in 918, and is buried at Gloucester. She was joint lady of the Mercians along with her young daughter Aelfwynn, who was later deposed by King Edward the Elder, Æthelflæd's brother. She was daughter of King Alfred of Wessex and lived (872-918).

914-919 Regent Dowager Empress Zoë Karbonopsina of The Byzantine Empire (Covering what is now Greece and Turkey)
The fourth wife of Leon IV, who died 912. After his death the guardian of her son, but Constantinos VII (b. 905) sent her to a convent. She later managed to become regent for son, but was deposed in 919.

915-16 Regent Dowager Margravine Bertha of Lothringa of Lucca, Torino and Piemont and Tuscia (Toscana) (Italy)
Her first husband was Theobald d'Arles and with him she had Hugh II of Italy. Her second husband was Adalbert II of Toscana, and after his death, she was regent for their son, Guido. She was daughter of Lothair II, King of Lotharingia and his mistress, Waldrada, and lived (863-925).

915-ca. 19 Regent Dowager Countess Alberada of Hainault (Belgium)
After the death of her second husband, Reginar I Langhals of Hainault, she was regent for son Reginar II (ca. 895-after 932). Her first husband seems to have been Duke of Lorraine, with whom she had a daughter. Alberada (d. after 919).

916-23 Mahrajadhiraja Parmesvari Dandi Mahadevi of Kara in Tosala and Kongoda (India)
Succeeded mother and was succeeded by her stepmother Vakula Mahadevi, who ruled until ca. 950.

918-20 Sovereign Lady Ælfwyn of Mercians (United Kingdom)
Also known as Aelfwynn, she succeeded her mother, Lady Æthelflæd. Chroniclers have noticed the right of Aelfwynn so precisely as to leave no doubt concerning her claim; and this fact is of considerable value in showing that, contrary to the practice of other Teutonic nations, the sovereign authority amongst the Anglo-Saxons might descend to a female. But her uncle, King Edward of Wessex, occupied the town and received the submission of the Mercians, and in December of the same year, he deprived her "of all authority among the Mercians" and took her away to Wessex, where she seems to have spent the rest of her life in a nunnery. (d. 1007?).

Around 920 Sovereign Dame Ava of Auvergne (France)
Married to Geoffroy II de Gastinas, she lived (895-942).

921 Regent Dowager Duchess Ludmila of Bohemia (Czech Republic)
Widow of Prince Borivoj, the first Christian ruler of the area. She raised her oldest grandson, Wenceslas as a Christian, and her daughter-in-law raised the younger, Boleslav, as a pagan. After the death of her son, Bratislav I, the anti-Christian Faction attempted to seize control, but she urged Wenceslas, who was around 13, to take power in the name of Christianity. She acted as regent, but her daughter-in-law, Drahomira, had her strangled. She became a martyr and was later declared a saint.

921-22 Reigning Dowager Duchess Drahomira von Stöder of Bohemia
926-28 Regent of the Duchy
A non-Christian, she was widow of Bratislav I, she became regent for son, Wenceslaus, after having had his grandmother, Ludmilla, strangled. A civil war broke out between the Christian and non-Christian factions. Drahomira continued as regent for a couple of years, and (d. 935).

922-33 Sovereign Countess Andregoto Galíndez de Galicia of Aragón (Spain)
Succeeded her father Galindo II Aznar. Caliph Abd al-Rahman III forced her husband, King García III Sanchez of Navarra to repudiate her under the peace terms negotiated with Sunyer Conde de Barcelona in 940, as part of his strategy of dividing the alliances between the various Christian kingdoms and counties in the peninsula.

923-934 Politically Influential Queen Emma of France
Very politically active and an army leader during the reign of her husband king Raoul of Bourgogne (921-36). She was daughter of Robert I, Count and Paris (892-93) and King of France (922-23) and his first wife, Aeis. Their only son died young, and she (d. 934).

926 Regent Dowager Empress Shulü Hatun of Qidan (China and of Mongolia)
Also known as Khatun Shu-lü Shih of Purtmish. She was married to the founder of the Khitan state was A-buo-qi (872-926), later known as Emperor Taizu of the Liao, who reigned (907-26). She helped him ambush and murder the other chiefs when they went to buy salt from his Chinese "tribes". She had been a great power during her husband’s lifetime. Early in his reign, she had devised a plan for him to murder some of the tribal chiefs who opposed him. Later she established her own military camp, commanded her own army of 200.000 horsemen with which she maintained order when A-buo-qi was away on campaign and even organized campaigns against rival tribes. After his death, she took control of all military and civil affairs. When the time of his internment came, she refused to be buried with him according to custom although more than 300 persons were buried in his mausoleum. She disapproved of the choice of their oldest son, Bei, as Emperor and managed to set him aside in favour of her other son, Deguang (902-47). She acted as regent and remained in firm control and exercised great influence for many years to come. After Deguangs death in 947, Bei’s eldest son, Yelu Yuan (918-51), declared himself emperor, but she opposed this and supported the claim of her third son, Lihu. She sent her youngest son with an army to block Yuan’s return to the capital. When the army was defeated, the old lady led her own army to confront her grandson, the new emperor.

926-28 Senatrix Theodora II of Rome and Umbria (Italy)
Succeeded husband. Very powerful in the Papal State as the mistress of Pope John X (914–28). Succeeded by daughter Senatrix Marozia, whose son by Pope Sergius III became Pope John XI in 928.

927-30 Regent Dowager Queen Oneca de Navarra of León (Spain)
Ruled in the name of her son, Alfonso IV (926-31) who abdicated.

928-32/37 Senatrix Marozia I of Rome and Umbria (Italy)
Daughter of the Roman consul Theophylact and his wife Theodora II, Marozia was strongly influenced by her mother who controlled Roman politics and the papacy in what has been called the “pornocracy.” The mistress of Pope Sergius III (904–11), Marozia married, in succession, Albert I of Spoleto (d. 926), Guido of Tuscany (d. 929), and Hugh of Provence, to help maintain her political control. Marozia received the titles “senatrix” and “patricia” from her mother's lover Pope John X (914–28); she nevertheless had him put to death in 928 in order to install her favourite candidates in papal office (including one of her sons as Pope John XI; 931–35). In 932, Albert II of Spoleto, a son of her first marriage, who had her imprisoned until her death, overthrew Marozia. She lived (892–ca.937).

929-46 Metropolitana Editha of England of Magdeburg (Germany)
Given Magdeburg as her dowry after the marriage to Otto I, Duke of Sachsen and Thuringen (936-73) and King of Germany (936-62), of Italy (961-73) and Emperor (962-73). Also known as Eadgyth, Edgith or Edgitha, she was daughter of Edmund I of Wessex, King of England (939-46) and St. Elgiva, and mother of 2 sons and 1 daughter. (d. 946).

Until 931 Co-Regent Margravine Ermengard di Lucca of Ivrea (Italy)
Daughter of Adalbert II of Tuszia and Berta, illegitimate daughter of king Lothar II. As co-regent she secured the Italian throne for her brother, Hugo d’Arle, against the claims of Raoul II de Haute-Bourgogne.

933-ca. 39 Regent Dowager Princess Toda Nzhar Aznárez of Pamplona (Spain)
Named as "domna Tota regina" in the Codex de Roda. After the death of her husband, King Sancho II García of Navarre, her brother-in-law, Jimeno García, first became regent son for her son, García III Sänchez (ca. 919-970). When he died 931 he was followed by Íñigo García, but in 933 she forced him out and installed herself as regent. Caliph Abd al-Rahman III invaded Navarre once more in 934, obliging her to submit to Córdoba, release Muslim hostages and break with the other Christian kingdoms of the peninsula, although her son was recognised as king by the caliph. She broke the peace unilaterally in 937, but was defeated once more by the Muslims. She then allied herself with Ramiro II King of León and Fernán González Conde de Castilla, their combined forces defeating the caliph's troops at Alhandega/al-Khandaq, near Simancas in 939. She was daughter of Aznar Sánchez de Larraún and Oneca Íñiga Fortún de Pamplona, who had first been married to the later Abd Allah I of Córdoba, and who was daughter of Fortún García, King of Pamplona. She lived (Ca. 855-after 970).

934 Hereditary Countess Arsinde of Carcasconne and Razes (France)
Her husband Arnaud de Comminges became count after her father, Acfred III's death

936-66 "Regent" Queen Mathilda of Quedlinburg (Germany)
Widow of Emperor Heinrich I; she was also Head of the Chapters of Winithusen, Nordhausen, Richeberg and Pölden. Later declared a saint. (d. 968).

Around 940 Mahrajadhiraja Parmesvari Vakula Mahadevi of Kara in Tosala and Kongoda (India)
Second widow of Santikara III, she succeeded stepdaughter, Dandi Mahadevi, and was succeeded by Dharma Mahadevi another widow of Santikara - III.

Until 942 Hereditary Duchess Ermengarde II of Basse-Bourgogne (France)
The daughter of Richard le Justicier, Duke of Burgundy (952), she married her cousin married Gilbert de Chalon (ca. 900-56), count d'Atun, Chalon, Beaune et Dijon in 938. Mother of two daughters who divided the inheritance. Liégarde became Duchesse de Bourgogne and Adélaide Countess d'Auxerre etc. in ca. 956 Ermengarde lived (ca. 905-42).

945-55 Regent Dowager Grand Duchess Olga of Kiev and Novgorod (Russia)
Took over the government for son Svyatoslav after the murder of her husband, Grand Duke Igor I, in 945. In 957, she was baptized while on a trip to Constantinople. Although she worked hard to persuade other Russians to adopt her new faith, the mass conversion of Russians to Christianity did not occur until after the baptism in 988 of her grandson, Grand Prince Vladimir. Later declared a saint, she lived (ca. 890-969).

945-59 Co-ruler Empress Helena Lecapena of the Byzantine Empire (Covering what is now Greece and Turkey)
Married to Emperor Constantine VII Porphyrogenitu (913-59), who raised her father, Romanus Lecapenus, to the rank of Cesar and the status of co-emperor of the Eastern Roman Empire and actual ruler of the state. In 944 two sons deposed him, but they were executed, and finally Constantine took over the reigns himself - though with heavy guidance from Helena. She retired to a convent after her husband's death, to please his son, Romanus, who was under the spell of his wife, Theophano.

946-55 Politically Influential Dowager Queen Edgiva of England
Also known as Eadgifu, she was a dominant force during the reign of her son Edred (924-46-46), who came on the throne when his older brother, Edmund the Magnificent was murdered in 946. She was the third wife of King Edward of Wessex (Ca. 871-88-924). She was daughter of Sigehelm, Ealdrman of Kent, mother of 4 children, and lived (905-68)

947-ca. 75 Regent Dowager Sri Isanatunggavijaya of East Java (Indonesia)
Succeeded father, Mpu Sindok (929-47).

949 Hereditary Duchess Ida of Schwaben (Germany)
Heiress of her father Hermann I von Schwaben and Regilinda, she was married to Liudolf, the son of Emperor Otto I, who became Duke of Swabia. Mother of Duke Otto I of Bavaria and Schwabia and Abbess Mathilde of Essen (949-965-1011). Ida was German first Lady after the death of Queen Egith until Otto I married Adelheid of Bourgogne, and lived (ca. 932/34-86).

From ca. 949 Mahrajadhiraja Parmesvari Dharma Mahadevi of Kara in Tosala and Kongoda (India)
The third widow of Santikara III to rule the kingdom, she was the last ruler of Bhaumkara dynasty, which came under the grip of Somavamsis, and later migrated to Indonesia.

Ca. 949-76 Politically Influential Queen Jelena of Croatia
Influential both during the reign of her husband, Mihovil Kresimir II, and of her son, Stjepan Drzislav (969-997). In the decription on her tomb-stone it says that she managed to obtain peace in the kingdom "...she who, during her lifetime, was the mother of the kingdom, has now become the mother of the poor and the Protectress of widows. When thou looketh here, o man, say: Lord, have mercy on her soul!" (949-969).

950-58 De-facto Ruler Rani Didda of Kashmir, Yassakara and Parvagupta (India)
958-80/81 Regent Dowager Rani
981-1004 Rani Regnant
Took part in the government during the whole reign of her husband Kshmagupta, and afterwards she was regent for her son Abhimanyu, and thereafter sole ruler in her own right after killing her three grandsons. She eventually handed over the throne to her maternal family from Lohara in undisputed, peaceful succession. Didda was able to transform herself from a comparatively unsure and politically naive persona into a ruthless, decisive and ambitious one, and her alternate bribe-and-placation policy helped in quelling rebellions.

Around 950 Queen Regnant Gokare of Kuba (Congo)
Settlers gradually drifted into the Kuba region between 1000 and 1500, initially forming small communities.

Around 950 Queen Regnant Yehudit of the Falasha Agaw (Ethiopia)
Also known as Yodit, Esato or Judith, she attacked the Christian southern provinces of Ethiopia as far as the mountains of Tigre around 975. The Ethiopians saw her invasion as a punishment for having failed to be obedient to their Coptic patriarch. While the Agaw held power, the Amhara and Tegre culture entered a "dark age" about which little is known, and a large part of the Ethiopian civilization was lost or destroyed during this time.

954-ca. 59 Regent Dowager Queen Gerberga von Sachsen of France
In 939 her first husband, Duke Giselbert of Lorraine, died and she married Louis IV of France, who also became ruler of Lorraine in spite of the opposition from her brother-in-law Hugo of Francien, husband of her sister, Hadwig. In 954 Louis died, and she managed to secure the election of her son, Lothar III as king of France and she took over the regency. The contemporary sources describe her as a highly educated, intelligent and forceful player in the political game of the time. Mother of around 10 children, she lived (913-69).

954-55 and 976-77 Countess Regnant Gunnhilda Erlandsdatter of Orkney (United Kingdom)
Reigned jointly with Ragnfred (954-55), Godfred (955-57) and Thorfinn I Skullsplitter (Ca. 957-77). For six hundred years Orkney was dominated by the Norse, initially invaders and then settlers from Western Norway, who rapidly colonized the islands and then went on to build the Earldom which at its peak controlled much of the west coast of Scotland, the Isle of Man, Caithness and Sutherland.

955-66 Regent Dowager Duchess Judith of Bavaria (Germany)
Daughter of Duke Arnulf of Bavaria. Married to Heinrich, a son of Heinrich I of Germany, who became duke of Bavaria in 948. After his death, she was regent for their son, Heinrich II using the title of Dux et Domina or Dux dominaque. 966-74 she was on a pilgrimage to Jerusalem, and afterwards she retired to the Chapter of Niedermünster in Regensburg. (d. after 985).

956-58 Regent Dowager Duchess Hadwig von Sachsen of Francia (Germany)
After the death of her husband, Hugo of Francia/Franzien, she was in charge of the Robertine Inheritance. In 957 she aided her brother, Brun of Köln in his fight against Reginar III von Haiault. She was daughter of King Heinrich I and Mathilde.

956-87 Sovereign Countess Adélaïde I Wéra de Chalon of Auxerre Chalons-sur-Saône and Beaune (France)
Adelaide was daughter of Gilbert de Chalon and Ermengarde II de Bourgogne. She first married to Robert I de Vermandois (ca. 910-967), Comte de Meaux, comte d'Auxerre et de Chalon and secondly Lambert de Chalon (ca.930-979) comte de Chalon et d'Autun (ca. 945). Her sister, Liégarde inherited Bourgogne. Adélaide Wéra lived (ca. 928-89).

Around 956 Hereditary Countess Liégarde de Vergy of Bourgogne (France)
Heiress of her mother, Ermengarde II de Bourgogne, and her husband, Eudes of France, became Duke of Bourgogne. They did not have any children. Her sister, Adélaide inherited Auxerre and Chalons.

Around 959 Senatrix Marozia II of Rome (Italy)
Daughter of Theodora II (sister of Marozia I). Before the death of Prince Albericht II she does not appear to have used the title, because he wanted to be the only one with the title of senator. Married to Theophylakt and mother of Gregorio I, Count of Tuskulum.

960-64 and 1103-11 Countess Tota Ramon of Pallars-Ribagorza (Spain)
Co-regent with Isaro in the first period - in the second she ruled alone.

961-62 De-facto in charge of the Government Dowager Empress Mathilde von Sachsen of Germany
Had withdrawn to the convent of Quedlinburg which she founded after the death of her husband, King Heinrich I in 936, but took over the reigns in Germany when her son, Otto I, went to Italy after having appointed his infant son, the later Otto II as regent. She had devoted her time to charity and founder of numerous convents and she was later declared a saint (Mathilde die Heilige). She was mother of 3 sons and 2 daughters (among whom Geberga was regent in the West-Frankish kingdom from 954), and lived (ca. 895-968).

963-69 Regent Dowager Empress Theophano of The Byzantine Empire (Covering what is now Greece and Turkey)
Very powerful during the reign of her husband, Emperor Romanos II (959-63) and regent for sons Basileios II and Constantinos VIII. Married to the Field Marshall Nikephoros Phokas, who was emperor 963-69. He was deposed by Jean Tzimikskes who married Theodora, daughter of Theophano.

966-75 Regent Doña Elvira Ramírez of León and Asturias (Spain)
The daughter of Ramiro II, she left the convent take over the regency for her nephew, Ramiro III, after the death of her brother, Sancho I. She made treaties with Caliph Al-Hahen II and organised the defence against the Normans In 968-69. In 975 her sister-in-law, the Dowager Queen Teresa, replaced her as regent.

966-99 Princess-Abbess Mathilde I von Sachsen of Quedlinburg (Germany)
997-99 Guardian of the Realm of the Holy Roman Empire
Daughter of Emperor Otto I, she was appointed the first Princess-Abbess - Reichsäbtissin - of Quedlinburg. She also acted as "domina imperialis", and followed her brother Otto II on journey to Italy and acted regent with the title of Matica (Reichsverweserin) for her nephew, Otto III during his stay in Italy. She was also named as his representative in Sachsen with the additional titles of Metropolitana of Quedlinburg and Matrixcia of Sachsen (Substitute and Representative of the Emperor). She lived (955-999).

967-84 Politically Influential Dowager Empress Anshi of Japan
After the death of her husband, Emperor Murakami she was very influential during the reign of her sons, and was the mother of the Tennos Reizei (967-969) and En-yu (969-984).

Until 970 Sovereign Princess Alan-Goa of the Hori-Tumat Dynasty in Mongolia
Succeeded by Prince Bodonchar.

973-75 Joint Ruler Queen Ælfthryth of England
978-84 Regent Dowager Queen
Sources indicated that after her consecration she was considered to been sharing the royal lordship with her husband, King Edgar, who was first succeeded by his son of the first marriage, Edward, then by a brother, and finally by his son by Ælfthryth, Edmund II Ironside (968-78-1016), and was in charge of the government during his minority, and continued to be a dominant force after he came of age.

973-1021 Sovereign Countess Adela van Hamaland (The Netherlands)
Oldest daughter of the rich and powerful count Wichman II van Hamaland (Achterhoek), who ruled (952-973) and first married to Immed (d. ca. 983), who was either a Count or Noble from Utrecht, with whom she had 5 children. After his death she continued to rule and made coins in her own name - it is not clear if she did it in the function as regent for her son Dirk. Her father had granted much of the family possessions to the Women's Chapter of Elten, where her oldest sister Liutgard became the first Abbess.. In 973 the Emperor made it an Abbey of the Realm, just as Quedlinburg, Essen en Gandersheim and it was placed directly under the protection of the Emperor and it was granted immunity from the jurisdiction of the count and local potentates. But Adela was determined to make sure that her part of the inheritance did not also fall into the hand of the church and she engaged in a fight with her sister and after her death around 995 with the Chapter. Her marriage to Balderik (d. 1021) had the purpose of getting back the part of her inheritance that had fallen to the Abbey. And in 996 it did come to the redistribution of a large number of lands. But she was not content. Just after the death of Otto III she and Balderik occupied the territory of Elten for the second time, but had to leave it on the command of Emperor Henrik II. She was blamed for the murder of Wichman van Vreden; one of their most important opponents, her husband escaped and her castle was put under siege. She was allowed to escape with her possessions before it was set on fire. She lived (ca. 952 –after 1021)

975-80 Regent Dowager Queen Teresa Ansúrez of León and Asturias (Spain)
The widow of Sanchos I, she replaced her sister in law, Princess Elvira as regent for son, Ramiros II, after his troops was beaten by the Arab forces by Gormaz in 975. From 977 the kingdom was systematically attacked by al Mansur, and in 981 Ramiros was deposed after a riot, and replaced by Vermundo II in Asturias, and was now only king in Leon until he was deposed here too, and killed.

976-86 Regent Subh of Cordova (Spain)
Also known as Sabiha Malika Qurtuba or Sobeida, and was born as a Christian with the name of Aurora, she was concubine of Caliph Hakam, and de-facto ruler during his reign, since he, especially during his later years, retreated to religious contemplation. After his death ruled in the name of their son, Hishram Ibn al Hakram. In 966 she appointed Ibn 'Amir was her secretary and in 976 she appointed him Hajib - chief of viziers. In 997 he ended up deposing her from influence.

Around 976 Politically Influential Dowager Queen of Persia (Iran)
Together with vizier Abu'l-Husain 'Abd-Allah ibn Ahmad 'Utbi, she assisted her son, Nuh II ibn Mansur, of the Samanid Dynasty (d. 997) who ascended to the throne as a youth.

978-94 Queen Gurandukht of Abkhazia (Georgia)
Ascended to the throne after the death of Theodosius III the Blind and reigned jointly with king Bagrat III Bagrationi the Unifier (King of Georgia 1008-14) of the mountainous district along the east coast of the Black Sea.

978-87 Regent Dowager Duchess Beatrx von Franzien of Upper Lorraine (France)
Not very politically active during the reign of her husband, Friederich, but after his death she took over the regency for her son, Dietrich I as "Dux" of Lotharingia. After the death of Otto II she supported the Empresses Adelheid and Theophano and the candidature of the minor Otto III against other candidates and as reward her younger son, Adalberto vas first named Bishop of Verdun and the of Metz. 985 she participated in the "Colloquium dominarum" in Metz together with Queen Emma of France, the German Empresses and her sister-in-law, Adelheid, the wife of Hugo Capets, and Heinrich dem Zänker, which settled the dispute conserning Lorraine. From teil. Die Zusammenkunft bezweckte einen Ausgleich der Spannungen und Auseinandersetzungen in und um Lothringen. For the rest of her time in office, she was very engaged in diplomatic activites with France and the Empire.

978/80-92 Politically Active Princess Oda of Poland
Second wife of prince Mieszko I. After his death in 992 she fought for the power for her 3 sons (Mieszko, Lambert and Świętopełk) with her stepson, Bolesław I Chrobry. She lost. Since 992 she lived in Germany. Some historians suggested, that Mieszko appointed her in 992 a regent. She lived (955-1023).

979-80 Regent Dowager Empress Duong Thai Hau of Vietnam
As her son Dinh Phe De succeeded to the throne, the Chinese Song army approached the Vietnamese boarder and she allied herself with the mandarin in charge of military affairs Le Hoan, who quickly became her lover and they set up a scenario which resulted in downgrading the young king and promoting Le Hoan to the throne as Emperor Le Dai Hanh and soon demonstrated his capacity as an intelligent leader and a talented politician and ruled until 1005.

Ca. 980-1000 Queen Regnant Gudit of Bani al-Hamusa of Demot (Ethiopia)
Attacked the Aksumite Dynasty ruling Ethiopia. She was probably Jewish. It is not quite clear where Bahi al-Hamusa was situated, but it was described as south of the Nile and South-west of Shava.

980-1027 Politically Influential Empress Fujiwara Senshi of Japan
One of the most influential actors in court life, and favored her brother Michinaga over other contenders for the post, for the position of regent after her son, Ichijo, became Emperor.

981 Regent Hint bint Ishaq of Thama (Arabia)
Today Thama is a city on the coast of Saudia Arabia in the Arab Gulf.

981-991 Regent Dowager Duchess Aloara of Benevento and Capua (Italy)
After the death of her husband, Pandolfo II, she reigned in the name of their son, Pandolfo II (981-1014). She lived (ca. 930-993).

982-1003 Queen Regnant Xiao Shi of Qidan (China and of Mongolia)
Also known as Yanyan, Yeye, Xiao, Xiaotaihou, Xiao-niangniang or Chengtian, she was influential during the reign of her husband, the Khan Ye-lu Hsien (969-1009) and first regent for their son, son Ye-lu Lung Su, (b. 971) In 986 the kingdom was attacked by the army of the emperor T'ai-tsung of China, but the general Ye-lu Hipu-ko defeated the Chinese and threw the retreating troops into the Sha River. In 989 the Chinese again tried to overcome the Qidans but were defeated. She was an excellent civil administrator and a military commander with her own army with 10.000 cavalry. Even when she was over 60 in 1005 she commanded armies in the field against the Song remained influential until her death. She lived (932-1009).

983 Regent Dowager Empress Adelheid in Italy
985-94 Regent of the Holy Roman Empire
As the widow of Duke Lothar of Burgundy, she married to Otto I at the age of 20. He let her control the lands she brought into the marriage, and even added some he owned. In 976 and 985 she Presided over the hearings of the Royal Court in Italy. When her husband died, she became regent for her son Otto II, who included her in his decrees, arriving at decisions "with the advice of my pious and dearest mother." After her son's death she became joint regent with her daughter-in-law, Theophano, for the 3 year old, Otto III, and after Theophano died, Adelaide became sole regent. After he came of age at the age of 14, she lived in a nunnery using the title "Adelheida, by God's gift Empress, by herself a poor sinner and God's maidservant”. She lived (931-999)

983-91 Regent Dowager Empress Theophano of the Holy Roman Empire
A Byzantine Princess who at the age of seventeen was given to the young Saxon emperor Otto II and crowned Coimperatrix as the only German Empress and Consors Regni. Though elegant and a delicate beauty, she was high-spirited and a superb politician who brought with her an intimate knowledge of the intricacies of court life. When her husband died, leaving her with a three-year-old son, she took the title "Imperator Augustus" and defended her son Otto III’s title for seven years from those who challenged him. For seven years Theophano with tact and firmness administered the empire in her son's name. A contemporary called her "a woman of discreet and firm character...with truly masculine strength." Sometimes she used the male title "imperator Augustus, and lived (ca.955-991)

984-89 Queen Sri Vijayamahadevi of Bali (Indonesia)
Succeeded by the joint rulers King Dharmaudayanavarmadewa (989-1011) and Queen Gunapriyadharmapatni (989-1007).

985-1016 Politically Influential Princess Kunadavai of Chola (India)
Influential during the reign of her brother, king Rajaraja I (985-1016). Her intelligence and goodness inspired so much respect among the people that they called her Ilayapirathi. Later in history we will also know her as a woman who brought up Rajarajan's son, King Rajendra Chola, and inspired him to achieve greatness.

986-87 Regent Dowager Queen Emma of France
Daughter of Lothaire III of Italy and Germany and Adélaide who later married Otto I of Germany. Emma took over the regency after the death of her husband King Lothaire as guardian for son Louis V, who was king from 26th of march 986 till 18th May the following year.

987-1003 Regent Dowager Countess Rozala-Suzanna d'Ivera of Flanderes/Vlaanderen (Belgium)
Her first husband was Roy Robert II de Cabet, and the second Arnulf van Vlaanderen (Flanders). Regent for son Boudewijn IV. She lived (ca. 955-1003).

987-96 Joint Ruler Queen Alais d'Aquitaine of France
Also known as Adèle, she was married to Hugues Capet, and reigned jointly with him, and after his death 996 she also seems to have played a political role during the beginning of the reign of her son, Robert II. She was daughter of Guillaume II and Adèle de Normandie, and lived (ca. 945-1004/06).

988-1047 Sovereign Countess Adelise I d'Anjou I of Soissons (France)
Also known as Adelaide, she took over the reigns after the death of her husband, Guy I, and lived (968-1047).

989-1007 Queen Regnant Guanpriyadharmapatni of Bali (Indonesia)
Joint ruler with King Dharmaudayanavarmadewa (989-1011).

Until ca. 992 Sovereign Countess Mathilde of Chiny (Belgium)
Until his death in 982, she ruled jointly with Arnold I Lahngau and 971-1013 with Otto I de Warcq.

993-1005 Regent Dowager Countess Liudgard von Luxembourg of Holland and Westfriesland (The Netherlands)
Widow of Arnulf and in charge of the regency for son Dirk III. She wad daughter of Siegfried of Luxembourg and Hadwig, sister of Empress Kunigunde. She lived (960/65-1005).

995-1040 Sovereign Countess Adélaide de France of Auxerre (France)
Granddaughter of Hugues le Grand, in succession to his illegitimate son, Herbert. Reigned jointly with husband, Renaud I de Nevers, who died 1040. From then on to 1060 the county was occupied by Burgundy.

995 Possible Regent Dowager Queen Gunhild of Poland of Sweden
It is not known for certain that she was actually the wife of King Erik, who might have been married to Sigrid Storråda, but she might have acted as regent for son, king Olof Skötkonung. Since 996 she was possibly married to Svend Forkbeard king of Denmark and political active until their divorce in 1000. In 996 she lead to an alliance between Denmark and Sweden. Daughter of prince of Poland Mieszko I and Dobrawa, she was originally named Princess Świętosława–Sygryda, mother of several children with both husbands, and lived (968/72-after 1014).

996-1001 Consors Imperii Sophie von Sachsen of the Holy Roman Empire
1001-39 Reigning Abbess of Gandersheim, Abbess of Essen and Vreden
Daughter of Otto II, and joined the Chapter of Gandersheim at the age of four, and aided her brother, Otto III in the politics of the Holy Roman Empire, 994 she took part in the Reichstag of Sohlingen, and went with him to Rome in 996, and she actually functioned as the First Lady at Court, as "Consors Imperii". After Otto's death she and her sister, Abbess Adelheid of Quedlinburg participated in the "Assembly of the Great of Sachsen" in the Pfalz Werla, which chose their cousin, Heinrich IV of Bayern as the new king under the name of Heinrich II, and they both took part in his coronation. She had been elected Abbess in 1001 but was in dispute with the Bishop of Hillesheim. Also Heinrich's successor, Konrad, made contact with the two Princesses after his election because of their high rank and stature in the Empire. Sophie was also Abbess of Essen and Vreden. She lived (975-1039).

997-1028/29 Regent for the Caliph-Governor Sayuda Sirin Hatyn of Gabal of Persia
Reigned in the name of first her son and then for grandson, both of the Bayide Dynasty

997-1028 Regent Dowager Khanum Sayyida of Ray (Iran)
997-1016 Regent of Hamadan
Also known as Seyyedh, she became regent after the death of her husband, the Buyid Amir Fakhr al-Daula, for two sons in two principalities, Abu Taleb Rostam in of Ray and Abu Taher in Hamadan. They both declared themselves independent and assumed the title of Shâhanshâh, but by 1009 or 1010 at the latest had recognized the authority of Baha' al-Daula, who controlled Fars and Iraq, and abandoned the title. In 1006 or 1007, with the assistance of the vizier Abu 'Ali ibn 'Ali, the oldest son attempted to throw off her regency, but she escaped to the Kurd Abu Najr Badr ibn Hasanuya, and together with her younger son they put Ray under siege. After several battles, the city was taken and the older son, Abu Taleb Rostam, who was also known as Majd al-Daula was imprisoned him in the fort of Tabarak, while her younger son took to power in Ray. After a year, the oldest son was released and reinstated in Ray; the younger returned to Hamadan. And she continued to hold power. Gorgan and Tabaristan had been lost to the Ziyarids in 997, while several of the western towns were seized by the Sallarids of Azerbaijan. There were also internal troubles, such as a revolt in 1016 or 1017. Towards the end of her life, she had to prevent her younger son from seizing Ray from his brother, but after her death, he was deposed. (d. 1028).

997 Regent Dowager Queen Sarolta of Transylvania of Hungary
Also known as Sarolt or Beleknegini (White Princess). According to contemporary sources, she took over the regency for her teenage son, István I, after the death of her husband, Géza. A relative of her husband claimed the throne and demanded that she married him, but she resisted. She was daughter of the Prince of Transylvania or Sibenbürgen, and lived (ca. 955-ca. 1008).

999-1008 Regent Dowager Queen Elivra García of León (Spain)
After the death of her husband, Bermudo II (953-84-99), she was joint-regent with Mendos Gonzales for son Alfonso V (989-999-1028). Born as Princess of Castilla and lived (965-1017)

999-1043 Princess-Abbess Adelheid I von Sachsen of Quedlinburg
1014-43 Reigning Abbess of Gernrode, Froshe, Vreden
1039-43 Reigning Abbess of Gandersheim (Germany)
Daughter of Emperor Otto II and Theophano. Already as a child her aunt, Mathilde, had placed her in the Chapter of Quedlinburg. In 984 she was taken hostage by Heinrich of Bavaria, who wanted to be king of Germany and saw the seven year old girl as a possible tool, since she had been considered a candidate for the succession in the event of her brother's death, but she was liberated by a large Saxon force Her nieces were also Abbesses: Sophia of Gandersheim, Ida of Sankt Marias Köln, Hedwig of Neuss, Theophano of Nevilles and Mathilda of Villach und Didenkirchen. Adelheid lived (977-1043 or 1045).
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Postby ali5196 » Fri Feb 29, 2008 10:17 pm

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Postby ali5196 » Fri Feb 29, 2008 10:23 pm

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Postby ali5196 » Thu Aug 25, 2011 4:51 am

http://www.antisharia.com/2011/08/20/th ... h-century/
http://www.antisharia.com/2011/08/12/sh ... -of-egypt/

August 20, 2011

Dalam sejarah yahudi pra abad 20, sudah ada tiga wanita yang memimpin bangsa Yahudi, TAPI ... pernahkah ada wanita Muslim yang sukses jadi Kalif/Kalifa? Mimpi teruzzz yah!

Muslim sering membual bahwa sebelum abad 20, satu wanita Muslim (Ya!! Cuma SATU!). Namanya adalah Shajarat al-Durr, Sultana Mesir. Wanita yang nasibnya beranjak dari budak sex ke Sultana. TAPi yang tidak akan disebutkan Muslim adalah bahwa ia hanya berkuasa selama dua-tiga bulan dan ditumbangkan karena ---- ia seorang wanita. ADUUUHHHH .. kasiman deh!

Tapi memang benar bahwa ada 25 wanita Muslim pra abad 20 lainnya yang menjadi penguasa. TAPI yang tidak disebutkan Muslim adalah mereka ini hanya berkuasa ditempat terpencil di:

1. sebuah kawasan kecil disekitar Bhopal di India (5 kasus)

2. kawasan kecil di Maladewa (3 kasus)

3. kawasan kecil di Pattani di Thailand Selatan (6 kasus)

4.kawasan kecil Aceh di Indonesia (Cut Nya Dien cs)

5.kawasan kecil Kelantan di Malaysia(2 kasus)

6.kawasan kecil Tatar, Sultanat Kasim di Russia (kasus Fatima Soltan, berkuasa tahun 1679-1681)

Yah, ini cuma areal2 mungil dan tidak bisa dibandingkan dengan wilayah seperti Hungaria, Polandia, Portugal (mencakup daerah jajahan Brazil), Russia, Scandinavia dll.


Untuk waktu lama Yahudi dikuasai oleh hakim2 yang bukan raja2. Salah seorang adalah wanita yagn berkuasa atas semua oragn Yahudi.

Setelah penjajahan Kanaan oleh Joshua sampai kerajaan Israel pertama (1150-1025 BC), ke 12 suka Yahudi membentuk sebuah federasi. Tidak ada pemerintahan pusat dan konfederasi ini dan dalam masa2 krisis, dipimpin oleh orang2 yang dikenal sebagai hakim2.

Tokoh yang Ditunjuk Khusus oleh YHW
Dipercaya bahwa status hakim adalah karena Tuhan sendiri yang memilih mereka untuk menyelamatkan pengikutnya. Nah, disini kita bisa lihat sendiri bahwa Tuhan memilih seorang wanita sbg pemimpin tertinggi bangsa Yahudi.

Kasus Deborah

Dalam Injil PL, Hakim-Hakim 4, Deborah adalah seorang istri dan bukan janda. Tapi ia tetap sempat berkuasa dan bahkan mengeluarkan perintah2 militer.

Hakim-Hakim 4:4-7:
”Debora, a prophetess, the wife of Lappidoth, was leading Israel at that time. She held court under the Palm of Deborah between Ramah and Bethel in the hill country of Ephraim, and the Israelites came to her to have their disputes decided.

She sent for Barak son of Abinoam from Kedesh in Naphtali and said to him, ” The LORD, the God of Israel, commands you: ‘Go, take with you ten thousand men of Naphtali and Zebulun and lead the way to Mount Tabor. I will lure Sisera, the commander of Jabin’s army, with his chariots and his troops to the Kishon River and give him into your hands.’ ”

Athaliah,Supreme Ruler of the Kingdom of Judah for 6 Years

In Hebrew Athaliah means “God is exalted”.She was the queen of Judah,with Jerusalem as its capital, during the reign of King Jehoram, and later became sole ruler of Judah for six years,her reign being from 842–837 BC,

Athaliah is usually considered the daughter of King Ahab of the kingdom of Israel,with Samaria as its capital,and Queen Jezebel.Her marriage to Jehoram sealed a treaty between Israel and Judah.Jehoram, a descendant of King David, actively promoted the worship of Yahweh in his country, but he tolerated Athaliah’s worship of Baal. After Jehoram’s death, their son Ahaziah became Judah’s king with Athaliah acting as queen mother. She used her power in that role to establish the worship of Baal in Judah after Ahaziah was killed in a state visit to Israel along with the then-king of Israel, also named Jehoram, who was Athaliah’s brother.

Jehu assassinated them both in Yahweh’s name and had Athaliah’s entire extended family in Israel murdered.Athaliah, as queen of Judah, tried to have all possible successors to Ahaziah executed; one, however,a grandson of hers named Joash was rescued from the by Jehosheba, Ahaziah’s sister, and was raised in secret by the priest Jehoiada. Six years later, Athaliah was surprised when Jehoiada revealed Joash and proclaimed him king of Judah. She rushed to stop this rebellion, but was captured and executed.

In 1691,the second greatest French dramatist after Moliere, Jean Racine wrote a play about her called Athalie.

Salome Alexandra(139-67),another Supreme Ruler of the Jews for 9 Years

She was wife of king Aristobulus I of the Hasmonean dynasty, and afterward of Alexander Janneus,she was the last woman ruler of Judaea, and the last ruler of ancient Judaea to die as the ruler of an independent kingdom.

On Aristobulus’ death in 103 BC Salome Alexandra liberated his brother Alexander Jannaeus, who had been held in prison.Alexander Janneus became king and married her.

When Alexander Janneus died she became supreme ruler and ruled till her death in 67 BC. Alexandra was supporter of the Pharisees and she acquired their help.But her husband had been a cruel persecutor of the Pharisees and Alexandra does not seem to have been able to prevent the cruel persecution.The married life of the two seems to have ended cordially; on his deathbed Alexander entrusted the government, not to his sons, but to his wife.

Alexandra installed as high priest her eldest son, Hyrcanus II a man wholly after the heart of the Pharisees and the Sanhedrin was reorganized according to their wishes.The sanhedrin became a supreme court for the administration of justice and religious matters and was in the control of the Pharisees.She was a well-loved,pious woman, greatly admired. Check her out here:

http://www.chabad.org/library/article_c ... xandra.htm

Related posts:
1.30 or More Christian Women as Supreme Rulers in Europe before the 20th Century,from Portugal to Russia,Part 1
http://www.antisharia.com/2011/08/16/30 ... siapart-1/

2.Shajarat Al-Durr,the Only Woman Ruler of Islam till the 20th Century,from Sex-Slave to Sultana of Egypt
http://www.antisharia.com/2011/08/12/sh ... -of-egypt/
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