Khusus ttg sepak terjang/sejarah jihad dan penerapan Syariah di INDONESIA & negara jiran (MALAYSIA)


Postby badmama » Tue Jul 19, 2011 9:46 pm

(The Brutish Politicization of Islam during Demak Kingdom in Java)

by Alphada Satriansa on Sunday, December 27, 2009 at 4:01pm
https://www.facebook.com/topic.php?uid= ... 26&post=80


As indicated in the previous chapter, Trenggana (Cu-Cu in Chinese) acceded to the throne of Demak in 1521AD. He was ambitious and launched a series of campaigns, subjugating all the independent ports of North Java and destroying almost all the old Hindu kingdoms of Java.

Trenggana's first action was to prevent the Portuguese to build a fortress on West Java to honour the treaty that they had made with Pajajaran King Suliwangi. To this effect, he allowed Hasanudin, the son of a devout Muslim named Sunan Gunungjati, to take 2000 men from Cirebon to attack Banten. The city was taken in 1526AD. This victory was followed by the conquest of Sunda Kelapa in 1527AD. The loss of these two ports isolated Pakuan, the Pajajaran capital, which received no assistance from the Portuguese.

The conquest of West Java was easy and did not require too many resources to be committed from Demak. This allowed Trenggana to attack Tuban with full force. Tuban, which was already a Muslim city, remained a vassal of the Majapahit King Girindravardhana. In view of the size of Trenggana's army, its ruler preferred to surrender in 1527AD. This easy victory was immediately followed by an attack on the heart of the old Majapahit kingdom and its capital, Kediri was destroyed in 1527AD. Girindravardhana, the last King of Majapahit was killed during the attack.

In 1529AD, it was the turn of the Madiun region to be looted and destroyed by the troops of Demak. Meanwhile, war continued in Central Java, where some Majapahit officers who had taken refuge in the region had formed a new Hindu kingdom named Pengging. Pengging's history was short-lived - it disappeared after its annexation by Trenggana's armies in about 1530AD.

Following the destruction of Pengging, Trenggana turned his attention toward the independent Muslim cities of Surabaya and Gresik, which he defeated and annexed. Pursuing his campaign eastward, he submitted Pasuruan in 1535AD and reached Panarukan, where he was brought to a stop by the fierce resistance of the armies of Balambangan, the last remaining Hindu kingdom of Java.

This defeat before Panarukan marked a temporary end to his invasions. Trenggana used the following years to consolidate his power over the conquered provinces by converting their populations, forging alliances with nobles who accepted conversion or the appointment of new men at the head of their cities. In 1545AD, after 10 years of pacification, Trenggana's grip on central and northern Java was firmly established and he resumed his progression eastward. His armies succesfully invaded the valleys of Singosari and Malang, which were still in the hands of Hindu princess allied to Balambangan.

The last expedition of Trenggana occurred in 1546-1547AD. It was a second attempt against the city of Panarukan, which was still held by a Balambangan governor. During this campaign, he was assisted by Portuguese mercenaries who had been recruited by Hasanudin, the ruler of Banten. one of the Portuguese officers, Fernao Mendes Pinto (1510-1583), wrote a famous book memoirs, Peregrinacao**. In his memoirs, Fernao Mendes Pinto recounts the events of his campaign under the banner of Demak and the siege of Panarukan as follows. A huge fleet of about 1000 vessels and about 40,000 men sailed from Japara on 2nd February 1546AD. Panarukan was besieged for three months. Panarukan's ruler was extrmely popular and all his subjects mobilised and fought bravely against the invaders. It appears the Panarukan spelt the doom of Trenggana as all his attacks failed and while the siege dragged along, his temper worsened. One day he lost his nerve and badly insulted on of his closest servants in public. The insult was so great that the servant stabbed him to death. Following Trenggana's death, his army broke away and his successors were not able to maintain the unity of his empire. In 1552AD, Hasanudin declared the independence of Banten and his example was quickly followed by the rulers of Surabaya on the north coast and Mataram in Central Java.

Trenggana was obviously a great conqueror and a fine ruler. His conquests were essentially motivated by his intention to establish the hegemony of Demak. Islam was for him <span>a political tool</span> to ascertain his authority. It was not possible for a half-caste like him (he was half Chinese) to obtain any kind of recognition from the Javanese Hindu aristocracy, since in the Hindu kingdoms blood and lineage were the main factors of social promotion. It was only within an Islamic society, which recognises no caste or race, that he was able to be respected as a ruler. Therefore, the Hindu kingdoms he conquered were not assimilated as vassals but destroyed and any royal families who refused to convert were annihilated. Portuguese reports made to Bishop of Goa describe his policy toward them:

"It seems that this King succeeded in subduing Hindu and converting them to Islam. When they accepted this religion, they received presents and were treated well. He has many soldiers and tries to make all people Muslim ..."

Conversion to Islam of the Hindu priests and the nobles was merely a political goa; and Trenggana had little interest in the commoners. <span>In front of his armies</span>, the Majapahit nobles faced the choice of submission with conversion, death or exile. Those who survived battle refused to convert were obliged to seek refuge in the hospitable highlands of the East Javanese volcanoes, in the eastern Janavanese kingdom of Balambangan or in Bali.

Trenggana's military victories alone cannot explain the spread of Islam in Java. The vast majority of the population were only superficially Hinduist or Buddhist and were more interested in pursuing traditional local cults than in the rituals and beliefs of the courts. However, it has been seen that new spiritual aspirations had appeared, with the quest for after-death salvation through the intercession of interventionist deities. Whether villagers, commoners or nobles, peoples were extremely superstitious and were attracted by magical rituals and powerful mysticism. This attraction explains the importance given to the Sufis within the Javanese population. Sufis focused on complete submission to a single interventionist God and were popularly credited with superhuman performances. In this respect, the preachings of the Sufis were more responsible for the spread of Islam in Java than the conquests of Hasanudin, Trenggana and, later on, Sultan Agung (from Mataram)

Although Trenggana died without establishing Demak as the successor of the Majapahit Empire, his conquests marked the beginning of the spread of Islam to most of Java, with the exception of some communities living in the highlands and the eastern part of the island.

By the end of the 16th century, the kingdom of Balambangan in the far eastern part of Java was the last Hindu kingdom remaining in Java.

* "Early Kingdoms of the Indonesian Archipelago and the Malay Peninsula" by Paul Michel Munoz 2006, p.289-292 http://www.amazon.com/Early-Kingdoms-In ... 9814155675

** The Peregrinacao was published in Lisbon in 1614 and is full of information about the end of the 16th century. In his descriptions, Fernao Mendes Pinto adopts a fair position and describes the people he met in great detail. He appears to be an objective observer in his analysis of the events of the time.


1. Kenapa pelabuhan Banten Pajajaran begitu mudah ditaklukan oleh Cirebon hanya dengan +-2000 tentara? Apakah ini indikasi bahwa pada masa itu Pajajaran merupakan daerah yang dilindungi Majapahit sehingga tidak memiliki banyak tentara?

2. Kenapa kota-kota Islam Tuban dan Surabaya tidak menyukai Demak?

3. Kenapa Demak menggunakan tentara bayaran Portugis dan siapa saja yang menjadi penasihat Trenggana?

4. Darimana Demak membiayai ekspedisi-ekspedisi militer nya?

5. Berapa banyak rumah-rumah peribadatan dan pesantren-pesantren Siwa-Buddha yang dihancurkan?

6. Apakah pencampuradukan pemerintahan dengan agama telah memperparah situasi kemanusiaan pada waktu itu?

7. Dari sudut pandang 'Atlantis', apakah Islam tidak cuman sekedar ada tetapi juga diperlukan di Tanah Jawa untuk membantu permasalahan Seth?

8. Dari sudut pandang 'Atlantis', apakah perbedaan karakter Tanah Utara dan Selatan telah disalahpahami oleh kerajaan Pesisir dan kerajaan Pedalaman?

9. Dari sudut pandang 'Atlantis', apakah ada 'friksi energi' di area kerajaan Blambangan dengan karakter Jenggala, seperti halnya yang terjadi di area Tangkubanprahu dengan karakter Panjalu?
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