Bagian 19: Jihad vs Hungaria 1526-1683****

Sejarah pedang jihad di Timur Tengah, Afrika, Eropa & Asia.
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Bagian 19: Jihad vs Hungaria 1526-1683****

Post by ali5196 »

After subjecting the Balkans to their tyranny, the Ottoman Jihadis cast their covetous eyes towards central Europe. There lay the Kingdom of Hungary blocking their path towards Europe. An Ottoman attack on Hungray was inevitable. This campaign began in 1526 with the Battle of Mohacs.

The Hungarian sovereign Louis II was given an Invitation to Embrace Islam (Dawat-ul-Islam) and be safe

While the objective of the Hungarians was to save their homeland, the Ottoman army was intent on achieving two tasks: to destroy the Hungarian forces and to occupy the capital. Suleiman had sent an ultimatum to the Hungarians to surrender their capital, accept Islam and be safe. When the Hungarian sovereign Louis II was given an Invitation to Embrace Islam and be safe, he thought of this to be an opening of a parley to avoid battle, and he invited the Turkish delegation to his camp for negotiations. But the Turks were not interested in negotiating a peace, their terms were a complete surrender of Hungary, with the path being cleared for the Jihadis to march towards Austria and Prussia. These terms were unheard of in the wars between Europeans. No demand had been made to change one’s nationality and religion. The stunned Louis rejected the Turks’ “offer of peace” He asked the Turkish delegation as to why they were attacking Hungary, since the Hungarians had not attacked the Turks. He was told by the Turkish delegation that he had earned the displeasure of the Turks by being a Christian. On being asked how could that be so, when Hungary no hostile designs on the Turks, he was told that by not accepting the path fof allah, itself was an act of war, and the Turks, as Muslims were called upon to wage war, till the Hungarians either accept Islam, or are defeated and accept the tatus of 2nd class citizens ad Zimmis. The Hungarian king knew what his neighbors the Croats, Serbs and Bulgarians had suffered at the hands of the Ottomans, and so they did not want to surrender his countrymen to the mercy of the Turks. What he failed to understand was that how without any act of war on his part, he could become a target of attack for the Turks, and when he had accept to negotiate with the Turks, why did they want him and his countrymen to give up the Hungarian language, the Latin script and the Christian religion so as to prevent a Turkish attack. This was Central Europe’s first brush with the Jihad, A brush (pun intended) which had till then tarred with blood and fire the countries of Persia, Anatolia, India, North Africa, Spain, Central Asia. And Europe too had seen its share of invaders from Hannibal to its home grown barbarians like the Goths, Vandals, Avars, etc, but none had set forth terms for surrender as the Turks were doing.

The Hungarian king was still under the impression that the Jihadi Turks were like any other invader who want land and riches, but the Jihadis were there not just to grab the land and wealth of the Hungarians, but their culture, religion, nationality and self-respect. The Jihad was the worst specimen of a barbarian invasion. One that would put the Goths and Vandals into the pale of civilization, relatively speaking. The negations continued for many days, during which the Turks completed their real intention of sending a large military delegation to Hungary, which was to know the weaknesses of the Hungarian defenses. It was then, that the Turks realized that the Hungarians had no navy worth its name, since Hungary was aland locked nation. With this bit of espionage, under the guise of negotiations, the Turks decided that they would make the rivers Drava and Sava, front where they would trap the Hungarians.

The atrocious terms which the Turks set up, were rejected by the Hungarians. With the rejection of the Dawat-ul-Islam by the Hungarian, the attack of the Ottoman army necessarily followed. The task of the Hungarian military leadership was to defend against the Ottoman attack. The strength of the Ottoman army in the Hungarian theater was about 150,000; the total mobilized force of Hungary can be estimated at a mere 30-40,000. So the Hungarians had to face 150,000 Ottoman soldiers. The Ottoman army was arrayed on the south side of the Drava river. For a number of days the Ottomans resorted to pretensions of crossing the river at various points. This tactic confused the Hungarians who consequently had to spread their military thinly over various points at which they thought the Ottomans could cross.

The Turks used Mercenary Pirates to scuttle the Hungarian fleet

The Hungarians had many handicaps. First of all, after the fall of Belgrade, Hungary was generally believed to be defenseless; This consensus of Hungarian, Ottoman, and other experts implied that neither the Sava, nor the Drava, nor the Karasso was ever seen as a real chance for defense. The Hungarians had two decisive factors against them: one is not knowing where the Turks would throw of a bridge, and so concentrate their own forces at the other the bridgehead on the opposite side to oppose the bridge building operation. Since it was impossible to know just where the attackers would attempt to cross, the defense had to guard a long sector of the river bank by distributing his forces evenly.

Again the defense of a river line can be successful if there is no possibility of circumventing the defending force; hence its flanks must rest on some insurmountable obstacle, such as the sea, a neutral country, or a mountainous region. It follows from this that river defense needs to be generally more extended than an ordinary line of defense. Looking at the river defense in Southern Hungary the situation was that there could be no serious problem for the Ottomans to cross at many points. With the capture of Belgrade, Zimony, and Sabac, they had obtained strong bridgeheads across the river. Moreover, the Hungarian Danube flotilla was far weaker than the Ottoman. According to Hungarian chroniclers the Turks had considerable numbers of their soldiers bring pirates from the Black sea to man their boats, and use the tactics of pirates to scuttle the the Hungarian flotilla which consisted of 200 vessels, of which only a fraction was meant for war, the remainder being for transport. On the contrary the construction of Turkish ships and the sanjaks along the Danube, the Sava, and the Morava had been in full swing since 1524. In contrast, the Hungarian river fleet, along with the transport barges, amounted to no more than 200. The waters were thus dominated by the Ottomans, which as already mentioned, enabled them to land troops when and where they liked behind the Hungarian forces.

Suleiman’s clerk recorded the construction of the first bridgehead in detail. The works were begun at a place where the swamp was at its widest and from where the Hungarians did not expect the Turks to attack. At that site of Mohacs, the thick bushes hid the Turkish activities from the Hungarians, who concentrated up stream near Buda, where the Turks had feigned to construct a major Bridgehead, but had intended to do this only to deflect the attention of the Hungarians away from the real Bridgehead at Mohacs.

Since between that field [i.e., the battleground of Mohacs] and the Drava there was a large swamp resulting from the overflow of a riser. It was extremely difficult to cross: the terrain is so swampy on the Hungarian side (the North Bank) that it could carry neither man nor horse, and wherever one steps one was bound to sink. If the Hungarians had come to the edge of the swamp, set up their batteries, and fired against the attackers, they could have prevented the Ottoman Jihadis from bringing the game-pack of jihad into Hungary. So as far as terrain was concerned, all advantages were on the Ottoman side. While it offered the Hungarians no possibility of a sound footing, it ensured the greatest possibility of strategic maneuver for the attackers.

On a rainy night on August 15 the Turks sent their pirate mercenary battalions to engage any Hungarian ships that would come near the planned bridgehead at Mohacs. At night under the cover of darkness and rain, they very quickly started to build a bridge with pontoons and reeds across the Drava. Work continued on the 16th, and on the 17th the the construction of the bridgehead was completed; all that remained was to take the army across. That was done on the 18th and 19th. The Turkish chroniclers have recorded: “Today with Allah’s help the bridge was completed”. Thus, we can see that in addition to bridging the Drava by means of pontoons and ships, the two other necessary operations, take the infantry, cavalry and artillery, were also completed. So in a matter of two days the Turks had the bridgehead ready. This was a feat by the standards of the 16th century. And with no telecommunications and motorized transport, the Hungarians could not move enough forces to oppose the Turks making this bridgehead.

Finally, the Ottomans enjoyed a further advantage: they could send elite troops into the bridgehead, while the Hungarians, not knowing where the crossing would take place, had to distribute their best troops more or less evenly between the defending divisions. Thus only a small part of them could participate in the attack against the bridgehead. Hungarian military historians believed the swamps of the Karasso to be a another significant obstacle. Indeed, the area was covered by extensive marshes in that period. A Hungarian chronicler, Brodarics writes: “In this area, not far from Mohacs, there was a stream which can be referred to as swampy water rather than an outright swamp or river. The swamp was difficult for a cavalry to pass through at a swift pace. The Hungarian forces, therefore, could not be deployed to block these Turkish approaches. Such a deployment, however, would have rendered the defense rigid, with the Hungarian cavalry being stuck in the swamps which the Ottomans would have had no difficulty in breaking through. Incidentally, numerical superiority becomes decisive when the terrain is swampy, bushy, or forested; the Ottoman army could have easily overrun the small Hungarian force. Final]y, much as in the case of the Drava, the Ottomans Planned to row up the Danube to attack the defensive positions from the rear, not to mention the fact that they could easily circumvent the obstacle from the on the Hungarian side.”

In the circumstances, the Hungarians decided that delaying the Ottoman crossing was a more practicable matter from attempting an all-out defense along the Drava. But it was hard to see how smaller units might have been able to delay the sultan. Maybe in our own days, in the age of rapid-fire weapons, such a maneuver is possible, but when fighting was essentially hand-to-hand combat there was little chance of success. The Hungarians were clearly aware of the hopelessness of such a tactic. It was in these unfavorable and tragic circumstances that the fateful Battle of Mohacs was joined.

The Battle of Mohacs (1526 AD)

At this critical battle the fate of Hungary was sealed. Hungary, which had been the "Shield of Christianity" against the Ottoman menace for over 200 years finally caved in opening up Austria proper to the Jihadis. King Louis II of Hungary brought roughly 50,000 men to stop an Ottoman army under Suleiman (called the Magnificent by the Turks) numbering almost a million. Trapping the Ottoman march column north of a river, Louis selected ground where he could separate the lead (and most important) part of Suleiman's army from the rest by using the river and a sheer terrace dropoff (that had been made impassible by rain) to a plain. Unfortunately Louis learned that terrain works two ways!

The Historical Battle

Due to the Hungarian deception of setting up camp (the battle was fought close to dusk), the Ottoman forces north of the terrace (especially Ibrahim's left wing Sipahi Timariot which were guarding the baggage) began to unsaddle their horses and pitch camp as well. Louis' scouts reported this, and in heroically typical fashion, Batthyani's knights (on the Hungarian right) charged forward to destroy them. The Hungarian center (under Louis) began advancing forward, followed lastly by Perenyi's left wing, thus creating an "echelon left" with the army.

Batthyani's knights destroyed Ibrahim's Timariot before they could effectively mount up, and began to loot their baggage. As Louis' main body ground forward, his light horse and skirmishers drove off the Ottoman skirmishers, and began to receive intense fire from the entrenched Janissaries and a large number of entrenched artillery. For unknown reasons, Perenyi continued to lag behind with the left wing. As the Hungarian center was in danger of being demolished by massed ranged fire, Louis ordered Batthyani to wheel toward the Ottoman center and outflank the Janissaries.
This could have won the day for the Hungarians except for two things:
1) the terrace dropoff that separated the Ottoman vanguard from its main body also limited the room for the Hungarian knights to "wheel" within, so that Batthyani had a hard time massing his knights against the Janissary line;
2) Suleiman directed the Ottoman engineer corps to concentrate on attacking Louis’ personal guard with theaim of taking the Hungarian soverign prisoner and turn the battle in the Turks’ favor. With this aim Suleiman charged down onto Batthyani's flank and demolished him, and the right flank Anatolian Timariot's sipahis charged down and routed Perenyi's left wing. This left Louis (who in the dim light could not see his flanks being decimated) to continue to grind forward against the guns and bows of the Ottoman center, only to be surrounded. The Turks who had now surrounded Louis and his personal battlation, asked him to surrender and accept Islam, an offer which Luois scornfully rejected. With this the Turks intensified their attack and closed in on the besiged king from all sides. But the valiant Louis, fought on, giving instructions that if he was martyred fighting the Saracens, the Knights were to continue the battles till they gained victory and threw off the Turks from the North bank. But fortune had willed otherwise. Fighting to his last breath, Louis laid down his life, with his battalion destroyed all around him. He was one of the last to fall. This sealed the fate of the Hungarains at Battle of Mohacs and as that of Hungary as a free nation for centuries to come.

At the end of the day, Suleiman held the ground, upwards of 50,000 Hungarians and German mercenaries were dead, and King Louis II was run down and slain in a creek north of the battlefield, ending the Hungarian dynasty. Most of the Hungarian survivors were light horse who were able to flee. Within three years, the Balkans were totally within the grasp of Suleiman, and Vienna was under siege three years later in 1529.

The Lessons from the Battle of Mohacs

The Battle of Mohacs opened with the refusal of the Hungarian king to accept Islam and surrender his land and self-respect to the Jihadi wolves. The lessons of the experience which the Bulgars, Romanians,Croats and Serbs was not entirely lost on the Hungarians. But Eastern Europe took a long time to realize the only successful way of battling the Jihadis was to outmatch them in their bestiality, with the determination and ruthless of a hunter against a wild beast. It was senseless to negotiate with the Jihadis, it was foolish to try to talk to hem. Like a broken record they could only give the alternatives of Islam, or Death to any non-Muslim. The only way to deal with them was to fight them and destroy them. The fight with them to be successful, had to be pro-active, pre-emptive and ruthless to the finish. The point is to learn from the faults of others in dealing with the Jihadis. All those who tried to negotiate with the Jihadis, had a sorrowful ending, either as martyrs or as slaves (Zimmis) of the Muslims. The only tactic that could succeed with the Jihadis is to remember vividly what they have done in the past (and which is exactly what they will repeat in the future) and to attack them when they least expect it, to lull them in a false sense of security, to betray them at the first favorable opportunity, to target them with the precision of a hunter and put the bullet between the two eyes of the Jihadi beasts to make them dead meat. A hurt beast is no guarantor of our safety, in fact he is more dangerous. The way a hurt tiger become a more dangerous man-eater, the only safe situation is of having a dead tiger, same holds true for Jihadis, who may look like humans, but have the motivation of a wild beast, the only difference is that they are capable of making nukes to destroy the whole of humankind. Yes this is what the Jihadis explicitly say in private.

To win against the Jihadis, one should never forget what the Jihadis have done, and never forgive them for what they have done, and will do whenever they get an opportunity (s they did on 9/11). Whether one is a statesman, or a private citizen, one needs to remember always while interacting with the Muslims (all of whom are Jihadis at heart, as their Quran asks them to be so), never open your mind to them, never discuss controversial issues with them, never enter into an argument with them and reveal what you have in mind. Nurse a grudge against them, get to know their minds, let them do the talking, you do the listening and gauge the kind of beasts they are. And above all let this recognition of the true nature and intentions of the Jihadis, build in ourselves an urge and will to destroy the Jihadis utterly. They understand only one language – the language in which they speak to all non-Muslim – the language of subterfuge, betrayal, the language of blood and death. It is only when a large proportion of the Jihadis are done away with in a thermonuclear war, can the survivors among them see sense of living as humans, with a degree of tolerance for difference. No more Islam or death after that, since it is Islam that will be dead. If the surviving Muslims do not mend their ways after that, them we are sorry to say, all of them will have to go, if civilization is to be saved from the mortal threat of Islam.

The defeat at Mohacs was not in vain. It lit the fire of freedom in many European hearts. Another seminal example that motivated future generations of Europeans to wipe out Islam from Europe, when they had the upper hand was that of Prince Vlad (1456-62) of Walachia (Romania). Around this valiant prince was woven the legend of Dracula. He never drank anyone’s blood as legend (floated by the Turks) would have you believe, but he was ruthless with the Jihadis and whenever fortune favored him on the battlefield, he slaughtered all of them on whom he could lay his hands on. He was so feared by the Turks, that since they could not defeat him in open warfare, they plotted to get him murdered thru the hands of a traitor. But as long as he lived, Romania was safe from any further depredations from the Turks. His hatred of the Muslim Turks was rooted in what he had seen from his early childhood, the bloodied depredations of the Turks against the Romanians.

The one lesson from the Battle of Mohacs is not to fall into the mistake of opening up negotiations with the Muslims, ever. Fight them to their death – that is the only way out.


Unfortunately for humankind, the end of the death-seeking fiery cult of Islam can only come about through a fiery death-giving weapon. Ironically such nuclear mushroom clouds would be the blazing hell-fire that the Quran talks about and acknowledges will bring about an end to Islam such that there will be no one across the globe to say “Lah ilah il Allah, Mohammed ur Rasoolallah” (There is no god but allah and Mohammed is his prophet).


Select Bibliography

Jihad in the West: Muslim Conquests from the 7th to the 21st Centuries (Hardcover) by Paul Fregosi

The Sword of the Prophet: History, Theology, Impact on the World by Srdja Trifkovic

Islam Unveiled: Disturbing Questions About the World's Fastest Growing Faith by Robert Spencer

Studies in Muslim Apocalyptic (Studies in Late Antiquity and Early Islam) by David Cook

Why I Am Not a Muslim by Ibn Warraq

Onward Muslim Soldiers by Robert Spencer

Eurabia: The Euro-Arab Axis by Bat Ye'Or

Islam and Dhimmitude: Where Civilizations Collide by Bat Yeor

What the Koran Really Says: Language, Text, and Commentary by Ibn Warraq

Islam and Terrorism: What the Quran Really Teaches About Christianity, Violence and the Goals of the Islamic Jihad by Mark A. Gabriel, Mark A. Gabriel

A Concise History of the Crusades by Thomas F. Madden

The Politically Incorrect Guide to Islam (and the Crusades) by Robert Spencer

The Great Divide: The failure of Islam and the Triumph of the West by Marvin Olasky

The Myth of Islamic Tolerance: How Islamic Law Treats Non-Muslims by Robert Spencer

Islam Unveiled: Disturbing Questions About the World's Fastest Growing Faith by Robert Spencer, David Pryce-Jones

The Koran (Penguin Classics) by N. J. Dawood

Don't Keep me Silent! One Woman's Escape from the Chains of Islam by Mina Nevisa

Christianity And Islam: The Final Clash by Robert Livingston

Holiest Wars : Islamic Mahdis, Their Jihads, and Osama bin Laden by Timothy R. Furnish

The Last Trumpet: A Comparative Study in Christian-Islamic Eschatology by Samuel, Ph.D. Shahid

Unleashing the beast: How a fanatical islamic dictator will form a ten-nation coalition and terrorize the world for forty-two months by Perry Stone

Contemporary Muslim Apocalyptic Literature (Religion and Politics) by David Cook

Islam and the Jews: The Unfinished Battle by Mark A., Ph.D. Gabriel

The Challenge of Islam to Christians by David Pawson

The Prophetic Fall of the Islamic Regime by Glenn Miller, Roger Loomis

Prophet of Doom : Islam's Terrorist Dogma in Muhammad's Own Words by Craig Winn

The False Prophet by Ellis H. Skolfield

The Approach of Armageddon: An Islamic Perspective by Muhammad Hisham Kabbani

The Cube and the Cathedral: Europe, America, and Politics Without God by George Weigel

Infiltration : How Muslim Spies and Subversives have Penetrated Washington by Paul Sperry

Unholy Alliance : Radical Islam and the American Left by David Horowitz

Unveiling Islam : An Insider's Look at Muslim Life and Beliefs by Ergun Mehmet Caner

Perfect Soldiers : The Hijackers: Who They Were, Why They Did It by Terry McDermott

Islam Revealed A Christian Arab's View Of Islam by Anis Shorrosh, Anis Shorrosh

Leaving Islam: Apostates Speak Out by Ibn Warraq

The Origins of the Koran: Classic Essays on Islam's Holy Book by Ibn Warraq

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Post by nolay »

Bro mnta tlg dunk...klo bisa artikel mengenai jihad ini mulai dr jihad vs eropa timur di terjemahkan ke bhs suka banget mengenai artikel jihad ini...tlg terenyuh klo baca artikel2 ini....mkasih

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Re: Bagian 19: Jihad vs Hungaria 1526-1683****

Post by spaceman »

Setelah menundukkan tirani Balkan mereka, para Jihadis Ottoman mengarahkan mata tamak mereka terhadap Eropa Tengah. Terhampar Kerajaan Hongaria menghalangi jalan mereka menuju Eropa. Sebuah serangan Utsmani pada Hungray tak terelakkan. Kampanye ini dimulai pada 1526 dengan Pertempuran Mohacs.

Sultan Hungaria Louis II diberi Undangan untuk memeluk Islam (Dawat-ul-Islam) dan aman

Sementara tujuan dari Hongaria adalah untuk menyelamatkan tanah air mereka, tentara Ottoman bermaksud mencapai dua tugas: untuk menghancurkan pasukan Hungaria dan menduduki ibukota. Suleiman telah mengirimkan ultimatum ke Hongaria untuk menyerahkan ibukota mereka, menganut Islam dan aman. Ketika Louis II dari Hungariaberdaulat diberi Undangan untuk memeluk Islam dan aman, dia berpikir hal tersebut akan menjadi pembuka perundingan untuk menghindari pertempuran, dan ia mengundang delegasi Turki ke perkemahan untuk negosiasi. Namun Turki tidak tertarik dalam negosiasi perdamaian, tuntutan mereka adalah penyerahan total dari Hungaria, dengan jalur yang dibuka untuk para Jihadis untuk berbaris menuju Austria dan Prusia. Istilah-istilah yang pernah terdengar dalam perang antara Eropa. Tidak ada permintaan telah dibuat untuk mengubah kebangsaan seseorang dan agama. Louis tertegun menolak "tawaran damai" Turki "Dia bertanya kepada delegasi Turki mengapa mereka menyerang Hongaria, karena Hongaria tidak menyerang Turki. Dia diberitahu oleh delegasi Turki bahwa ia tidak disukai Turki karena ia seorang Kristen. Ketika ditanya bagaimana bisa begitu, karena Hongaria tidak menunjukkan sikap bermusuhan terhadap Turki, dia diberitahu bahwa dengan tidak menerima jalan allah, itu sendiri adalah tindakan perang, dan Turki, sebagai Muslim dipanggil untuk berperang, sampai Hongaria menerima Islam, atau dikalahkan dan menerima status sebagai warga kelas 2 dan dhimmi. Raja Hungaria tahu bahwa tetangganya orang-orang Kroasia, Serbia dan Bulgaria telah menderita di tangan Dinasti Utsmani, dan sehingga mereka tidak ingin menyerahkan bangsanya dalam belas kasihan Turki. Apa yang ia gagal mengerti adalah bahwa bagaimana tanpa tindakan perang di pihaknya, ia bisa menjadi target serangan untuk Turki, dan ketika ia menerima untuk bernegosiasi dengan Turki, mengapa mereka ingin dia dan bangsanya untuk menyerahkan bahasa Hungaria, tulisan Latin dan agama Kristen agar dapat mencegah serangan Turki. Ini adalah pergesekan pertama Eropa Tengah dengan Jihad, suatu pertempuran (permainan kata2) yang beraspalkan dengan darah dan api negara-negara Persia, Anatolia, India, Afrika Utara, Spanyol, Asia Tengah. Dan Eropa juga telah melihat bangsa penyerbu dari Hannibal ke kaum barbar asal lokal seperti Goth, Vandal, Avar, dll, tapi tidak ditetapkan persyaratan untuk menyerah sebagaimana yang dituntut oleh Turki .
Raja Hungaria masih mempunyai kesan bahwa para Jihadis Turki itu seperti penyerang lain yang hanya ingin tanah dan kekayaan, tetapi para Jihadis ada di sana tidak hanya untuk mengambil tanah dan kekayaan dari Hongaria, tetapi budaya, agama, kebangsaan dan kehormatan. Jihad merupakan spesimen terburuk dari invasi barbar. Salah satu yang akan menempatkan Goth dan Vandal ke posisi yang tidak berarti, relatif berbicara. Negosiasi terus berlangsung selama beberapa hari, di mana Turki menuntaskan maksud sebenarnya mereka mengirim delegasi militer besar untuk Hungaria, yang adalah untuk mengetahui kelemahan pertahanan Hungaria. Saat itu, Turki melihat bahwa Hungaria tidak memiliki angkatan laut yang handal, karena Hungaria adalah tanah suatu bangsa yang terkunci. Dengan sedikit spionase, di bawah kedok negosiasi, Turki memutuskan bahwa mereka akan membuat sungai-sungai Drava dan Sava, ladang di mana mereka akan memasang perangkap terhadap Hongaria.

Istilah mengerikan yang ditetapkan oleh Turki, ditolak oleh Hungaria. Dengan penolakan terhadap Dawat-ul-Islam oleh Hungaria, serangan tentara Ottoman segera datang. Tugas kepemimpinan militer Hungaria adalah untuk mempertahankan terhadap serangan Ottoman. Kekuatan tentara Ottoman di Hongaria sekitar 150.000; mobilisasi kekuatan total Hongaria dapat diperkirakan pada 30-40,000 belaka. Jadi Hongaria harus menghadapi 150.000 tentara Ottoman. Tentara Ottoman tersusun di sisi selatan sungai Drava. Untuk beberapa hari Ottoman terpaksa menyiapkan pennyeberangan sungai di berbagai titik. Taktik ini membingungkan Hongaria yang mengakibatkan penyebaran kekuatan militer mereka sehingga menjadi berjumlah kecil atas berbagai titik di mana mereka pikir Utsmani bisa menyeberang.

Turki menggunakan bajak-bajak laut bayaran untuk menjegal armada Hungaria

Orang2 Hongaria memiliki banyak kelemahan. Pertama-tama, setelah jatuhnya Beograd, Hongaria umumnya diyakini tidak terlindungi; pada konsensus Hungaria, Ottoman, dan ahli lainnya tersirat bahwa baik Sava, maupun Drava, maupun Karasso tidak pernah dilihat sebagai kesempatan nyata untuk pertahanan . Orang2 Hongaria memiliki dua faktor yang menentukan terhadap mereka: seseorang tidak mengetahui di mana Turki akan melemparkan jembatan, dan begitu berkonsentrasi kekuatan mereka sendiri di jembatan lain pada sisi yang berlawanan untuk melawan operasi pembangunan jembatan. Karena mustahil untuk tahu persis di mana para penyerang akan mencoba untuk menyeberang, pertahanan harus menjaga sektor panjang tepi sungai dengan mendistribusikan pasukannya secara merata.

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