Muhammad bapak peradaban dunia

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SUAMI MURTAD
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Re: Muhammad bapak peradaban dunia

Post by SUAMI MURTAD »

n1kko wrote:siapa bilang Muhammad tidak berperan dalam revolusi peradaban
semenjak kematian Muhammad negeri2 yang ditaklukan islam mengalami gempa kebudayaan karena manusia dibebaskan dari belenggu takhayul, kemudian metode ini ditiru barat sehingga barat keluar dari dominasi gereja china yang kembali lagi ke ajaran Tao (1644–1911 Masehi) tidak meraih revolusi sains sebagaimana eropa, karena terbelenggu oleh filsafat2 konfusianisme
Sudah jelas Muhammad tokoh penting dalam revolusi kebudayaan, ketika muhammad meninggal 200 tahun kemudian umatnya sudah mencapai masa keemasan

Pantas Michael Hart menempatkan Muhammad sebagai orang nomor satu dari 100 orang yang paling berpengaruh dalam sejarah dunia
Wah kurang piknik....

Coba kita piknik di dunia jurnalistik di Indonesia tahun 80-90-an. Ada bukti bahwa Islam tidak terima mendapat fakta bahwa Muhammad hanya masuk urutan ke-sekian di dunia. Fakta ini bisa menghancurkan pihak mana yang mengeluarkan klaim tersebut.
http://beritabaru.com/special.php?id=1851 wrote: Dulu kami (Tabloid Monitor) membuat sebuah angket tentang siapa tokoh yang menjadi favorit pembaca dan apa alasannya. Kami tidak membuat daftar nama tokoh-tokoh. Jadi, nama-nama yang kemudian muncul, semua murni pilihan pembaca. Ada 35 ribu lebih jawaban yang masuk, dengan lebih dari 200 nama tokoh. Lucunya, muncul nama Nabi Muhammad di peringkat 11. Lebih menarik lagi, nama saya justru ada di peringkat 10, satu tingkat di atas Nabi Muhammad. Lalu, saat 50 nama itu kami terbitkan di tabloid (dengan posisi nama Nabi Muhammad setingkat di bawah Arsewendo, yang kebetulan non-muslim), kami dianggap telah meresahkan umat Islam. Lalu saya ditahan, diadili, dan divonis lima tahun penjara. Ya, sudah, saya terima, saya jalani. Padahal polling seperti itu pernah juga dilakukan oleh media lain, tapi tidak diapa-apakan.
http://indonesiatera.com/ARSWENDO-ATMOWILOTO.html wrote: ARSWENDO ATMOWILOTO Lahir di Solo, 26 November 1948. Selepas kuliah di IKIP setempat tanpa selesai, ia menjadi penulis. Ada ratusan bukunya yang telah diterbitkan, yang memenangkan lomba, maupun yang terpilih sebagai buku utama. Sangat berminat pada televisi, komik, dan lawak yang terus ditekuninya ketika bekerja di Gramedia Majalah, sejak tahun 1974 hingga akhir tahun 1990, ketika menghuni Lembaga Pemasyarakatan (LP) karena kasus tabloid Monitor yang dipimpinnya.
Mohammad No. 1 ? Terlalu maksa ah..... ? :rofl:

asbakin
Posts: 63
Joined: Fri Mar 20, 2009 5:59 pm

Re: Muhammad bapak peradaban dunia

Post by asbakin »

n1kko wrote:kenapa China tidak bisa meraih revolusi sains disaat eropa mengalami revolusi sains? padahal dasar2 sains telah ditemukan untuk dikembangkan? karena china masih nyenyak dengan hipnotis ajaran2 konfusianisme
More recent historians have questioned political and cultural explanations and have put greater focus on economic causes. Mark Elvin's high level equilibrium trap is one well-known example of this line of thought. It argues that the Chinese population was large enough, workers cheap enough, and agrarian productivity high enough to not require mechanization : thousands of Chinese workers were perfectly able to quickly perform any needed task. Other events such as Haijin, the Opium Wars and the resulting hate of European influence prevented China from undergoing an Industrial Revolution; copying Europe's progress on a large scale would be impossible for a lengthy period of time. Political instability under Cixi rule (opposition and frequent oscillation between modernists and conservatives), the Republican wars (1911-1933), the Sino-Japanese War (1933-1945), the Communist/Nationalist War (1945-1949) as well as the later Cultural Revolution isolated China at the most critical times. Kenneth Pomeranz has made the argument that the substantial resources taken from the New World to Europe made the crucial difference between European and Chinese development.

Mengaitkan ajaran2 konfusius atau toisme, kemudian menjudge karena ajaran ini yang membuat china tdk mengalami revolusi sains adalah tidak relevan !! Saat ini ajaran2 konfusius masih mendominasi pemikiran masyarakat di negara2 spt CHINA, KOREA, JEPANG, TAIWAN, SINGAPORE, HONGKONG, apakah negara2 tsb ketinggalan dari negara2 islam yang kata anda dibebaskan dr ke-musyirikan ??

Bisakah pencapaian dinasti abbassid akan tetap sama jika lokasinya berada di pusat hutan amazon ??
Lokasi dinasti Abbassid yg berada pada HUB kebudayaan CHINA, MESOPOTANIA, MESIR, YUNANI, INDIA dikombinasikan dengan kestabilan politik, ekonomi dan pemerintah yang mensupport PERKEMBANGAN SAINS-lah yang membuat mereka dpt berkembang! bukan karena ISLAM !!! apalagi MUHAMMAD !!!

n1kko
Posts: 395
Joined: Mon Nov 20, 2006 1:19 pm

Re: Muhammad bapak peradaban dunia

Post by n1kko »

Asbakin wrote:Saat ini ajaran2 konfusius masih mendominasi pemikiran masyarakat di negara2 spt CHINA, KOREA, JEPANG, TAIWAN, SINGAPORE, HONGKONG, apakah negara2 tsb ketinggalan dari negara2 islam yang kata anda dibebaskan dr ke-musyirikan ??
ya, tetapi ajaran2 konfusius sekarang tidak lagi dominan dalam mempengaruhi pola pikir mereka
ajaran2 mereka telah dimuseumkan, mereka lebih mengutamakan rasionalitas dalam memecahkan permasalahan daripada percaya pada ajaran2 takhayul...sebagian besar warga jepang, korea, china sekarang ini mengaku sudah tidak beragama lagi, agama tradisional hanya sekedar melestarikan tradisi2 mereka yang dianut oleh generasi2 tua yang sudah tidak produktif lagi.
Bisakah pencapaian dinasti abbassid akan tetap sama jika lokasinya berada di pusat hutan amazon ??
Lokasi dinasti Abbassid yg berada pada HUB kebudayaan CHINA, MESOPOTANIA, MESIR, YUNANI, INDIA dikombinasikan dengan kestabilan politik, ekonomi dan pemerintah yang mensupport PERKEMBANGAN SAINS-lah yang membuat mereka dpt berkembang! bukan karena ISLAM !!! apalagi MUHAMMAD !!!
bisa jika Allah yang menghendaki (sori, saya bicara dengan iman saya)

yang jadi pertanyaan kenapa peradaban dimulai saat rum dan farsi menjadi islam? kenapa bukan saat agama kristen menguasai rum dan agama zoroaster menguasai farsi? apakah dulu rum dan farsi tidak berada pada tengah2 kebudayaan CHINA, MESOPOTANIA, MESIR, YUNANI, INDIA?

ini tidak lain karena islam yang menganjurkan umatnya untuk menuntut ilmu, wahyu pertama yang turun aja BACALAH

silahkan bantah lagi
Ming (1644–1911 Masehi).[32] Bangsa Manchu kemudian mengadopsi nilai-nilai Konfusianisme
saat eropa menemukan sains china tidak menemukan sains karena dalam rentang waktu itu china kembali lagi keajaran takhayul
Political instability under Cixi rule (opposition and frequent oscillation between modernists and conservatives), the Republican wars (1911-1933), the Sino-Japanese War (1933-1945), the Communist/Nationalist War (1945-1949) as well as the later Cultural Revolution isolated China at the most critical times.
china menjadi negara superpower hanya dalam puluhan tahun terakhir ini, saat pola pikir telah sembuh dari nilai2 takhayul serta aman dari segi politik dan ekonomi.

n1kko
Posts: 395
Joined: Mon Nov 20, 2006 1:19 pm

Re: Muhammad bapak peradaban dunia

Post by n1kko »

tahapan kebudayaan manusia

1. Tahap Mistik
Tahapan manusia saat seluruh hidupnya masih dipengaruhi oleh kekuatan2 gaib, roh2. Mereka memecahkan masalah bukan dengan rasio tetapi dengan mistik

2. Tahap ontologis
tahap dimana manusia berada di tengah2 tahap mistik dan fungsional (mengambil jarak dengan penjelasan mistik)

3. Tahap Fungsional
Tahap dimana manusia 100% tidak mengandalkan kekuatan2 ghaib dan mistik, murni rasio

islam mengantarkan tahapan kebudayaan dari mistik ke fungsional tetapi tidak menjadi Atheis, beda dengan barat.

islam sangat melarang penjelasan mistik yang umumnya dijangkiti masyarakat arab jahiliyah, rum, farsi, india dan china pra islam.


islam berperan dalam membentuk peradaban modern dimana penjelasan2 mistik tidak lagi berguna
islam mempengaruhi revolusi peradaban

percaya atau tidak terserah, kapir kolopir

poringrebirth
Posts: 94
Joined: Sat Jul 25, 2009 3:56 pm
Location: Yang pasti bukan di Arab

Re: Muhammad bapak peradaban dunia

Post by poringrebirth »

saya agak tergelitik dengan pernyataan saudara n1kko:
n1kko wrote: yang jadi pertanyaan kenapa peradaban dimulai saat rum dan farsi menjadi islam? kenapa bukan saat agama kristen menguasai rum dan agama zoroaster menguasai farsi? apakah dulu rum dan farsi tidak berada pada tengah2 kebudayaan CHINA, MESOPOTANIA, MESIR, YUNANI, INDIA?
saya hanya ingin mengklarifikasi.... rum yang disini rum yang berarti roma??? :-k
lalu apa maksud saudara n1kko denga mengatakan "peradaban dimulai saat rum dan farsi menjadi islam?"

saya mau tahu.... menurut saudara n1kko itu pengertian dari "peradaban"???
apa bedanya dengan pengertian dari "kebudayaan"???
karena kalau saya lihat saudara menghubungkan keduanya...

apa maksud saudara n1kko dengan mengatakan "peradaban dimulai saat rum dan farsi menjadi islam?" dan "kenapa bukan saat agama kristen menguasai rum dan agama zoroaster menguasai farsi?". Apa saudara n1kko punya bukti kalau sewaktu itu kedua bangsa tersebut tidak punya peradaban???
Bagaimana dengan bangsa lain di Timur Tengah lainnya seperti Mesir, Yunani, Sumeria, Babilonia, dan lain-lain... Apakah mereka tidak punya peradaban??? :-s

saya tidak ingin pertanyaan saya seakan-akan "hostile" dengan saudara n1kko atau saya jauh lebih tahu mengenai sejarah.... tidak demikian, melainkan sebagai seorang yang sangat suka sejarah.. saya ingin melihat teori saudara n1kko mengenai hal ini...
salam

asbakin
Posts: 63
Joined: Fri Mar 20, 2009 5:59 pm

Re: Muhammad bapak peradaban dunia

Post by asbakin »

ya, tetapi ajaran2 konfusius sekarang tidak lagi dominan dalam mempengaruhi pola pikir mereka
ajaran2 mereka telah dimuseumkan, mereka lebih mengutamakan rasionalitas dalam memecahkan permasalahan daripada percaya pada ajaran2 takhayul...sebagian besar warga jepang, korea, china sekarang ini mengaku sudah tidak beragama lagi, agama tradisional hanya sekedar melestarikan tradisi2 mereka yang dianut oleh generasi2 tua yang sudah tidak produktif lagi.
Bagaimana anda menganalisa revolusi industri/iptek di Jepang pada saat restorasi meiji ?? rakyat jepang pada saat itu masih sangat lekat dengan yang namanya tahayul, bahkan pada saat restorasi meiji lah shinto dijadikan sebagai agama negara !! Tentang defenisi tahayul, bagi anda berdoa kepada dewa hujan untuk meminta hujan oleh kepercayaan kuno china, adalah tahayul. Tapi bagi atheist berdoa kepada allah untuk meminta hujan, meminta rejeki, dll adalah tahayul pula.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of ... stagnation
"Nathan Sivin has argued that China indeed had a scientific revolution in the 17th century and that we are still far from understanding the scientific revolutions of the West and China in all their political, economic and social ramifications"

Teknologi di china memang tdk mengalami revolusi yang sangat maju spt pencapaian abbassid, tapi bukan berarti teknologi tdk berkembang!, teknologi tetap berkembang pada era china purba yang mana, pada saat itu pula kepercayaan tahayul juga masih besar pengaruhnya. Dengan demikian adalah tidak relevan mengaitkan kepercayaan tahayul dengan perkembangan iptek, karena sebenarnya ada faktor lain yang lebih dominan yang menyebabkan perkembangan iptek atau revolusi.
bisa jika Allah yang menghendaki (sori, saya bicara dengan iman saya)

yang jadi pertanyaan kenapa peradaban dimulai saat rum dan farsi menjadi islam? kenapa bukan saat agama kristen menguasai rum dan agama zoroaster menguasai farsi? apakah dulu rum dan farsi tidak berada pada tengah2 kebudayaan CHINA, MESOPOTANIA, MESIR, YUNANI, INDIA?

ini tidak lain karena islam yang menganjurkan umatnya untuk menuntut ilmu, wahyu pertama yang turun aja BACALAH

silahkan bantah lagi
Karena pada saat itu pula romawi dan persia berada pada kekuasaan yang berbeda dan saling bermusuhan. Romawi dan persia terus menerus dalam keadaan perang, yang mana karena kelelahan berperang akhirnya dapat dengan mudah ditaklukkan oleh kekuatan baru (islam). Pada saat di satukan oleh kekuasaan islam, tidak serta merta terjadi revolusi di daerah ini. Tapi ketika dalam pemerintahaan dinasti abbassid, yang sangat getol terhadap iptek akibat pengaruh didikan dari keluarga barmakid, terjadi revolusi di daerah ini. Inspirasi menuntut ilmu oleh seseorang sangat tidak relevan jika dikaitkan dengan agama/keyakinan, tapi oleh MINAT !!! Seseorang menjadi ilmuan, dokter, arsitek, dll dikarenakan oleh MINAT, bukan oleh agama.

Mengenai kata "BACALAH" dalam quran anda tafsirkan sebagai anjuran untuk menuntut ilmu bisa anda jelaskan korelasinya ???
saat eropa menemukan sains china tidak menemukan sains karena dalam rentang waktu itu china kembali lagi keajaran takhayul
Kata siapa ?? dari dahulu hingga kini mayoritas rakyat china masih berkutat pada tahayul !! Pencapaian teknologi di China sangat tinggi terjadi pada saat dinasti tang, dan buddhisme/konfusius juga berkembang sangat pesat pada saat itu.
Pencapaian teknologi di china terjadi tdk dengan dukungan pemerintah, jadi wajarlah jika pencapaiannya tdk spt pada saat dinasti abbassid.
china menjadi negara superpower hanya dalam puluhan tahun terakhir ini, saat pola pikir telah sembuh dari nilai2 takhayul serta aman dari segi politik dan ekonomi.
Semua karena dukungan pemerintah, China oleh deng xiao ping dan jepang oleh tokugawa.
islam berperan dalam membentuk peradaban modern dimana penjelasan2 mistik tidak lagi berguna
islam mempengaruhi revolusi peradaban

percaya atau tidak terserah, kapir kolopir
lalu apa revolusi peradaban atau iptek pada saat biang islam-muhammad berkuasa ?? ketika abu bakar, umar, usman, ali hingga ummayah ??

asbakin
Posts: 63
Joined: Fri Mar 20, 2009 5:59 pm

Re: Muhammad bapak peradaban dunia

Post by asbakin »

Sedikit ralat ttg yang berkontribusi pada revolusi iptek di jepang adalah Kaisar Meiji.

Sedikit info ttg kenapa china tertinggal dalam hal revolusi iptek.


http://www.sjsu.edu/faculty/watkins/ancientchina.htm

The Advanced Technology of Ancient China

An Overview

Around 2300 years ago, when no one in Europe or the Middle East could melt even one ounce of iron the Chinese were casting multi-ton iron objects. It was not until the mid-1700's in Europe that such feats of metallurgy were achieved in Britain, the technically most advanced country of Europe. The early success in iron-casting in China was due to a superior form of bellows that delivered a continuous stream of air to a furnace instead of an interrupted stream as from the type of bellows used in the West. No one beforehand would have given much thought or attention to such a seemingly unimportant device as the Chinese bellows, but it turned out to be a crucial technological development.

But ancient China was not just technically advanced in iron-making. In a wide variety of technical fields China of 300 BCE was many centuries ahead of Europe and the Middle East. And what happened to China that it stagnated technologically so that by the nineteenth century it was so far behind the West that it was weak and primitive? China had regressed so much that almost everyone, in China as well as the West, had forgotten that China was once technically far advanced compared to the West.

The answer is that Qin Shihuang, the king of the state of Qin (Ch'in) in western China, conquered the six other Chinese kingdoms, uniting them into one empire and created a class of bureaucrats to run and regulate it. He created this bureaucracy to centralize control and break the power of feudalists who were always usurping the power of the central authorities. The Qin Empire did not last long after the death of its founder.

The Qin bureaucrats were of a different type than the bureaucrats who were later chosen under the Han Empire. The Qin bureaucrats were hard-nosed administrators who adhered to a philosophy of administration called Legalism. Legalism was a totalitarian ideology that, among other things, held that books and scholarship were a waste of resources. They burned books and buried some scholars alive to discourage that waste of time.

After the Qin Empire collapsed the State of Han rose to power but kept some of the instituitions of Qin. Their empire also was to be run by bureaucrats but the Han bureaucrats, called mandarins, were to be followers of the Confucian doctrines and were chosen through a competitive examination based upon history, literature and philosophy.

Instead of being ruled by philosopher-kings the China of the Han Empire and thereafter was ruled by scholar-bureaucrats who over time stultified the civilization. The Mandarins were a privileged class and did not want anyone disturbing their status quo and endangering the system. Over the centuries the heavy hands of these bureaucrats slowed the previously dynamic society of China to a standstill and ultimately caused it to regress. But before considering the stagnation and regression it is enlightening to review how stunning was the ancient flowering of Chinese civilization.

A Review of the Record

Metal Casting:
Casting of bronze objects developed very early in the Shang Civilization of the Yellow River Valley of about 1800 BCE. Religious objects, as well as tools and weapons, of great artistic merit were cast. Later when the superiority of iron over bronze was recognized superior blast furnaces were developed. These furnaces achieved high enough temperatures that the iron flowed like water and could then be cast. In the West there were blast furnaces that smelt iron from its ores but the temperature was only high enough to produce a mass of iron and slag melted together. This mass had to be hammered to consolidate the iron and drive out the rock-like slag. It was known as wrought iron. In China cast iron was produced. Cast iron has one disadvantage; it has such high carbon content that it is relatively brittle. The Chinese learned to reduce the carbon content to a level such that the metal was strong and resilient instead of being brittle. This is called steel.

The Compass:
The compass was invented in ancient China. People learned to use naturally occurring magnets, called lodestones, to magnetize an iron pointer. The first pointers had a shape somelike a balanced spoon. The handle of the spoon pointed to the south rather than to the north. The early compasses that were borrowed in the West also pointed to the south and only later were modified to point to the north. The Chinese compasses were used in the geomancy called Feng Shui as well as in navigation.

Paper:
The first paper was made from fiber obtained by pounding linen cloth. Initially it was used for clothing rather than writing material. It was even used to make body armor for
soldiers. A thick layer of cotton was enclosed between two layers of the tough rag paper. Some soldiers preferred it to the heavy, awkward metal armor.

Gunpowder:
Gun powder developed out of the experiments of Chinese shamans in throwing mineral powders into fires to produce interesting effects in terms of colors and enhancements of the flames. Later the gunpowder was used for making fireworks. The use of gunpowder as an explosive came after its use was borrowed by the West.
Deep drilling and the use of natural gas: In the search for salt wells the ancient Chinese developed a technology of driving bamboo poles deep into the earth. Depths up to a kilometer were achieved through this technique. In addition to brine this drilling also often tapped into reservoirs of natural gas. This natural gas was captured in barrels and used as fuel to evaporate the water from brine to produce salt.

Mechanical clock mechanisms:
Accurate mechanical clocks were developed in ancient China because of a belief in a form of astrology that was based upon the moment of conception rather than the time of birth. Retainers listened outside the royal bedrooms to record the possible times of conception of royal children. This was considered important enough that considerable effort was devoted to developing accurate timing mechanisms. These clock mechanisms were borrowed in the West and perfected for other purposes. When Jesuits presented such mechanical clocks to the Chinese emperor many centuries later the technology had be forgotten in China and no one knew that the mechanical clock had been invented in China.

Row crop farming:
In ancient times field were planted by broadcasting (throwing) the seed randomly. It was the Chinese who in ancient times realized that if the seeds were planted in separated rows the plants could be irrigated more effectively and the weeds could be chopped down with a hoe. This greatly increased the crop yields.

Silk:
The discovery that the cocoons of silk worms could be unwound and the filaments used to weave an especially light, strong and beautiful cloth was of course made in China.

Porcelain:
In very ancient times the Chinese discovered that with the right choice of clay and firing techniques pottery could be made so thin that it was translucent. Such porcelain became universally known as china.

Rudders for navigating ships:

Suspension bridges:

Wheelbarrows:

These are just some of the technological acheivements of ancient China. There were also major early developments in mathematics, astronomy, philosophy and literature. There were also numerous inventions of less technological significance such as kites. There are some technologies that are important in China that were never adopted in the West such as bamboo scaffolding in building construction and renovation.

Chinese technology did not immediately stagnate under the control of the Mandarins. In the fifteenth century China sent armadas of ships vastly larger than those of the Europeans. The story of the treasure fleets of the early fifteenth century is told elsewhere. Without a doubt that technology was explicitly destroyed by the Mandarins.


Pada jaman dahulu para penguasa di china tdk ada yang mengubah sistem pendidikan, pendidikan hanya berfokus pada sejarah, kesusasteraan & ketatanegaraan. Para sarjana china kuno hanya bertujuan untuk menjadi "seorang birokrat". Bandingkan dengan dinasti abbassid yang mendirikan perpustakaan, menterjemahkan berbagai ilmu dari yunani, india, china, persia,dll kedalam bahasa arab untuk dipelajari di perpustakaan2 dan universitas2 di berbagai pelosok negeri. Walau banyak pemikir2 china yang brillian spt guo shou jing - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Guo_Shoujing , ilmu dan pemikirannya tdk dilestarikan, tdk ada usaha untuk menggandakan sebanyak2nya ilmu2 iptek tsb untuk kemudian dipelajari oleh generasi sesudahnya. Guo Shou Jing bahkan hanya belajar dari pengetahuan orang tuanya, bukan dari sebuah buku atau sumber ilmu, sekolah.

Para penguasa china kuno, tdk tertarik untuk melestarikan science, mereka hanya tertarik pada hal2 politik untuk menjaga kelangsungan kekuasaan semata.


http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Burning_of ... f_scholars

Burning of books and burying of scholars
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Burning of the books and burial of the scholars (traditional Chinese: 焚書坑儒; simplified Chinese: 焚书坑儒; pinyin: Fénshū Kēngrú) is a phrase that refers to a policy and a sequence of events in the Qin Dynasty of Ancient China, between the period of 213 and 206 BC.Contents [hide]
1 Book burning
2 Burial of the scholars
3 Remembrance in literature
4 Popular culture
5 See also
6 Notes
7 External links


Book burning
According to the Records of the Grand Historian, after Qin Shi Huang, the first emperor of China, unified China in 221 BC, his chancellor Li Si suggested suppressing the freedom of speech, unifying all thoughts and political opinions. This was justified by accusations that the intelligentsia sang false praise and raised dissent through libel.

Beginning in 213 BC, all classic works of the Hundred Schools of Thought — except those from Li Si's own school of philosophy known as legalism — were subject to book burning.

Qin Shi Huang burned the other histories out of fear that they undermined his legitimacy, and wrote his own history books. Afterwards, Li Si took his place in this area.

Li Si proposed that all histories in the imperial archives except those written by the Qin historians be burned; that the Classic of Poetry, the Classic of History, and works by scholars of different schools be handed in to the local authorities for burning; that anyone discussing these two particular books be executed; that those using ancient examples to satirize contemporary politics be put to death, along with their families; that authorities who failed to report cases that came to their attention were equally guilty; and that those who had not burned the listed books within 30 days of the decree were to be banished to the north as convicts working on building the Great Wall. The only books to be spared in the destruction were books on medicine, agriculture and prophecy. [1]

Burial of the scholars

After being deceived by two alchemists while seeking prolonged life, Qin Shi Huang ordered more than 460 alchemists in the capital to be buried alive in the second year of the proscription, though an account given by Wei Hong in the 2nd century added another 700 to the figure. As some of them were also Confucius scholars Fusu counselled that, with the country newly unified, and enemies still not pacified, such a harsh measure imposed on those who respect Confucius would cause instability.[2] However, he was unable to change his father's mind, and instead was sent to guard the frontier in a de facto exile.

The quick fall of the Qin Dynasty was attributed to this proscription. Confucianism was revived in the Han Dynasty that followed, and became the official ideology of the Chinese imperial state. Many of the other schools had disappeared.

asbakin
Posts: 63
Joined: Fri Mar 20, 2009 5:59 pm

Re: Muhammad bapak peradaban dunia

Post by asbakin »

Info ttg berbagai variasi pemikiran di zaman china purba sebelum kasir qin berkuasa, semua ini terjadi pada saat TAHAYUL masih sangat kental dalam pemikiran rakyat china kuno :

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hundred_Schools_of_Thought

The Hundred Schools of Thought (traditional Chinese: 諸子百家; simplified Chinese: 诸子百家; pinyin: zhūzǐ bǎijiā; Wade-Giles: chu-tzu pai-chia; literally "all philosophers hundred schools") were philosophers and schools that flourished from 770 to 221 B.C.E., an era of great cultural and intellectual expansion in China. Even though this period - known in its earlier part as the Spring and Autumn period and the Warring States period (春秋戰國時代/春秋战国时代) - in its latter part was fraught with chaos and bloody battles, it is also known as the Golden Age of Chinese philosophy because a broad range of thoughts and ideas were developed and discussed freely. This phenomenon has been called the Contention of a Hundred Schools of Thought (百家爭鳴/百家争鸣; bǎijiā zhēngmíng; pai-chia cheng-ming; "hundred schools contend"). The thoughts and ideas discussed and refined during this period have profoundly influenced lifestyles and social consciousness up to the present day in East Asian countries. The intellectual society of this era was characterized by itinerant scholars, who were often employed by various state rulers as advisers on the methods of government, war, and diplomacy. This period ended with the rise of the Qin dynasty and the subsequent purge of dissent. This article contains Chinese text. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Chinese characters.
Contents
1 Confucianism and its derivatives
2 Legalism
3 Taoism
4 Mohism
5 School of Yin-yang
6 Logicians
7 Other Schools
8 History and origins
9 See also
10 References
11 External links


Confucianism and its derivatives
Main article: Confucianism

Confucianism (儒家; Rújiā; Ju-chia; "School of scholars") is the body of thought that arguably had the most enduring effects on Chinese life. Its written legacy lies in the Confucian Classics, which later became the foundation of traditional society. Confucius (551–479 BC), or Kongzi "Master Kong", looked back to the early days of the Zhou dynasty for an ideal socio-political order. He believed that the only effective system of government necessitated prescribed relationships for each individual: "Let the ruler be a ruler and the subject a subject". Furthermore, he contended that a king must be virtuous in order to rule properly. To Confucius, the functions of government and social stratification were facts of life to be sustained by ethical values; thus his ideal human was the junzi, which is translated as "gentleman" or "superior person".

Mencius (371–289 BC), or Mengzi, formulated his teachings directly in response to Confucius.

The effect of the combined work of Confucius, the codifier and interpreter of a system of relationships based on ethical behavior, and Mencius, the synthesizer and developer of applied Confucianist thought, was to provide traditional Chinese society with a comprehensive framework by which to order virtually every aspect of life.

There were many accretions to the body of Confucian thought, both immediately and over the millennia, from within and without the Confucian school. Interpretations adapted to contemporary society allowed for flexibility within Confucianism, while the fundamental system of modeled behavior from ancient texts formed its philosophical core.

Diametrically opposed to Mencius, in regards to human nature (性), was the interpretation of Xunzi (c. 300–237 BC), another Confucian follower. Xunzi preached that man is not innately good; he asserted that goodness is attainable only through training one's desires and conduct.

[edit]
Legalism
Main article: Legalism (philosophy)

The School of Law or Legalism (法家; Fǎjiā; Fa-chia; "School of law") doctrine was formulated by Han Feizi (d. 233 BC) and Li Si (d. 208 BC), who maintained that human nature was incorrigibly selfish; accordingly, the only way to preserve the social order was to impose discipline from above, and to see to a strict enforcement of laws. The Legalists exalted the state above all, seeking its prosperity and martial prowess over the welfare of the common people.

Legalism greatly influenced the philosophical basis for the imperial form of government. During the Han Dynasty, the most practical elements of Confucianism and Legalism were taken to form a sort of synthesis, marking the creation of a new form of government that would remain largely intact until the late 19th century.

[edit]
Taoism
Main article: Taoism

Philosophical Taoism or Daoism (道家; Dàojiā; Tao-chia; "School of the Way") developed into the second most significant stream of Chinese thought. Its formulation is often attributed to the legendary sage Laozi ("Old Master"), who is said to predate Confucius, and Zhuangzi (369–286 BC). The focus of Taoism is on the individual within the natural realm rather than the individual within society; accordingly, the goal of life for each individual is seeking to adjust oneself and adapting to the rhythm of the natural (and the supernatural) world, to follow the Way (tao) of the universe, and to live in harmony. In many ways the opposite of rigid Confucian morality, Taoism was for many of its adherents a complement to their ordered daily lives. A scholar serving as an official would usually follow Confucian teachings, but at leisure or in retirement might seek harmony with nature as a Taoist recluse.

[edit]
Mohism
Main article: Mohism

Mohism or Moism (墨家; Mòjiā; Mo-chia; "School of Mo") was developed by followers of Mozi (also referred to as Mo Di; 470–c.391 BC). Though the school did not survive through the Qin Dynasty, Mohism was seen as a major rival of Confucianism in the period of the Hundred Schools of Thought. Its philosophy rested on the idea of universal love: Mozi believed that "everyone is equal before heaven", and that people should seek to imitate heaven by engaging in the practice of collective love. His epistemology can be regarded as primitive materialist empiricism; he believed that our cognition ought to be based on our perceptions – our sensory experiences, such as sight and hearing – instead of imagination or internal logic, elements founded on our capacity for abstraction.

Mozi advocated frugality, condemning the Confucian emphasis on ritual and music, which he denounced as extravagant. He regarded warfare as wasteful and advocated pacifism. The achievement of social goals, according to Mozi, necessitated the unity of thought and action. His political philosophy bears a resemblance to divine-rule monarchy: the population ought always to obey its leaders, as its leaders ought always to follow the will of heaven. Mohism might be argued to have elements of meritocracy: Mozi contended that rulers should appoint officials by virtue of their ability instead of their family connections. Although popular faith in Mohism had declined by the end of the Qin Dynasty, its views are said to be strongly echoed in Legalist thought.

[edit]
School of Yin-yang

The School of Naturalists or Yin-yang (陰陽家/阴阳家; Yīnyángjiā; Yin-yang-chia; "School of Yin-Yang") was a Warring States era philosophy that synthesized the concepts of yin-yang and the Five Elements. Zou Yan is considered the founder of this school. Their theories attempted to explain the universe in terms of basic forces in nature: the complementary agents of yin (dark, cold, female, positive) and yang (light, hot, male, negative) and the Five Elements or Five Phases (water, fire, wood, metal, and earth). In its early days, these theories were most strongly associated with the states of Yan and Qi. In later periods, these epistemological theories came to hold significance in both philosophy and popular belief. This school was absorbed into Taoism's alchemic and magical dimensions.

[edit]
Logicians
Main article: Logicians

The School of Names or Logicians (名家; Míngjiā; Ming-chia; "School of names") grew out of Mohism, with a philosophy that focused on definition and logic. It is said to have parallels with that of the Ancient Greek sophists or dialecticians. The most notable Logician was Gongsun Longzi.


[edit]
Other Schools

The Taishigong Zixu(太史公自序) of Shiji (史記/史记) lists the above six major philosophies within the Hundred Schools of Thought. The Yiwenzhi(藝文志/艺文志) of Hanshu (漢書/汉书) adds four more into the Ten Schools (十家; Shijia).

The School of Agriculture (農家/农家; Nongjia) encouraged farming and agriculture and taught farming and cultivation techniques, as they believed that agricultural development was the way to have enough food for the country. For example, Mencius once criticized Xu Xing (許行) for advocating that rulers should work in the fields with their subjects.

The School of Diplomacy or School of Vertical and Horizontal [Alliances] (縱橫家/纵横家; Zonghengjia) specialized in diplomatic politics; Zhang Yi was a representative thinker. This school focused on practical matters instead of any moral principle, so it stressed political and diplomatic tactics, and debate and lobbying skill. Scholars from this school were good orators, debaters and tacticians.

The Miscellaneous School (雜家/杂家; Zajia) integrated teachings from different schools; for instance, Lü Buwei found scholars from different schools to write a book called Lüshi Chunqiu (呂氏春秋) cooperatively. This school tried to integrate the merits of various schools and avoid their perceived flaws. Thus, the thought of this school lacked originality.

The School of "Minor-talks" (小說家/小说家; Xiaoshuojia) was not a unique school of thought. Indeed, all the thoughts which was discussed by and originated from non-famous people on the street were included into this school. At that time, there were some government officials responsible for collecting ideas from non-famous people on the street and report to their senior. This was where this school originated from. This also explains its Chinese name, which literally means "school of minor-talks".

Another group is the School of the Military (兵家; Bingjia) that studied warfare and strategy; Sunzi and Sun Bin were influential leaders. However, this school was not one of the "Ten Schools" defined by Hanshu.

From the Taishigong Zixu of Shiji and Yiwenzhi of Hanshu the schools are developed from Zhou Dynasty officials. The theory about the origin of the Ten Schools is detailed in the Yi Wen Zhi. According to it, the officials working for the government during the early Zhou Dynasty lost their position when the authority of the Zhou rulers began to break down. In this way, the officials spread all over the country and started to teach their own field of knowledge as private teachers. In this way the schools of philosophy were born. In particular, the School of Scholars (i.e. the Confucian School) was born from the officials of the Ministry of Education; the Taoists came from the historians; the Ying Yang School was born from the astronomers; the Legalist School from the Ministry of Justice; the School of Names from the Ministry of Rituals; the Mohist School from the Guardians of the Temple; the School of Diplomacy from the the Ministry of Embassies; the School of Miscellaneous from the governement counselors; the School of Agriculture from the Ministry of the Soil and Wheat; the School of Minor Talks from the minor officials.

The Burning of books and burying of scholars banned people to keep most of their texts. The texts officially kept might be burned with the Qin Palace by Xiang Yu. From the Yiwenzhi, there are still many officially kept texts in the Former Han Dynasty, and some are written by Han dynasty people. The Wudi of Han ordered the study of the Confucian classics the basis of the government examination system and the core of the educational curriculum; there were little students to these schools except a few and many texts were lost later. Their thoughts can only be seen in the existing texts and newly discovered texts.

asbakin
Posts: 63
Joined: Fri Mar 20, 2009 5:59 pm

Re: Muhammad bapak peradaban dunia

Post by asbakin »

Info ttg ilmuwan china kuno yang mana pada saat itu masih berkutat-katit pada TAHAYUL !! Ilmuwan ini cuman belajar dari kakeknya tokh !! bukan dari gudang ilmu/perpustakaan.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Guo_Shoujing

Guo Shoujing (Chinese: 郭守敬; pinyin: Guō Shǒujìng; Wade-Giles: Kuo Shou-ching, 1231–1316), courtesy name Ruosi (若思), was a Chinese astronomer, engineer, and mathematician born in Xingtai, Hebei and lived during the Yuan Dynasty (1271–1368). The later Johann Adam Schall von Bell (1591–1666) was so impressed with the preserved astronomical instruments of Guo that he called him "the Tycho Brahe of China."[1]Contents [hide]
1 Early Life
2 Mature Life
3 Death
4 Analysis of Contributions
5 Past Historical Interpretations
6 Contributions
7 Notes
8 References
9 External links


[edit]
Early Life

In 1231, in Xingtai, Hebei province, China, Guo Shoujing was born into a family which soon had to let him go.[2] The names of his parents are unknown, as Guo's father died while he was a child and his mother left him to be raised primarily by his paternal grandfather, Guo Yong. His grandfather was famous throughout China for his expertise in a wide variety of topics, ranging from the study of the Five Classics to astronomy, mathematics, and hydraulics. Guo was raised learning everything his grandfather presented to him, soon propelling him to a new level of mastery of the engineering world. He became curious as a child, playing with objects, figuring out what the world was about and how he could change it or make it better. (TIDAK ADA INSPIRASI DARI KATA "BACALAH") He became somewhat of a prodigy, showing exceptional promise. By the age of 14 or 15, he obtained a blueprint for a water clock which his grandfather was working on, and realized its principles of operation. He improved the design of a type of water clock called a lotus clepsydra, which is a water clock that has a bowl shaped like a lotus flower on the top into which the water dripped. After he had mastered the construction of such water clocks, he began to study mathematics in a rigorous fashion at the age of 16. From mathematics, he began to understand, more complexly, the science of hydraulics, as well as the study of astronomy. This foundation of learning set up the stage for the rest of his life and his contributions to society.[3]

[edit]
Mature Life

At the same time as Guo Shoujing began to reach out into the world and apply his mathematical genius to society, Genghis Khan died and his son, Ogodei, began to conquer south into China. Guo, at the age of 20, became a hydraulic engineer, working close to his home city to improve the municipal water supply. In 1251, working as a government official, he helped to repair a bridge over the Dahuoquan River. His hydraulic expertise did not go unnoticed. In the late 1250’s, Kublai Khan became the official Khan and ruler of most of China, which had been conquered by the Mongols and was still under their control. Zhang Wenqian, a friend of Guo’s and a government official, informed Kublai Khan himself that Guo was the leading hydraulics expert of the time. Kublai Khan realized the importance of hydraulic engineering, irrigation, and water transport, which he believed could help alleviate uprisings within the empire. Kublai sent Guo to look at these aspects in the area between Dadu (now Beijing or Peking) and the Yellow River. To provide Dadu with a new supply of water, Guo found the Baifu spring in the Shenshan Mountain and had a 30 km channel built to bring the water to Dadu. He proposed connecting the water supply across different river basins, built new canals with many sluices to control the water level, and achieved great success with the improvements which he was able to make. The Grand Canal, which had linked the river systems of the Yangtze, the Huai, and the Huang since the early 7th century, was repaired and extended to Dadu in 1292–93 with the use of corvée (unpaid labor).[4] After the success of this project, Kublai Khan was overwhelmingly pleased and sent him off to manage similar projects in other parts of the empire. He became the chief advisor of hydraulics, mathematics, and astronomy for Kublai Khan.[5] During this time, Guo also began to construct astronomical instruments. The most important instruments he invented were the gnomon, the square table, the abridged or simplified armilla, and a water powered armillary sphere called the Ling Long Yi. The gnomon is used to measure the angle of the sun, determine the seasons, and is the basis of the sundial, but Guo Shoujing revised this device to become much more accurate and improved the ability to tell time almost precisely. For the time, it was a revolutionary step towards making China the most technologically advanced country in the world. The square table was used to measure the azimuth of celestial bodies by the equal altitude method and could also be used as protractor. The abridged or simplified armilla was used to measure the angle of the sun, topography, the direction of north, as well as the position of any celestial body. The Ling Long Yi is similar to an abridged armilla except larger, more complex, and more accurate.[6] Kublai Khan, after observing Guo’s mastery of astronomy, ordered that he, Zhang, and Wang Xun set out to make a more accurate calendar. The first thing they did was design a new observatory near Dengfong. After construction was complete, they built 26 other observatories throughout China in order to gain thorough observations for their calculations. In 1280, Guo completed the calendar, calculating a year to be 365.2425 days, just 26 seconds off the year calculated currently. This calendar was used for hundreds of years in China, leading them to have the most accurate calendar in the world, closely followed by the Gregorian calendar. In 1283, Guo was promoted to director of the Observatory in Beijing and, in 1292; he became the head of the Water Works Bureau. Throughout his life he also did extensive work with spherical trigonometry, adding on to what was previously known from the Ancient Greeks. After Kublai Khan’s death, Guo continued to be an advisor to Kublai’s successors, working on hydraulics and astronomy.[7]

[edit]
Death

Little is known of the death of Guo Shoujing. The only information found about his death is that he died in 1316 in China.[8] It can be deduced that he died of old age or an illness related to old age. He was most likely working on mathematics, astronomy, and hydraulics long into his old age, making more discoveries and innovations to add to his repertoire. It is safe to say he most likely never left China his entire life, working the whole time within the country in order to make it better or make new discoveries. He died at the age of 85 and probably held a very high, noble standing in society at the time of his death.

[edit]
Analysis of Contributions

Guo Shoujing changed everything in Chinese science at the time relating to astronomy, hydraulics, or mathematics. The tools he invented for astronomy allowed him to calculate the near exact time of the year; 301 years before the Gregorian calendar. This allowed the Chinese culture to set up a whole new system of exact dates and times, allowing for increasingly accurate recording of history and a sense of continuity throughout the country. The calendar stabilized the Chinese culture through continuity and, consequently, dynasties were able to rule with a degree more stability. It was a tool of societal stability, even though it was simply intended to create a more accurate calendar. Through his work in astronomy, he was also able to more accurately establish the location of celestial bodies and the angles of the Sun relative to Earth. He invented a tool which could be used as an astrological compass, helping people find north using the stars instead of magnets. Overall, Guo helped the Chinese through astronomy to make dramatic advances in scientific discoveries, most of which would not show up in the Western world for hundreds of years. Within the field of hydraulics, even at a young age, Guo was revolutionizing old inventions. His work on clocks, irrigation, reservoirs, and equilibrium stations within other machines allowed for a more rewarding and effective result. For clocks and equilibrium components, he made them more accurate and precise allowing for better results. If a machine was not in equilibrium and needed to be to function, it would end up with the wrong answer or result, thus making the machine useless. He made sure that astronomical and mathematical machines used to read angles, weights, and position all were fitted with equilibrium systems stemming from his work in hydraulics. The watches he perfected through his work in hydraulics allowed for an extremely accurate reading of the time. For irrigation, he provided the correct hydraulics systems in order for water to be distributed equally and for transport to be swift and effective. His irrigation plans changed communities so that they could establish effective trading and the community could prosper. In the category of reservoirs, his most memorable engineering feat is the man-made Kunming Lake in Beijing. This enormous lake provided water for all of the surrounding area of Beijing and allowed for the best grain transport system in the country. His work with other such reservoirs allowed people in inner China access to water for planting, drinking, and trading. All of his work in hydraulics allowed communities throughout China to flourish and China moved forward as an economic power. Guo’s work in mathematics was regarded as the most highly knowledgeable mathematics in China for 400 years. Guo worked on spherical trigonometry, using a system of approximation to find arc lengths and angles. He stated that pi was equal to 3, leading to a complex sequence of equations which came up with an answer more accurate than the answer that would have resulted if he did the same sequence of equations, but instead having pi equal to 3.1415.[9] His genius in use of equations and approximation led to more accurate answers than ever seen before, only to be superseded in 1607 by Matteo Ricci and Xu Guangqi. This spherical trigonometry he developed allowed scientists and mathematicians all over China to use more accuracy in their work and, consequently, led to more discoveries and inventions in other fields. His mathematic feats, overall, led to accelerated progress in mathematics and science throughout the world. All in all, his contributions to society centered on allowing the community to flourish, become more connected, and have there be more accuracy within daily life.

[edit]
Past Historical Interpretations

For several hundred years after Guo Shoujing made his major discoveries and did his revolutionary work in various fields, he was still regarded as the best Chinese astronomer, mathematician, and engineer. But, as people began to add onto his work, the authenticity of his work was questioned. Some believe that he took Middle Eastern mathematical and theoretical ideas and used them as his own, taking all the credit.[10] It might have been true that he had similar ideas and waves of thinking, but it is highly unlikely that he stole ideas from others. The biggest point against this is that he never left China and thus could not have had access to their ideas. He also had more complex ideas than anyone else of the time so even if he had stolen ideas, he would have had to have added onto them, making them new and original. It is unclear whether this is true or not, but the facts state otherwise. Otherwise, Guo was highly regarded throughout history, by many cultures, as a forbearer of the Gregorian calendar as well as the man who perfected irrigation techniques in the new millennium. Many historians regard him as the most prominent Chinese astronomer, engineer, and mathematician of all time. He began the pull of China into the future. He also presented China with its first glimpse of being an economic power through his hydraulic work. Overall, historians believe him to be one of the most prominent figures, in any field, in Chinese history.

[edit]
Contributions

He worked on improving the Chinese gnomon and worked at Kublai Khan's Gaocheng Astronomical Observatory. He set 27 observation centers in different parts of China. There he formulated the Shoushili calendar (授時曆) in 1281 and calculated the year to be 365.2425 days, only 26 seconds off the real time; this is the same as the Gregorian calendar, but 301 years earlier.[11] It would be used for the next 363 years, the longest a calendar would be used in Chinese history.[11] He also used mathematical functions in his work relating to spherical trigonometry,[12][13] building upon the knowledge of Shen Kuo's (1031–1095) earlier work in trigonometry.[14] It is debated amongst scholars whether or not his work in trigonometry was based entirely on the work of Shen, or whether it was partially influenced by Islamic mathematics which was largely accepted at Kublai's court.[13] Sal Restivo asserts that Guo Shoujing's work in trigonometry was directly influenced by Shen's work.[15] An important work in trigonometry in China would not be printed again until the collaborative efforts of Xu Guangqi and his Italian Jesuit associate Matteo Ricci in 1607, during the late Ming Dynasty.[14]

He devised a number of astronomical instruments, and conducted large-scale geodetic surveys and celestial observations. Although he did a great deal on the modern calendar, he suggested pi 3, unlike Zu Chongzhi's 3.14159265 and Zhang Heng's 3.142.

In engineering he is best known for constructing the artificial Kunming Lake in Beijing as a reservoir and part of a new waterway for grain transport.

Asteroid 2012 Guo Shou-Jing is named after him.

asbakin
Posts: 63
Joined: Fri Mar 20, 2009 5:59 pm

Re: Muhammad bapak peradaban dunia

Post by asbakin »

Tentang dari mana keluarga barmakid mendapat sifat sebagai patron iptek, dari quran/muhammad spt kata anda atau dari leluhurnya ??

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sassanid_E ... literature

The Sassanid kings were enlightened patrons of letters and philosophy. Khosrau I had the works of Plato and Aristotle translated into Pahlavi taught at Gundishapur, and even read them himself. During his reign many historical annals were compiled, of which the sole survivor is the Karnamak-i Artaxshir-i Papakan (Deeds of Ardashir), a mixture of history and romance that served as the basis of the Iranian national epic, the Shahnama. When Justinian I closed the schools of Athens, seven of their professors fled to Persia and found refuge at Khosrau's court. In time they grew homesick, and in his treaty of 533 with Justinian, the Sassanid king stipulated that the Greek sages should be allowed to return and be free from persecution.[47]

Under Khosrau I the college of Gundishapur, which had been founded in the 5th Century, became "the greatest intellectual center of the time," drawing students and teachers from every quarter of the known world. Nestorian Christians were received there, and brought Syriac translations of Greek works in medicine and philosophy. Neoplatonists, too, came to Gundishapur, where they planted the seeds of Sufi mysticism; the medical lore of India, Persia, Syria, and Greece mingled there to produce a flourishing school of therapy.[47]

Artistically, the Sassanid period witnessed some of the highest achievements of Persian civilization. Much of what later became known as Muslim culture, including architecture and writing, was originally drawn from Persian culture. At its peak the Sassanid Empire stretched from Syria to northwest India, but its influence was felt far beyond these political boundaries.

asbakin
Posts: 63
Joined: Fri Mar 20, 2009 5:59 pm

Re: Muhammad bapak peradaban dunia

Post by asbakin »

Menjawab pertanyaan anda kenapa persia dan romawi tdk mencapai prestasi spt dinasti abbassid ??

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sassanid_E ... chronology

226–241: Reign of Ardashir I:
224–226: Overthrow of Parthian Empire.
229–232: War with Rome
Zoroastrianism is revived as official religion.
The collection of texts known as the Zend Avesta is assembled.

241–271: Reign of Shapur I"the Great":
241–244: War with Rome.
252–261: War with Rome. Capture of Roman emperor Valerian.

215–271: Mani, founder of Manicheanism.

271–301: A period of dynastic struggles.

283: War with Rome. Romans sack Ctesiphon

296-8: War with Rome. Persia cedes five provinces east of the Tigris to Rome.

309–379: Reign of Shapur II:
337–350: First war with Rome with relatively little success.
359–363: Second war with Rome. Rome returns trans-Tigris provinces and cedes Nisibis and Singara to Persia.


387: Armenia partitioned into Roman and Persian zones.

399–420: Reign of Yazdegerd I "the Sinner":
409: Christian are permitted to publicly worship and to build churches.
416–420: Persecution of Christians as Yazdegerd revokes his earlier order.

420–438: Reign of Bahram V:
420–422: War with Rome.
424: Council of Dad-Ishu declares the Eastern Church independent of Constantinople.
428: Persian zone of Armenia annexed to Sassanid Empire.

438–457: Reign of Yazdegerd II:
441: War with Rome.
449-451: Armenian revolt.

482-3: Armenian and Iberian revolt.

483: Edict of Toleration granted to Christians.

484: Peroz I defeated and killed by Hephthalites.

491: Armenian revolt. Armenian Church repudiates the Council of Chalcedon:
Nestorian Christianity becomes dominant Christian sect in Sassanid Empire.

502-506: War with Constantinople.

526-532: War with Constantinople.


531–579: Reign of Khosrau I, "with the immortal soul" (Anushirvan)

540–562: War with Constantinople.

572-591: War with Constantinople. Persia cedes much of Armenia and Iberia to Constantinople.


590–628: Reign of Khosrau II

603–628: War with Byzantium. Persia occupies Byzantine Mesopotamia, Syria, Palestine, Egypt and the Transcaucasus, before being driven to withdraw to pre-war frontiers by Byzantine counter-offensive.

610: Arabs defeat a Sassanid army at Dhu-Qar.


626: Unsuccessful siege of Constantinople by Avars and Persians.

627: Byzantine Emperor Heraclius invades Assyria and Mesopotamia. Decisive defeat of Persian forces at the Battle of Nineveh.


628–632: Chaotic period of multiple rulers.

632–642: Reign of Yazdegerd III.

636: Decisive Sassanid defeat at the Battle of al-Qādisiyyah during the Islamic conquest of Iran.

642: Final victory of Arabs when Persian army destroyed at the Battle of Nihawānd.


651: Last Sassanid ruler Yazdegerd III then fled eastward from one district to another, until at last he was killed by a local miller for his purse at Merv (present-day Turkmenistan), ending the dynasty.[6]His son Pirooz II and many others went into exile in China[7].


Kekuatan Arab islam muncul dan mendominasi timur tengah adalah disaat romawi/byzantium dan persia sudah kelelahan dan kehabisan tenaga karena saling berperang.

asbakin
Posts: 63
Joined: Fri Mar 20, 2009 5:59 pm

Re: Muhammad bapak peradaban dunia

Post by asbakin »

Tentang bagaimana situasi internal persia ketika ditaklukkan oleh para tentara muslim arab.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sassanid_E ... 0.93651.29

The impact of Heraclius's victories, the devastation of the richest territories of the Sassanid Empire and the humiliating destruction of high-profile targets such as Ganzak and Dastagerd fatally undermined Khosrau's prestige and his support among the Persian aristocracy, and early in 628 he was overthrown and murdered by his son Kavadh II (628), who immediately brought an end to the war, agreeing to withdraw from all occupied territories. In 629 AD Heraclius restored the True Cross to Jerusalem in a majestic ceremony.[36] Kavadh died within months and chaos and civil war followed. Over a period of four years and five successive kings, including two daughters of Khosrau II and spahbod Shahrbaraz, the Sassanid Empire weakened considerably. The power of the central authority passed into the hands of the generals. It would take several years for a strong king to emerge from a series of coups, and the Sassanids never had time to recover fully.

In the spring of 632, a grandson of Khosrau I who had lived in hiding, Yazdegerd III, ascended the throne. The same year, the first raiders from the Arab tribes, newly united by Islam, arrived in Persian territory. Years of warfare had exhausted both the Byzantines and the Persians. The Sassanids were further weakened by economic decline, heavy taxation, religious unrest, rigid social stratification, the increasing power of the provincial landholders, and a rapid turnover of rulers. These factors facilitated the Islamic conquest of Persia.

The Sassanids never mounted a truly effective resistance to the pressure applied by the initial Arab armies. Yazdegerd was a boy at the mercy of his advisers and incapable of uniting a vast country crumbling into small feudal kingdoms, despite the fact that the Byzantines, under similar pressure from the newly expansive Arabs, no longer threatened. Caliph Abu Bakr's brilliant commander Khalid ibn Walid moved to capture Iraq in series of lightning battles. Redeployed to the Syrian front against the Byzantines in June 634, Khalid's successor in Iraq failed him and Muslims were defeated in the Battle of the Bridge in 634 which resulted in a Sassanid victory, however the Arab threat did not stop there and reappeared shortly from the disciplined armies of Khalid ibn Walid, once one of Muhammad's chosen companions-in-arms and leader of the Arab army.

Under the Caliph `Umar ibn al-Khattāb, a Muslim army defeated a larger Persian force lead by general Rostam Farrokhzad at the plains of al-Qādisiyyah in 637 and besieged Ctesiphon. Ctesiphon fell after a prolonged siege. Yazdgerd fled eastward from Ctesiphon, leaving behind him most of the Empire's vast treasury. The Arabs captured Ctesiphon shortly afterward, leaving the Sassanid government strapped for funds and acquiring a powerful financial resource for their own use. A number of Sassanid governors attempted to combine their forces to throw back the invaders, but the effort was crippled by the lack of a strong central authority, and the governors were defeated at the Battle of Nihawānd; the empire, with its military command structure non-existent, its non-noble troop levies decimated, its financial resources effectively destroyed, and the Asawaran (Azatan) knightly caste destroyed piecemeal, was now utterly helpless in the face of the invaders.

Upon hearing the defeat in Nihawānd, Yazdgerd along with most of Persian nobilities fled further inland to the eastern province of Khorasan. He was assassinated by a miller in Merv in late 651 while the rest of the nobles settled in central Asia where they contributed greatly in spreading Persian culture and language in those regions and the establishment of the first native Iranian Islamic dynasty, the Samanid dynasty, which sought to revive and resuscitate Sassanid traditions and culture after the invasion of Islam.

The abrupt fall of Sassanid Empire was completed in a period of five years, and most of its territory was absorbed into the Islamic caliphate; however, many Iranian cities resisted and fought against the invaders several times. Cities such as Rayy, Isfahan and Hamadan were exterminated thrice by Islamic caliphates in order to suppress revolts.[37] The local population, initially under little pressure to convert to Islam, remained as dhimmi subjects of the Muslim state and paid a poll tax (jizya),[38]. Conversion of the Persian population to Islam would take place gradually, particularly as Persian-speaking elites attempted to gain positions of prestige under the Abbasid Caliphate.

Invaders destroyed the Academy of Gundishapur and its library, burning piles of books. Most Sassanid records and literary works were destroyed. A few that escaped this fate were later translated into Arabic and later to Modern Persian.[29] During the Islamic invasion many Iranian cities were destroyed or deserted, palaces and bridges were ruined and many magnificent imperial Persian gardens were burned to the ground.

n1kko
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Re: Muhammad bapak peradaban dunia

Post by n1kko »

poringrebirth wrote:saya mau tahu.... menurut saudara n1kko itu pengertian dari "peradaban"???
apa bedanya dengan pengertian dari "kebudayaan"???
karena kalau saya lihat saudara menghubungkan keduanya...
menurut saya yang mungkin lebih **** dari anda, peradaban dan kebudayaan adalah kesatuan
disini peradaban diartikan tubuh dan kebudayaan adalah jiwanya, dapat disamakan bahwa peradaban burujud materi sedangkan kebudayaan adalah nilai2

mohon dikoreksi kalau salah
poringrebirth wrote:saya hanya ingin mengklarifikasi.... rum yang disini rum yang berarti roma??? :-k
lalu apa maksud saudara n1kko denga mengatakan "peradaban dimulai saat rum dan farsi menjadi islam?"
maksud saya peradaban yang mengantarkan kita ke peradaban modern dimana dasar2 sains dibangun dari negeri muslim dan dikembangkan oleh barat
poringrebirth wrote:Bagaimana dengan bangsa lain di Timur Tengah lainnya seperti Mesir, Yunani, Sumeria, Babilonia, dan lain-lain... Apakah mereka tidak punya peradaban??? :-s
mereka memiliki peradaban yang tinggi tetapi miskin kebudayaan
misalkan romawi memang memiliki peradaban yang tinggi pada masanya tetapi kebudayaan mereka sangat rendah
saat agama nasrani masuk ke romawi mereka memiliki peradaban dan kebudayaan yang tinggi
Last edited by n1kko on Fri Jul 31, 2009 10:14 am, edited 1 time in total.

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kutukupret
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Re: Muhammad bapak peradaban dunia

Post by kutukupret »

n1kko wrote:mereka memiliki peradaban yang tinggi tetapi miskin kebudayaan
misalkan romawi memang memiliki peradaban yang tinggi pada masanya tetapi kebudayaan mereka sangat rendah
saat agama nasrani masuk ke romawi mereka memiliki peradaban dan kebudayaan yang tinggi
Lha wong menurut Quran
1. BUMI itu DATAR
2. Susu asalnya dari Perut, bukan dari kelenjar susu
3. masih banyak lagi
:green:

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Re: Muhammad bapak peradaban dunia

Post by poringrebirth »

n1kko wrote: mereka memiliki peradaban yang tinggi tetapi miskin kebudayaan
misalkan romawi memang memiliki peradaban yang tinggi pada masanya tetapi kebudayaan mereka sangat rendah
maaf saudara n1kko jikalu boleh, saya igin saudara n1kko menunjukkan bukti bahwa kebudayaan dari bangsa-bangsa tersebut memang rendah...
bolehkah saya tahu contohnya???
n1kko wrote: maksud saya peradaban yang mengantarkan kita ke peradaban modern dimana dasar2 sains dibangun dari negeri muslim dan dikembangkan oleh barat
kalau saya boleh berpendapat, tanpa bermaksud memandang rendah kontribusi budaya sains islam terhadap perpustakaan ilmu dunia, bukankah dasar2 sains dari negeri muslim juga merupakan pengembangan dari ilmu-ilmu bangsa lain?

lalu mnurut saudara n1kko, bagaimana pandangan saudara dengan apa yang sering disebut sarjana sejarah dengan "masa stagnansi ilmu" setelah abad ke-15 setelah kehancuran Baghdad tahun 1258 dan Spanyol tahun 1492? Menurut pandangan saudara, apa yang menyebabkan ilmuwan Islam tampaknya kurang memberikan andil pada khazanah ilmu dunia?

Menurut saudara n1kko model pendidikan seperti apa yang cocok dan sesuai dengan apa yang Anda benar?

dan terakhir,
Menurut saudara n1kko, apakah ada perbedaan antara madrasah dulu (jaman Baghdad) dengan madrasah yang ada di Indonesia saat ini dalam hal pegajaran ilmu?

Terima kasih atas segala tanggapannya,
Salam saya.

n1kko
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Re: Muhammad bapak peradaban dunia

Post by n1kko »

[quote=""poringrebirth"]

maaf saudara n1kko jikalu boleh, saya igin saudara n1kko menunjukkan bukti bahwa kebudayaan dari bangsa-bangsa tersebut memang rendah...
bolehkah saya tahu contohnya???[/quote]

kebudayaan romawi pra kristen sangat rendah, kebudayaan mesir kuno sangat rendah walaupun mereka memiliki peradaban yang sangat tinggi
masihkah kebudayaan mengadu manusia dengan singga dilestarikan hingga sekarang
poringrebirth wrote: kalau saya boleh berpendapat, tanpa bermaksud memandang rendah kontribusi budaya sains islam terhadap perpustakaan ilmu dunia, bukankah dasar2 sains dari negeri muslim juga merupakan pengembangan dari ilmu-ilmu bangsa lain?
berikan contohnya

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kutukupret
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Re: Muhammad bapak peradaban dunia

Post by kutukupret »

n1kko wrote:kebudayaan romawi pra kristen sangat rendah, kebudayaan mesir kuno sangat rendah walaupun mereka memiliki peradaban yang sangat tinggi
masihkah kebudayaan mengadu manusia dengan singga dilestarikan hingga sekarang
lalu bagaimana dgn kebudayaan Ng3tot dgn bocah Ingusan yang masih lestari hingga kini?
contohnya : Syech Puji

:green:

n1kko
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Re: Muhammad bapak peradaban dunia

Post by n1kko »

Kesimpulan topic ini yaitu Muhammad adalah bapak peradaban dunia dan pencetus sains modern
saya tutup kesimpulanya dengan ketokan palu...tok...tok...tok

keputusan tidak boleh diganggu gugat!

Salam
n1kko

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Re: Muhammad bapak peradaban dunia

Post by newbie »

@N1kko
Dicariin sama mikimos tuh.. Kamu kan Topic Starter di Allah 3 agama, manakah yang paling benar? kok malah ilang sih? Tanggungjawab dong sama thread yg kamu buat.


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mikimos
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Re: Muhammad bapak peradaban dunia

Post by mikimos »

newbie wrote:@N1kko
Dicariin sama mikimos tuh.. Kamu kan Topic Starter di Allah 3 agama, manakah yang paling benar? kok malah ilang sih? Tanggungjawab dong sama thread yg kamu buat.


Newbie
kita liat apa n1kko ngintip lagi kesana....
sudah diundang sama newbie kalau nggak mampir juga ya kebangeten...
TS kok ngacir

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