Sistim Perbudakan Islam di INDIA****

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Sistim Perbudakan Islam di INDIA****

Postby ali5196 » Sat Feb 21, 2009 3:24 am

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Encyclopedia > Muslim Slave System in Medieval India

Muslim Slave System in Medieval India is a book written by historian K.S. Lal. It was published in 1994. It is a detailed study of the Muslim slave system in medieval India. Contents
1 Slave System
2 Sex Slavery
3 See also
4 External links

Slave System

Slavery in India was already a common practice under the rule of Muhammad bin Qasim. Female slaves were sent by Muhammad bin Qasim to Hajjaj who forwarded them to Walid the Khalifa, or they were given to the soldiers. Lal claims that "Obviously a few lakh women were enslaved in the course of Arab invasion of Sindh." and he says that "If such were the gains of the ‘mild’ Muhammad bin Qasim in enslaving kaniz wa ghulam in Sindh, the slaves captured by Mahmud of Ghazni, “that ferocious and insatiable conqueror”, of the century beginning with the year 1000 C.E. have of course to be counted in hundreds of thousands." He gives some details about Mahmud of Ghazni, about whom he writes: "When Mahmud Ghaznavi attacked Waihind in 1001-02, he took 500,000 persons of both sexes as captive. This figure of Abu Nasr Muhammad Utbi, the secretary and chronicler of Mahmud, is so mind-boggling that Elliot reduces it to 5000. The point to note is that taking of slaves was a matter of routine in every expedition. Only when the numbers were exceptionally large did they receive the notice of the chroniclers."

K.S. Lal also claims that the slave-taking added significiantly to the Growth of the Muslim population in India: "It needs no reiteration that every slave captured in war or purchased in the market or sent in lieu of revenue or tribute was invariably converted to Islam, so that slave-taking in medieval India was the most flourishing and successful missionary endeavour." Lal writes that Akbar disapproved of the enslavement of women and children. In one chapter, he writes in detail about Ghilmans and Eunuchs in Medieval India.

Sex Slavery
About Sex Slavery, Lal writes that "In this background, it would be an unremitting task both in volume and repetition to give all anecdotes, facts and figures of enslavement and concubinage of captive women in the central and provincial kingdoms and independent Muslim states found mentioned in the chronicles. This would only lead to repetition resulting in the book becoming bulky."

Sexual slavery in Islam
The Quran considers the liberation of slaves a meritable act, orders prisoners to be released with or without ransom and forbids debt slavery. However, both the hadith and the Shariah permit slavery. Traditional Islam, (both Sunni and Shi'a) allows every Muslim man to be married to up to four wives. Because of this, there existed in African Muslim countries like Sudan, Mauritania and the former Sultanate of Zanzibar, a flourishing trade in female slaves which fetched a higher price than male slaves. Usually, slave traders sold the male slaves to the Europeans, which employed them mainly as plantation workers and labourers, while selling the female slaves to Arabs. The slave market in the holy Muslim city of Medina existed up to 1923. These slaves were acquired mainly by slave raids from Arab slavers on the indigenous African population. A smaller proportion was acquired as prisoners of war by Africans or abducted directly by Europeans. The Ottoman Empire and its precursors acquired its slaves by abducting children from the subjugated Christian Circassians, Armenians and Greeks. The boys were incorporated in the Janissary corps, many girls ended as concubines in the harems of Ottoman officials.

In the modern Middle East, authorities often look the other way in cases of child sexual slavery, as the practice is often allowed, de facto. Pious Muslims point to Mohammed's taking of the six-year-old Aisha as his bride and their consummation of the marriage when she was nine years old as a theocratic acceptance of child sex. The Iranian leader Ayatollah Khomeini wrote in his book Tahrirolvasyleh "a man can have sexual pleasure from a child as young as a baby. However, he should not penetrate."

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