.

Islam, Perbudakan dan Ras Hitam **

Sejarah Perbudakan dlm Islam & praktek sampai sekarang

Islam, Perbudakan dan Ras Hitam **

Postby bono » Wed May 17, 2006 3:23 pm

http://answering-islam.org.uk/Index/index.html
Perbudakan dalam Islam

Banyak para sarjana Islam selama ini yang berusaha mengungkapkan fakta perbudakan dalam islam dan mengklarifikasi status budak. Saya memilih pendapat sarjana lulusan Al-Azhar di Mesir dgn bukunya “Anda Bertanya dan Islam Menjawab”, Dr. Abdul Latif Mushtahari.

Katanya : ”Islam tidak melarang perbudakan tapi menerimanya untuk 2 alasan; alasan pertama adalah perang (baik itu perang sipil atau perang dengan orang asing dimana tawanan tersebut dibunuh atau diperbudak), asalkan tidak perang antara sesama muslim. Muslim tidak diperbolehkan membunuh sesama muslim. [b]Hanya musuh non-muslim yang boleh dibunuh atau dibantai. :twisted:

Alasan kedua adalah untuk menambah jumlah budak bagi pemilik mereka." [/b]

Teks tadi menjelaskan bahwa semua tahanan perang harus dibunuh atau diperbudak. Para sarjana sejarah menyetujui hal ini seperti Ibn Timiyya, Ibn Hisham, Malik, etc.

Ibn Timiyya berkata (vol 32 halaman 89) “awal perbudakan adalah tahanan perang, para tahanan menjadi setia kepada “negara” Muhamad.” Kemudian (volume 31 halaman 380) dia mengindikasikannya dengan terang2an “perbudakan dibenarkan karena perang itu sendiri, bagaimanapun tidak diperbolehkan memperbudak muslim yang bebas. Dibenarkan untuk membunuh kafir atau memperbudaknya dan dibenarkan juga untuk menahan dia.”

Pada bagian 4 halaman 177 dari buku “Biografi Nabi” (al-road al-anf) Ibn Hisham berkata “mengarah pada hukum islam tentang tahanan perang, keputusan bergantung pada imam muslim. Dia memiliki pilihan untuk membunuh ataupun membuat mereka menjadi tahanan muslim atau memperbudak mereka, ini untuk pria, tapi perempuan dan anak2 tidak diperbolehkan untuk dibunuh melainkan untuk dijadikan tahanan muslim atau diperbudak-mengambil mereka menjadi budak dan pelayan.”

Ini adalah pernyataan Ibn Hisham yang merupakan penulis biografi muhammad yang dipercaya semua muslim. Tentu saja Ibn Hisham merekam kejadian ini dalam setiap invasi dan perang Muhammad. Semua orang2 Muhammad memiliki banyak budak-laki2 dan perempuan. Dalam penyerangannya ke Qurayza (suku Yahudi), Muhammad membunuh 700-900 laki2 dalam satu hari. Kemudian dia memisahkan perempuan dan anak2 diantara orang2nya. Kebanyakan orang yang diperbudak Muhammad adalah orang2 persia dan Byzantine.

Dalam volume 2 bagian 3 halaman 13, Malik Ibn Anas mengulangi teks yang sama dengan Ibn Hisham yang juga dikatakan Ibn Timiyya dan Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyya dalam bukunya “Zad al-Ma’ad”. Ketika ditanya jika seorang laki2 menikahi budak dan kemudian memberikan seorang anak, apakah anak tersebut berstatus bebas atau budak?

Ibn Timiyya menjawab “jika anak tersebut bukan berasal dari ras arab, maka statusnya adalah budak, mengikuti status ibunya. Tapi jika dia dari ras arab maka anak tersebut dapat dibebaskan, seperti kata Muhammad terhadap Aisha tentang seorang budak, Muhammad berkata “bebaskanlah dia, sebab dia keturunan Ismael. Kemudian Ibn Timiyya (volume 31 halaman 380) mengatakan =muhammad adalah seorang arab, tidak diperbolehkan memperbudak seorang arab karena muhammad merupakan salah satu dari mereka.

Islam mengijinkan muslim untuk memiara budak. Quran sendiri memperbolehkan muslim memperbudak laki2 atau perempuan baik itu membeli mereka ataupun mengambil mereka sebagai tawanan perang (surah al-mujadilah 58:3)

Budak Muhamamad - kebebasan nabi!
Muhamad sendiri memiliki banyak budak setelah dia menyatakan diri sebagai nabi Tuhan, seperti kata Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyya dalam bukunya Zad al-Ma’ad“, Muhammad memiliki banyak budak laki2 dan perempuan, dia membeli dan menjual mereka, tapi lebih banyak dia membeli daripada menjual, pernah sekali dia menjual budak berkulit hitam bernama Yakub al-Mudbir, Muhamad juga lebih banyak menyewa budak. Perdagangan ini membawa keuntungan bagi pasar budak di jazirah Arab dan di Mekkah, budak dan pengikut Muhammadpun makin banyak yang didapat dari perang.

http://www.islamreview.com/articles/nei ... ican.shtml
Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyya (pakar Islam ternama) dlm bukunya, "Zad al-Ma'ad" (part 1, pp. 114-116), menulis:

"Ini nama2 budak lelaki Muhamad : Yakan Abu Sharh, Aflah, 'Ubayd, Dhakwan, Tahman, Mirwan, Hunayn, Sanad, Fadala Yamamin, Anjasha al-Hadi, Mad'am, Karkara, Abu Rafi', Thawban, Ab Kabsha, Salih, Rabah, Yara Nubyan, Fadila, Waqid, Mabur, Abu Waqid, Kasam, Abu' Ayb, Abu Muwayhiba, Zayd Ibn Haritha, dan budak hitam bernama MAHRAN."

Dlm bahasa Arab, kata 'hitam' sama dgn kata 'budak', yaitu Abd".


Hukum Perbudakan Islam

1. budak tidak dapat memilih bagi dirinya sendiri. Malik ibn Anas (volume 2 bagian 4) berkata = “budak tidak bisa menikah tanpa persetujuan sang tuan, jika dia memiliki dua tuan, maka dia harus mendapat persetujuan kedua tuannya tersebut.”

2. budak laki2 dan perempuan dipaksa menikah. Malik ibn Anas berkata=”sang tuan memiliki hak untuk memaksa budaknya laki2 dan perempuan untuk menikah tanpa meminta persetujuan mereka.” Ditambahkan oleh Malik ibn Ons “sang tuan tidak boleh menikahkan budak wanita yang cantik dengan budak hitam jelek.” Nyata disini ada diskriminasi dalam Islam, Muhammad bahkan mendiskriminasi antara anjing putih dan anjing hitam.

3. seorang laki2 Arab tidak diperbolehkan menikah dengan budak perempuan kecuali jika terpaksa. Seperti dalam volume 31 halaman 383 Ibn Timiyya berkata, tidak diperbolehkan seorang laki2 Arab bebas menikah dengan seorang budak perempuan kecuali terpaksa, dan jika mereka memiliki anak, anak tersebut akan memiliki status budak mengikuti status ibunya.”

Demikian TERJEMAHAN SINGKATNYA.
User avatar
bono
 
Posts: 2013
Joined: Thu Mar 16, 2006 3:30 pm
Location: Israel

Postby ali5196 » Wed May 17, 2006 7:20 pm

Lihat juga dlm Ruang TKW : Perbudakan Islam terhdp TKA
http://www.indonesia.faithfreedom.org/f ... .php?t=121
Last edited by ali5196 on Wed Jan 31, 2007 10:15 pm, edited 1 time in total.
ali5196
 
Posts: 17309
Images: 135
Joined: Wed Sep 14, 2005 5:15 pm

Postby ali5196 » Thu Jul 27, 2006 4:36 am

http://www.faithfreedom.org/forum/viewtopic.php?t=23157

Saya kebetulan menemukan hadis ini dan kaget kabeh.

Book 11, Number 2126: Sahih Muslim
Narrated Basrah:
Lelaki dari Ansar memanggil Basrah dan mengatakan: Saya menikahi
perawan dlm tudungnya. Ketika saya memasukinya, ternyata ia hamil. (Saya mengadu kpd Nabi). Nabi (saw) mengatakan: Wanita itu akan mendapatkan mahar darimu karena kau membuat vaginanya sah bagimu. Anaknya akan menjadi budakmu. Saat wanita itu melahirkan (anak), pecut dia (menurut versi of al-Hasan).

Anak2 yg lahir diluar perkawinan akan menjadi budak Muslim:

Tabari II:11 “Shem, putera Noah adalah bapak kaum Arab, Persian, dan
Yunani; Ham adalah ayah orang Hitam Afrika; dan Japheth adalah ayah kaum Turki dan Gog serta Magog yg saudara sepupu Turki. Noah berdoa agar para nabi dan apostles akan turun dari Shem dan raja2 dari Japheth. Ia bedoa agar warna kulit orang Afrika akan berubah shg keturunan mereka akan menjadi budak Arab dan Turki.”

Ini membantu memberikan perspektif kpd pembantaian orang2 hitam di Darfur oleh militia2 Arab, bukan ?
Sekarang kita baru mengerti konflik lps put Darfur into perspective.
-----------------

I know, I have read that hadith before, and I showed it to a black muslim convert on FFI, who still refused to see what it obviously meant.

---------------

You will always come across some muslims who try to excuse slavery, saying things like "Only through jihad" "No free person would just become a slave" "Allah commands you to release slaves"

Whenever they do that just show them this hadith, where an innocent child, is condemned to slavery before it is born.

Thats disgusting.
ali5196
 
Posts: 17309
Images: 135
Joined: Wed Sep 14, 2005 5:15 pm

Postby ali5196 » Wed Jan 31, 2007 10:04 pm

http://www.faithfreedom.org/forum/viewtopic.php?t=216

Rasisme dalam Budaya Muslim
By Adam Misbah al-Haqq
http://www.mpacuk.org/mpac/data/1d44a1ff/1d44a1ff.jsp

(some quotes)
Quote:
...
Th 889 AH, Ibn Qutaybah menulis bahwa "Ham, putera Noah, berwarna kulit terang dan ganteng. Lalu Allah merubah warna kulitnya dan warna kulit muridnya karena kutukan ayahnya." Ia juga menulis, "Mereka buruk dlm rupa dan bentuk, karena mereka tinggal di negara panas. Panas terik membuat mereka gosong dlm janin dan membuat rambut mereka keriting." :o :shock: :lol:

...
Hakim Afrika, Ahmed Baba, membela kepemilikian budak dgn mengatakan, "Kaum kafir Sudan spt kafir manapun, entah Kristen, Yahudi, Persia, Badui, atau siapapun yg bersikeras pada bidat dan tidak memeluk Islam ... dlm hal ini kafir tidak dapat dibedakan. SIAPAPUN YG DITANGKAP DLM KEADAAN KAFIR, ADALAH SAH UTK MEMPERBUDAKNYA, SIAPAPUN IA, TETAPI TIDAK SESEORANG YG MASUK ISLAM SECARA SUKARELA, dari permulaan."
...

Nasir al-Din Tusi (d.1274 CE), filsuf terkenal Iran:
"Jika kita menangkap berbagai macam tipe orang, spt Negro dari Zanzibar, di negara2 bagian paling selatan, orang Negro tidak berbeda dari hewan, hanya kedua tangannya tidak lagi menyentuh tanah. Kita bisa melihat bahwa monyet lebih mudah dilatih dan lebih pandai ketimbang orang Negro ... ."

...

Ibn Khaldun (d. 1406CE) menambahkan bahwa orang hitam "adalah manusia yg lebih dekat kpd hewan **** ketimbang kpd mahluk rasional." Ini karena sifat2 "sifat emosi dan kegirangannya yg tinggi," menurut Ibn Khaldun, adalah "karena
ekspansi dan difusi jiwa hewan" didalam mereka. Ibn Khaldun juga setuju
bahwa "defisiensi" orang hitam disebabkan karena cuaca Africa yg membuat mereka gosong di janin.

Other renowned Muslim thinkers, such as Sa'id al-Andalusi (d. 1070CE) wrote that blacks are "More like animals than men," and that "the rule of virtue and stability in judgment" is lacking amongst them, such noble qualities being replaced by "foolishness and ignorance." Even such luminaries as Ibn Sina considered blacks to be "people who are by their very nature slaves."

...

Tidak ada yg tahu berapa banyak orang Afrika yg dijual dlm perbudakan diseantero Timur Tengah, TAPI FAKTA PERBUDAKAN OLEH ARAB BERLANGSUNG LEBIH DINI/LEBIH DAHULU JAUH SEBELUM MASUKNYA ORANG2 KULIT PUTIH. Islam jelas menikmati perdagangan budak selama satu milenium. Perdagangan budak Eropa & Amerika berlangsung selama 200 tahun.

Mekah dulu merupakan pusat perdagangan perbudakan TERBESAR di seluruh dunia Muslim, sampai abad ke 20, saat standar rakyat internasional yg dipelopori Barat menuntut bahwa perdagangan budak adalah pelanggaran terhdp HAM, harga diri manusia. Belum lagi negara2 pemilik budak akan dipermalukan di tingkat internasional.

Dari sumber2 sejarah kita melihat bahwa budak2 yg ditangkap dari Afrika Timur dibawa ke Mekah utk diperdagangkan SELAMA MUSIM HAJI !!!. Dari sana mereka di-distribusikan keseluruh dunia. Memang adat para pehijrah adalah utk jual beli budak, sampai nama Mekah sinonim dgn perdagangan budak.

Malah banyak orang2 yg dibawa hijrah oleh Muslim2 kaya dan lalu dikenakan tuduhan palsu dan akhirnya ditangkap dan ditahan sbg budak dan akhirnya diperjual belikan di Mekah. KASIHAN AMAT ! :cry: Malah, perdagangan budak masih dilaporkan terjadi di Saudi pd thn 1960 dan terus berlangsung di Sudan sampai saat ini.
ali5196
 
Posts: 17309
Images: 135
Joined: Wed Sep 14, 2005 5:15 pm

Postby ali5196 » Wed Jan 31, 2007 10:14 pm

Masih ada saja Muslim yang menyangka perbudakan sudah dihapus dari negara2 Muslim.
Dari percakapan antar Muslim :

http://www.jihadwatch.org/dhimmiwatch/a ... 002354.php

June 28, 2004

PERNYATAAN :
"Some muslims have the misconception that slavery is abolished"
Certainly if this was an evil thing that had no benefit the righteous caliphs would have been the first to annul it. slavery in Islam is not the same as the west's slave trade (???). it is the states handling of the dependants of the men (that we were at battle with) that died... captives of war.

this is what nasiruddin (netter) says:

"Islamic history of the last centuries is depressing, but one positive thing is that most Muslim states have abolished slavery (??? :shock: ). (Prophet Muhammad (sallalahi wa salam) stated that releasing a slave is an excellently good deed, hence it must be also a very good and valuable deed to liberate all slaves and to prohibit all slavery.)

I do not change deen, because this is no subject of belief itself, it is a subject of politics, society structure and Islamic law and we Muslims are ordered by Allah (ta'ala) to enforce justice, hence we must seek to clear our society of injustices and slavery is an injustice." (O YAH ? Buktikan dong !)

TANGGAPAN:

If Allaah enables the Muslim mujahideen to defeat kaafir enemies in war, then the men may be killed, ransomed, set free without ransom or enslaved. The choice between these four options is to be made by the ruler, according to what he thinks is the best course.
With regard to the women, they become slaves and “those whom one's right hand possesses” (described as a “right hand servant” in the question). Male children also become slaves. The ruler shares out these slaves among the mujaahideen.

Shaykh al-Shanqeeti (may Allaah have mercy on him) said: The reason why a person may be taken as a slave is his being a kaafir and waging war against Allaah and His Messenger. If Allaah enables the Muslims who are striving and sacrificing their lives and their wealth and all that Allaah has given them to make the word of Allaah supreme over the kaafirs, then He allows them to enslave the kuffaar when they capture them, unless the ruler chooses to free them or to ransom them, if that serves the interests of the Muslims.

Adwa’ al-Bayaan, 3/387

Islam limited the sources of slaves which existed before the mission of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) to just one source, namely slavery resulting from capturing prisoners from among the kuffaar.

Islam treated female slaves more kindly in their enslavement than other cultures did. Their honour was not considered to be permissible to anyone by way of prostitution, which was the fate of female prisoners of war in most cases. Rather Islam made them the property of their masters alone, and forbade anyone else to also have intercourse with them, even if that was his son. Islam made it their right to become free through a contract of manumission; it encouraged setting them free and promised reward for that. Islam made setting slaves free an obligation in the case of some kinds of expiation (kafaarah), such as the expiation for accidental killing, zihaar (a jaahili form of divorce in which a man said to his wife, “You are to me as my mother’s back”), and breaking oaths. They received the best treatment from their masters, as was enjoined by the pure sharee’ah.

Secondly:

A mujaahid does not have to be married in order to gain possession of a “slave whom one’s right hand possesses.” None of the scholars expressed such a view.

Thirdly:

If a mujaahid takes possession of a female slave or male slave, it is permissible for him to sell them. In either case – whether one acquires a slave through battle or through purchase – it is not permissible for a man to have intercourse with a female slave until she has had a period from which it may be ascertained that she is not pregnant. If she is pregnant then he must wait until she gives birth.

It was narrated that Ruwayfi’ ibn Thaabit al-Ansaari said: I heard the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) say on the day of Hunayn: “It is not permissible for any man who believes in Allaah and the Last Day to irrigate the crop of another else – meaning to have intercourse with a woman who is pregnant. And it is not permissible for a man who believes in Allaah and the Last Day to have intercourse with a captured woman until he has established that she is not pregnant. And it is not permissible for a man who believes in Allaah and the Last Day to sell any booty until it has been shared out.”

Narrated by Abu Dawood, 2158; classed as hasan by Shaykh al-Albaani in Saheeh Abi Dawood, 1890.

For many reasons, including the fact that the Muslims have long since given up jihad, slavery is now very rare. This means that the Muslims must be extra cautious by examining any case in which it is claimed that someone is a slave, whether male or female.

For more information see question no. 26067

And Allaah knows best. :twisted:


PERTANYAAN KEDUA :

I can understand the keeping the pow's, but i dont understand the ability of men to have concubines. It seems to go against everything ive learned about Islam. Its having illegal sexual relations w/ a woman. The woman is not your wife. I dont think i can ever understand this.

TANGGAPAN:

what is Islam? submission to God ! how do you know what is forbiden and allowed in Islam? you look at the Koran and Sunnah to find out.

So if you have evidences stating concubines are hallal then where is the confusion? how is sex with concubine ilegal if Allah has allowed it?

PERTANYAAN :

Din: I understand that but i just want to understand why its allowed b/c it doesnt seem like there is any morality in it. Why is dating haram while having a concubine halal?


TANGGAPAN :
hey thats where you go wrong
What is good? whatever Allah says is good
What is bad? whatever Allah says is bad
What is immoral? whatever Allah says is immoral

your way of thinking makes me wonder on how excactly do you understand Islamic Aqeda?

this is an ayat of Koran:
"There are things which you like that are bad for you, and there are things which you hate that are good for you, You dont know but Allah knows best."

So stick to this ayat brother and dont say something is immoral when Allah has allowed it, :shock:

well you can say it if you want, but you see if you think Allah's law is immoral then gUess what he is going to think about you and your sins? and where you should belong.

I dont want to be sarcastic or rude brother, i just want to make you understand this important thing.

--------------------
Posted by Robert at June 28, 2004 07:51 AM | Email this entry | Print this entry

Comments:
This is the core of Islam (from above):

What is good? whatever Allah says is good
What is bad? whatever Allah says is bad
What is immoral? whatever Allah says is immoral

This kind of 'thinking' is diametrically opposed to the West's views on good, evil and morality.

We must fight this; we must awaken America to the cancer of 'moderate' Muslims in our midst; we must exposed organizations like CAIR for what they are, which are Trojan horses, or we are doomed.

-----------------------
Ethelred Smith
Posted by: Ethelred at June 28, 2004 09:39 AM

There is no Muslim Wilberforce, no Muslim anti-slavery society. Where the active slave trade by Muslim slavers, operating out of Zanzibar, where slaves arrived by coffle, caravan, and dhow, began earlier, and ended later, and involved far more human victims, than did the European slave trade confined to the coasts of West Africa -- though the Atlantic Slave Trade, and the Middle Passage, have received all the attention -- was finally suppressed, it was through the guns of the British navy.

See chapters X and XIII, or pages 411-451 ("The Arab Slave Trade, 1800-1842") and pages 576-637 ("The Attack on the Slave Trade, 1842-1873) in Britain and the Persian Gulf, 1795-1880, by John Barrett Kelly.

The slave trade in Saudi Arabia officially ended, for purposes of modern image-making, in the early 1960s. Unofficially, it continues to this day, for there is no other way to describe the condition in which many of the domestic female workers -- Thais, Cambodians, Filipinos, Indians, even Pakistanis -- are kept by their Saudi masters. There are even advertisments in Saudi newspapers offering such girls in exchange for downmarket, used American automobiles.

Muslims must be asked pointblank, in the first place by some of those supposedly intrepid reporters who always seem to be so pliable and tongue-tied when confronted with a Muslim leader. What do you think about slavery -- and then quote Qur'anic ayat and sura. What do you think about the position of women -- and then quote Qur'anic ayat and sura. What do you think about the attitude toward Infidels inculcated through a reading of the Muslim texts, Qur'anic ayat and sura, and hadith, and the sirat-e-rasul? Don't let them off the hook. This has to be openly discussed, constantly, openly, truthfully, without accepting diversionary tactics, phony statements of what is sermonized in the mosques, distracting remarks about how "all religions do it" etc. etc. One cannot base these preposterous "dialogues of civilisations" now being promoted by Muslim apologists for Islam, both Muslim and non-Muslim, one cannot push all the interfaith dialgoue business, if the truths of Muslim teachings, which inspire tens of millions of would-be Jihadis, or dormant Jihadis (and who knows what will set them off, manchurian-candidate style), continue to be suppressed. It just can't go on.

In the meantime, think of the slaves found everywhere that Arabs and black Africans meet -- in Mali, in Mauritania, in the Sudan. Think of the "house slaves" rather than field hands of Saudi Arabia. Think of the Saudi preachers insisting that slavery is sanctioned, approved even, by Islam. And ask yourself why, in all of Muslim history, there was never an attempt from within, as there was in the West, to question the morality of slavery.

There never was a Muslim Wilberforce, or a Muslim Anti-Slavery Society. And there isn't now. And there never will be.

Posted by: Hugh at June 28, 2004 02:03 PM
ali5196
 
Posts: 17309
Images: 135
Joined: Wed Sep 14, 2005 5:15 pm

Postby ali5196 » Tue Apr 10, 2007 10:38 pm

DISKUSI :
muhamMAD CALO perbudakan! JUAL BELI BUDAK 800 DIRHAMS!

http://www.indonesia.faithfreedom.org/f ... 979#152979
ali5196
 
Posts: 17309
Images: 135
Joined: Wed Sep 14, 2005 5:15 pm

Postby ali5196 » Wed Dec 12, 2007 5:52 am

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5U2phq6V ... re=related

Mohammed menyebut orang2 Hitam sbg KISMIS. (Sahih Al Bukhary vol. 1, no. 662 and vol. 9, no. 256).

Image

Mohammed dikutip sbg mengatakan bahwa Orang2 HItam adalah "budak2 berhidung lebar". (Sahih Moslem vol. 9 pages 46 and 47).

Hadith; vol.9:162,163: Muhammad memperingatkan bahwa mimpi ttg wanita2 hitam berarti datangnya penyakit.
ali5196
 
Posts: 17309
Images: 135
Joined: Wed Sep 14, 2005 5:15 pm


Return to Resource Centre Islam dan PERBUDAKAN



Who is online

Users browsing this forum: No registered users