[Quran & Hadis] Segala ketentuan ttg KAFIR****

Muslim moderat, radikal, bgm pemikiran mereka & bgm hubungan mereka dgn NON-Muslim, sejarah perlakuan Muslim terhdp NON-Muslim, Dhimmi & Jizyah
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[Quran & Hadis] Segala ketentuan ttg KAFIR****

Post by ali5196 »

Maaf, dlm bahasa Inggris. Kalau ada yg bisa menemukan rangkuman lengkap macam ini dlm bahasa Indonesia, silahkan masukkan kesini. :wink:

http://www.wikiislam.org/wiki/Quotation ... the_Hadith _Dhimmitude

1.1 Kafir
1.1.1 Characteristics of Kafir Kafir are Arrogant and Divided Kafir are Close-Minded Kafir are Deaf, Dumb and Blind Kafir are Evil Kafir are Greedy Kafir are Like Animals Kafir are Perverse Kafir are Unclean Kafir are Unintelligent Kafir are the Worst of Creatures
1.1.2 Curse the Kafir
1.1.3 Kafir are Damned to Hell
1.1.4 Only Muslims Will Enter Heaven
1.2 Preferential Treatment of Muslims
1.3 Jizya Tax
1.3.1 Dhimmis Must Pay the Jizya Tax Quran Sahih Bukhari Sahih Muslim Sunan Abu Dawud Al-Muwatta Tabari Miscellaneous
1.3.2 A Major Source of Revenue for Early Muslims
1.3.3 Zoroastrians Must Also Pay the Jizya
1.4 Muslim Kaffir Friendships
1.4.1 Do Not Befriend Kafir
1.4.2 Forsake your Kaffir Family Members
1.5 Treatment of Dhimmi
1.5.1 Jews and Christians
1.5.2 Apostates (Ridda) Apostates are Damned to Hell Death is Ordained for Apostates Instances of Punishments
1.6 Expulsions
1.7 Graves
1.8 Mocking Kafir


Dhimmitude is the treatment of non-Muslims in Dar al-Islam

Kafir is the indecent Arabic synonym of infidel.
Characteristics of Kafir
Kafir are Arrogant and Divided
Quran 038:002
Nay, but those who disbelieve are in false pride and schism.

Kafir are Close-Minded
Quran 002:006
As for the Disbelievers, Whether thou warn them or thou warn them not it is all one for them; they believe not.

Quran 002:009 - Quran 002:010
They desire to deceive Allah and those who believe, and they deceive only themselves and they do not perceive.

There is a disease in their hearts, so Allah added to their disease and they shall have a painful chastisement because they

Quran 047:023 - Quran 047:024
Such are the men whom Allah has cursed for He has made them deaf and blinded their sight.

Do they not then earnestly seek to understand the Qur'an, or are their hearts locked up by them?

Kafir are Deaf, Dumb and Blind
Quran 002:006
As for the Disbelievers, Whether thou warn them or thou warn them not it is all one for them; they believe not.

Quran 002:171
The likeness of those who disbelieve is as the likeness of one who shouts to that which hears nothing, save a call and a cry; deaf, dumb, blind -- they do not understand.

Kafir are Evil
Quran 002:010
In their hearts is a disease, and Allah increaseth their disease. A painful doom is theirs because they lie.

Quran 002:254
O ye who believe! spend of that wherewith We have provided you ere a day come when there will be no trafficking, nor friendship, nor intercession. The disbelievers, they are the wrong-doers.

Quran 005:045
And We prescribed for them therein: The life for the life, and the eye for the eye, and the nose for the nose, and the ear for the ear, and the tooth for the tooth, and for wounds retaliation. But whoso forgoeth it (in the way of charity) it shall be expiation for him. Whoso judgeth not by that which Allah hath revealed: such are wrong-doers.

Quran 062:005
The similitude of those who were charged with the (obligations of the) Mosaic Law, but who subsequently failed in those (obligations), is that of a donkey which carries huge tomes (but understands them not). Evil is the similitude of people who falsify the Signs of God: and God guides not people who do wrong.

Quran 024:055
Allah has promised, to those among you who believe and work righteous deeds, that He will, of a surety, grant them in the land, inheritance (of power), as He granted it to those before them; that He will establish in authority their religion - the one which He has chosen for them; and that He will change (their state), after the fear in which they (lived), to one of security and peace: 'They will worship Me (alone) and not associate aught with Me. 'If any do reject Faith after this, they are rebellious and wicked.

Quran 007:005
No plea had they, when Our terror came unto them, save that they said: Lo! We were wrong-doers.

Quran 007:027
O Children of Adam! Let not Satan seduce you as he caused your (first) parents to go forth from the Garden and tore off from them their robe (of innocence) that he might manifest their shame to them. Lo! he seeth you, he and his tribe, from whence ye see him not. Lo! We have made the devils protecting friends for those who believe not.

Quran 007:177
Evil as an example are people who reject Our signs and wrong their own souls.

Kafir are Greedy
Quran 002:096
And you will most certainly find them the greediest of men for life (greedier) than even those who are polytheists; every one of them loves that he should be granted a life of a thousand years, and his being granted a long life will in no way remove him further off from the chastisement, and Allah sees what they do.

Kafir are Like Animals
Quran 007:176
If it had been Our will, We should have elevated him with Our signs; but he inclined to the earth, and followed his own vain desires. His similitude is that of a dog: if you attack him, he lolls out his tongue, or if you leave him alone, he (still) lolls out his tongue. That is the similitude of those who reject Our signs; So relate the story; perchance they may reflect.

Quran 002:065
And well ye knew those amongst you who transgressed in the matter of the Sabbath: We said to them: "Be ye apes, despised and rejected."

Quran 005:060
Shall I tell thee of a worse (case) than theirs for retribution with Allah? (Worse is the case of him) whom Allah hath cursed, him on whom His wrath hath fallen and of whose sort Allah hath turned some to apes and swine, and who serveth idols. Such are in worse plight and further astray from the plain road.

Quran 007:166
When in their insolence they transgressed (all) prohibitions, We said to them: "Be ye apes, despised and rejected."

Quran 025:044
Or thinkest thou that most of them listen or understand? They are only like cattle; - nay, they are worse astray in Path.

Kafir are Perverse
Quran 009:030
And the Jews say: Ezra is the son of Allah, and the Christians say: The Messiah is the son of Allah. That is their saying with their mouths. They imitate the saying of those who disbelieved of old. Allah (Himself) fighteth against them. How perverse are they!

Quran 063:004
When thou lookest at them, their exteriors please thee; and when they speak, thou listenest to their words. They are as (worthless as hollow) pieces of timber propped up, (unable to stand on their own). They think that every cry is against them. They are the enemies; so beware of them. The curse of Allah be on them! How are they deluded (away from the Truth)!

Kafir are Unclean
Quran 009:028
O ye who believe! Truly the Pagans are unclean; so let them not, after this year of theirs, approach the Sacred Mosque. And if ye fear poverty, soon will Allah enrich you, if He wills, out of His bounty, for Allah is All-knowing, All-wise.

Kafir are Unintelligent
Quran 008:065
O Prophet! Exhort the believers to fight. If there be of you twenty steadfast they shall overcome two hundred, and if there be of you a hundred (steadfast) they shall overcome a thousand of those who disbelieve, because they (the disbelievers) are a folk without intelligence.

Kafir are the Worst of Creatures
Quran 008:022
For the vilest beasts in God's sight, are the deaf, the dumb, who understand not.

Quran 008:055
For the worst of beasts in the sight of God are those who reject Him: They will not believe.

Quran 098:006
Verily those who believe not, among those who have received the scriptures, and among the idolaters, [shall be cast] into the fire of hell, to remain therein [for ever]. These are the worst of creatures.

Curse the Kafir
Quran 005:064
And the Jews say: The hand of Allah is tied up! Their hands shall be shackled and they shall be cursed for what they say. Nay, both His hands are spread out, He expends as He pleases; and what has been revealed to you from your Lord will certainly make many of them increase in inordinacy and unbelief; and We have put enmity and hatred among them till the day of resurrection; whenever they kindle a fire for war Allah puts it out, and they strive to make mischief in the land; and Allah does not love the mischief-makers.

Quran 009:030
The Jews call 'Uzair a son of Allah, and the Christians call Christ the son of Allah. That is a saying from their mouth; (in this) they but imitate what the unbelievers of old used to say. Allah's curse be on them: how they are deluded away from the Truth!

Kafir are Damned to Hell
Quran 002:024
And if ye do it not - and ye can never do it - then guard yourselves against the Fire prepared for disbelievers, whose fuel is of men and stones.[

Quran 002:039
But they who disbelieve, and deny Our revelations, such are rightful Peoples of the Fire. They will abide therein.

Quran 002:090
Evil is that for which they sell their souls: that they should disbelieve in that which Allah hath revealed, grudging that Allah should reveal of His bounty unto whom He will of His slaves. They have incurred anger upon anger. For disbelievers is a shameful doom.

Quran 002:104
O ye who believe, say not (unto the Prophet): "Listen to us" but say "Look upon us," and be ye listeners. For disbelievers is a painful doom.

Quran 002:114
And who doth greater wrong than he who forbiddeth the approach to the sanctuaries of Allah lest His name should be mentioned therein, and striveth for their ruin. As for such, it was never meant that they should enter them except in fear. Theirs in the world is ignominy and theirs in the Hereafter is an awful doom.

Quran 002:121
Those unto whom We have given the Scripture, who read it with the right reading, those believe in it. And whoso disbelieveth in it, those are they who are the losers.

Quran 002:126
And when Abraham prayed: My Lord! Make this a region of security and bestow upon its people fruits, such of them as believe in Allah and the Last Day, He answered: As for him who disbelieveth, I shall leave him in contentment for a while, then I shall compel him to the doom of Fire - a hapless journey's end!

Quran 002:162
They ever dwell therein. The doom will not be lightened for them, neither will they be reprieved.

Quran 002:167
And those who were but followers will say: If a return were possible for us, we would disown them even as they have disowned us. Thus will Allah show them their own deeds as anguish for them, and they will not emerge from the Fire.

Quran 002:174
Lo! those who hide aught of the Scripture which Allah hath revealed and purchase a small gain therewith, they eat into their bellies nothing else than fire. Allah will not speak to them on the Day of Resurrection, nor will He make them grow. Theirs will be a painful doom.

Quran 002:175
Those are they who purchase error at the price of guidance, and torment at the price of pardon. How constant are they in their strife to reach the Fire!

Quran 002:191
And slay them wherever ye find them, and drive them out of the places whence they drove you out, for persecution is worse than slaughter. And fight not with them at the Inviolable Place of Worship until they first attack you there, but if they attack you (there) then slay them. Such is the reward of disbelievers.

Quran 002:216
Warfare is ordained for you, though it is hateful unto you; but it may happen that ye hate a thing which is good for you, and it may happen that ye love a thing which is bad for you. Allah knoweth, ye know not.

Quran 002:257
Allah is the Protecting Guardian of those who believe. He bringeth them out of darkness into light. As for those who disbelieve, their patrons are false deities. They bring them out of light into darkness. Such are rightful owners of the Fire. They will abide therein.

Quran 002:264
O ye who believe! Render not vain your almsgiving by reproach and injury, like him who spendeth his wealth only to be seen of men and believeth not in Allah and the Last Day. His likeness is as the likeness of a rock whereon is dust of earth; a rainstorm smiteth it, leaving it smooth and bare. They have no control of aught of that which they have gained. Allah guideth not the disbelieving folk.

Quran 003:004
Aforetime, for a guidance to mankind; and hath revealed the Criterion (of right and wrong). Lo! those who disbelieve the revelations of Allah, theirs will be a heavy doom. Allah is Mighty, Able to Requite (the wrong).

Quran 003:010
Those who reject Faith,- neither their possessions nor their (numerous) progeny will avail them aught against Allah: They are themselves but fuel for the Fire.

Quran 003:012
Say (O Muhammad) unto those who disbelieve: Ye shall be overcome and gathered unto Hell, an evil resting-place.

Quran 003:019
The Religion before Allah is Islam (submission to His Will): Nor did the People of the Book dissent therefrom except through envy of each other, after knowledge had come to them. But if any deny the Signs of Allah, Allah is swift in calling to account.

Quran 003:021
Lo! those who disbelieve the revelations of Allah, and slay the prophets wrongfully, and slay those of mankind who enjoin equity: promise them a painful doom.

Quran 003:077
Lo! those who purchase a small gain at the cost of Allah's covenant and their oaths, they have no portion in the Hereafter. Allah will neither speak to them nor look upon them on the Day of Resurrection, nor will He make them grow. Theirs will be a painful doom.

Quran 003:085
And whoso seeketh as religion other than the Surrender (to Allah) it will not be accepted from him, and he will be a loser in the Hereafter.

Quran 003:091
Lo! those who disbelieve, and die in disbelief, the (whole) earth full of gold would not be accepted from such an one if it were offered as a ransom (for his soul). Theirs will be a painful doom and they will have no helpers.

Quran 003:102
O ye who believe! Fear Allah as He should be feared, and die not except in a state of Islam.

Quran 003:105
And be ye not as those who separated and disputed after the clear proofs had come unto them. For such there is an awful doom,

Quran 003:106
On the Day when (some) faces will be whitened and (some) faces will be blackened; and as for those whose faces have been blackened, it will be said unto them: Disbelieved ye after your (profession of) belief? Then taste the punishment for that ye disbelieved.

Quran 003:116
Those who reject Faith,- neither their possessions nor their (numerous) progeny will avail them aught against Allah: They will be companions of the Fire,-dwelling therein (for ever).

Quran 003:131
Fear the Fire, which is repaired for those who reject Faith:

Quran 003:151
We shall cast terror into the hearts of those who disbelieve because they ascribe unto Allah partners, for which no warrant hath been revealed. Their habitation is the Fire, and hapless the abode of the wrong-doers.

Quran 003:176
Let not their conduct grieve thee, who run easily to disbelief, for lo! they injure Allah not at all. It is Allah's Will to assign them no portion in the Hereafter, and theirs will be an awful doom.

Quran 003:177
Those who purchase disbelief at the price of faith harm Allah not at all, but theirs will be a painful doom.

Quran 003:178
And let not those who disbelieve imagine that the rein We give them bodeth good unto their souls. We only give them rein that they may grow in sinfulness. And theirs will be a shameful doom.

Quran 003:197
It is but a brief comfort. And afterward their habitation will be hell, an ill abode.

Quran 004:014
And whoso disobeyeth Allah and His messenger and transgresseth His limits, He will make him enter Fire, where he will dwell for ever; his will be a shameful doom.

Quran 004:018
The forgiveness is not for those who do ill-deeds until, when death attendeth upon one of them, he saith: Lo! I repent now; nor yet for those who die while they are disbelievers. For such We have prepared a painful doom.

Quran 004:037
Who hoard their wealth and enjoin avarice on others, and hide that which Allah hath bestowed upon them of His bounty. For disbelievers We prepare a shameful doom;

Quran 004:055
And of them were (some) who believed therein and of them were (some) who turned away from it. Hell is sufficient for (their) burning.

Quran 004:056
Lo! Those who disbelieve Our revelations, We shall expose them to the Fire. As often as their skins are consumed We shall exchange them for fresh skins that they may taste the torment. Lo! Allah is ever Mighty, Wise.

Quran 004:115
And whoso opposeth the messenger after the guidance (of Allah) hath been manifested unto him, and followeth other than the believer's way, We appoint for him that unto which he himself hath turned, and expose him unto hell - a hapless journey's end!

Quran 004:137
Lo! those who believe, then disbelieve and then (again) believe, then disbelieve, and then increase in disbelief, Allah will never pardon them, nor will He guide them unto a way.

Quran 004:138
Bear unto the hypocrites the tidings that for them there is a painful doom;

Quran 004:140
He hath already revealed unto you in the Scripture that, when ye hear the revelations of Allah rejected and derided, (ye) sit not with them (who disbelieve and mock) until they engage in some other conversation. Lo! in that case (if ye stayed) ye would be like unto them. Lo! Allah will gather hypocrites and disbelievers, all together, into hell;

Quran 004:145
Lo! the hypocrites (will be) in the lowest deep of the Fire, and thou wilt find no helper for them;

Quran 004:151
Such are disbelievers in truth; and for disbelievers We prepare a shameful doom.

Quran 004:161
And of their taking usury when they were forbidden it, and of their devouring people's wealth by false pretences, We have prepared for those of them who disbelieve a painful doom.

Quran 005:003
Forbidden to you is that which dies of itself, and blood, and flesh of swine, and that on which any other name than that of Allah has been invoked, and the strangled (animal) and that beaten to death, and that killed by a fall and that killed by being smitten with the horn, and that which wild beasts have eaten, except what you slaughter, and what is sacrificed on stones set up (for idols) and that you divide by the arrows; that is a transgression. This day have those who disbelieve despaired of your religion, so fear them not, and fear Me. This day have I perfected for you your religion and completed My favor on you and chosen for you Islam as a religion; but whoever is compelled by hunger, not inclining willfully to sin, then surely Allah is Forgiving, Merciful.

Quran 005:005
This day are (all) good things made lawful for you. The food of those who have received the Scripture is lawful for you, and your food is lawful for them. And so are the virtuous women of the believers and the virtuous women of those who received the Scripture before you (lawful for you) when ye give them their marriage portions and live with them in honour, not in fornication, nor taking them as secret concubines. Whoso denieth the faith, his work is vain and he will be among the losers in the Hereafter.

Quran 005:010
And they who disbelieve and deny Our revelations, such are rightful owners of hell.

Quran 005:014
And with those who say: "Lo! we are Christians," We made a covenant, but they forgot a part of that whereof they were admonished. Therefor We have stirred up enmity and hatred among them till the Day of Resurrection, when Allah will inform them of their handiwork.

Quran 005:033
The only reward of those who make war upon Allah and His messenger and strive after corruption in the land will be that they will be killed or crucified, or have their hands and feet on alternate sides cut off, or will be expelled out of the land. Such will be their degradation in the world, and in the Hereafter theirs will be an awful doom;

Quran 005:036
As for those who disbelieve, lo! if all that is in the earth were theirs, and as much again therewith, to ransom them from the doom on the Day of Resurrection, it would not be accepted from them. Theirs will be a painful doom.

Quran 005:072
They surely disbelieve who say: Lo! Allah is the Messiah, son of Mary. The Messiah (himself) said: O Children of Israel, worship Allah, my Lord and your Lord. Lo! whoso ascribeth partners unto Allah, for him Allah hath forbidden paradise. His abode is the Fire. For evil-doers there will be no helpers.

Quran 005:073
They surely disbelieve who say: Lo! Allah is the third of three; when there is no Allah save the One Allah. If they desist not from so saying a painful doom will fall on those of them who disbelieve.

Quran 005:086
But those who disbelieve and deny Our revelations, they are owners of hell-fire.

Quran 006:049
But as for those who deny Our revelations, torment will afflict them for that they used to disobey.

Quran 006:070
And forsake those who take their religion for a pastime and a jest, and whom the life of the world beguileth. Remind (mankind) hereby lest a soul be destroyed by what it earneth. It hath beside Allah no protecting ally nor intercessor, and though it offer every compensation it will not be accepted from it. Those are they who perish by their own deserts. For them is drink of boiling water and a painful doom, because they disbelieved.

Quran 006:093
Who is guilty of more wrong than he who forgeth a lie against Allah, or saith: I am inspired, when he is not inspired in aught; and who saith: I will reveal the like of that which Allah hath revealed? If thou couldst see, when the wrong-doers reach the pangs of death and the angels stretch their hands out (saying): Deliver up your souls. This day ye are awarded doom of degradation for that ye spake concerning Allah other than the truth, and used to scorn His portents.

Quran 006:125
And whomsoever it is Allah's will to guide, He expandeth his bosom unto the Surrender, and whomsoever it is His Will to send astray,' He maketh his bosom close and narrow as if he were engaged in sheer ascent. Thus Allah layeth ignominy upon those who believe not.

Quran 006:128
In the day when He will gather them together (He will say): O ye assembly of the jinn! Many of humankind did ye seduce. And their adherents among humankind will say: Our Lord! We enjoyed one another, but now we have arrived at the appointed term which Thou appointedst for us. He will say: Fire is your home. Abide therein for ever, save him whom Allah willeth (to deliver). Lo! thy Lord is Wise, Aware.

Quran 007:036
But they who deny Our revelations and scorn them - each are rightful owners of the Fire; they will abide therein.

Quran 007:038
He saith: Enter into the Fire among nations of the jinn and humankind who passed away before you. Every time a nation entereth, it curseth its sister (nation) till, when they have all been made to follow one another thither, the last of them saith unto the first of them: Our Lord! These led us astray, so give them double torment of the Fire. He saith: For each one there is double (torment), but ye know not.

Quran 007:041
Theirs will be a bed of hell, and over them coverings (of hell). Thus do We requite wrong-doers.

Quran 007:050
And the dwellers of the Fire cry out unto the dwellers of the Garden: Pour on us some water or some wherewith Allah hath provided you. They say: Lo! Allah hath forbidden both to disbelievers (in His guidance),

Quran 008:014
That (is the award), so taste it, and (know) that for disbelievers is the torment of the Fire.

Quran 008:035
And their worship at the (holy) House is naught but whistling and hand-clapping. Therefore (it is said unto them): Taste of the doom because ye disbelieve.

Quran 008:037
Lo! those who disbelieve spend their wealth in order that they may debar (men) from the way of Allah. They will spend it, then it will become an anguish for them, then they will be conquered. And those who disbelieve will be gathered unto hell,

Quran 008:050
If thou couldst see how the angels receive those who disbelieve, smiting faces and their backs and (saying): Taste the punishment of burning!

Quran 009:003
And an announcement from Allah and His Messenger to the people on the day of the greater pilgrimage that Allah and His Messenger are free from liability to the idolaters; therefore if you repent, it will be better for you, and if you turn back, then know that you will not weaken Allah; and announce painful punishment to those who disbelieve.

Quran 009:013
Will ye not fight people who violated their oaths, plotted to expel the Messenger, and took the aggressive by being the first (to assault) you? Do ye fear them? Nay, it is Allah Whom ye should more justly fear, if ye believe!

Quran 009:017
It is not for the idolaters to tend Allah's sanctuaries, bearing witness against themselves of disbelief. As for such, their works are vain and in the Fire they will abide.

Quran 009:049
Of them is he who saith: Grant me leave (to stay at home) and tempt me not. Surely it is into temptation that they (thus) have fallen. Lo! hell verily is all around the disbelievers.

Quran 009:061
Among them are men who molest the Prophet and say, "He is (all) ear." Say, "He listens to what is best for you: he believes in Allah, has faith in the Believers, and is a Mercy to those of you who believe." But those who molest the Messenger will have a grievous penalty.

Quran 009:063
Know they not that whoso opposeth Allah and His messenger, his verily is fire of hell, to abide therein? That is the extreme abasement.

Quran 009:068
Allah promiseth the hypocrites, both men and women, and the disbelievers fire of hell for their abode. It will suffice them. Allah curseth them, and theirs is lasting torment.

Quran 009:073
O Prophet! Strive against the disbelievers and the hypocrites! Be harsh with them. Their ultimate abode is hell, a hapless journey's end.

Quran 009:074
They swear by Allah that they said nothing (wrong), yet they did say the word of disbelief, and did disbelieve after their Surrender (to Allah). And they purposed that which they could not attain, and they sought revenge only that Allah by His messenger should enrich them of His bounty. If they repent it will be better for them; and if they turn away, Allah will afflict them with a painful doom in the world and the Hereafter, and they have no protecting friend nor helper in the earth.

Quran 009:090
And those among the wandering Arabs who had an excuse came in order that permission might be granted them. And those who lied to Allah and His messenger sat at home. A painful doom will fall on those of them who disbelieve.

Quran 009:113
It is not for the Prophet, and those who believe, to pray for the forgiveness of idolaters even though they may be near of kin (to them) after it hath become clear that they are people of hell-fire.

Only Muslims Will Enter Heaven
Quran 007:032
Say: Who has prohibited the embellishment of Allah which He has brought forth for His servants and the good provisions? Say: These are for the believers in the life of this world, purely (theirs) on the resurrection day; thus do We make the communications clear for a people who know.

Quran 007:040
Lo! they who deny Our revelations and scorn them, for them the gates of heaven will nor be opened not will they enter the Garden until the camel goeth through the needle's eye. Thus do We requite the guilty.

Preferential Treatment of Muslims
Sunan Abu Dawud Book 039, Number 4515
Narrated Ali ibn AbuTalib: Qays ibn Abbad and Ashtar went to Ali and said to him: Did the Apostle of Allah (peace_be_upon_him) give you any instruction about anything for which he did not give any instruction to the people in general? He said: No, except what is contained in this document of mine. Musaddad said: He then took out a document. Ahmad said: A document from the sheath of his sword. It contained: The lives of all Muslims are equal; they are one hand against others; the lowliest of them can guarantee their protection. Beware, a Muslim must not be killed for an infidel, nor must one who has been given a covenant be killed while his covenant holds. If anyone introduces an innovation, he will be responsible for it. If anyone introduces an innovation or gives shelter to a man who introduces an innovation (in religion), he is cursed by Allah, by His angels, and by all the people. Musaddad said: Ibn AbuUrubah's version has: He took out a document.

Sunan Abu Dawud Book 039}4527, Number 1
Narrated Abdullah ibn Amr ibn al-'As: The value of the blood-money at the time of the Apostle of Allah (peace_be_upon_him) was eight hundred dinars or eight thousand dirhams, and the blood-money for the people of the Book was half of that for Muslims. He said: This applied till Umar (Allah be pleased with him) became caliph and he made a speech in which he said: Take note! Camels have become dear. So Umar fixed the value for those who possessed gold at one thousand dinars, for those who possessed silver at twelve thousand (dirhams), for those who possessed cattle at two hundred cows, for those who possessed sheep at two thousand sheep, and for those who possessed suits of clothing at two hundred suits. He left the blood-money for dhimmis (protected people) as it was, not raising it in proportion to the increase he made in the blood-wit.

Sunan Abu Dawud Book 020, Number 3224
Narrated Bashir, the Client of the Apostle of Allah: Bashir's name in pre-Islamic days was Zahm ibn Ma'bad. When he migrated to the Apostle of Allah (peace_be_upon_him). He asked: What is your name? He replied: Zahm. He said: No, you are Bashir. He (Bashir) said: When I was walking with the Apostle of Allah (peace_be_upon_him) he passed by the graves of the polytheists. He said: They lived before (a period of) abundant good. He said this three times. He then passed by the graves of Muslims. He said: They received abundant good. The Apostle of Allah (peace_be_upon_him) suddenly saw a man walking in shoes between the graves. He said: O man, wearing the shoes! Woe to thee! Take off thy shoes. So the man looked (round), When he recognized the Apostle of Allah (peace_be_upon_him), he took them off and threw them away.

See Also Sunan Abu Dawud Book 020, Number 3225

Jizya Tax
Dhimmis Must Pay the Jizya Tax
Quran 009:029
Fight those who believe not in Allah nor the Last Day, nor hold that forbidden which hath been forbidden by Allah and His Messenger, nor acknowledge the religion of Truth, (even if they are) of the People of the Book, until they pay the Jizya with willing submission, and feel themselves subdued.

Sahih Bukhari
Sahih Bukhari Volume 002, Book 024, Number 559
Narrated Abu Humaid As-Sa'idi We took part in the holy battle of Tabuk in the company of the Prophet and when we arrived at the Wadi-al-Qura, there was a woman in her garden. The Prophet asked his companions to estimate the amount of the fruits in the garden, and Allah's Apostle estimated it at ten Awsuq ... The Prophet said to that lady, "Check what your garden will yield." When we reached Tabuk, the Prophet said, "There will be a strong wind to-night and so no one should stand and whoever has a camel, should fasten it." So we fastened our camels. A strong wind blew at night and a man stood up and he was blown away to a mountain called Taiy, The King of Aila sent a white mule and a sheet for wearing to the Prophet as a present, and wrote to the Prophet that his people would stay in their place (and will pay Jizya taxation.)

Sahih Bukhari Volume 003, Book 034, Number 425
Narrated Abu Huraira: Allah's Apostle said, "By Him in Whose Hands my soul is, son of Mary (Jesus) will shortly descend amongst you people (Muslims) as a just ruler and will break the Cross and kill the pig and abolish the Jizya (a tax taken from the non-Muslims, who are in the protection, of the Muslim government). Then there will be abundance of money and no-body will accept charitable gifts.

Sahih Bukhari Volume 004, Book 053, Number 384
Narrated 'Umar bin Dinar: I was sitting with Jabir bin Zaid and 'Amr bin Aus, and Bjalla was narrating to them in 70 A.H. the year when Musab bin Az-Zubair was the leader of the pilgrims of Basra. We were sitting at the steps of Zam-zam well and Bajala said, "I was the clerk of Juz bin Muawiya, Al-Ahnaf's paternal uncle. A letter came from 'Umar bin Al-Khattab one year before his death; and it was read:-- "Cancel every marriage contracted among the Magians between relatives of close kinship (marriages that are regarded illegal in Islam: a relative of this sort being called Dhu-Mahram.)" 'Umar did not take the Jizya from the Magian infidels till 'Abdur-Rahman bin 'Auf testified that Allah's Apostle had taken the Jizya from the Magians of Hajar.

Sahih Bukhari Volume 004, Book 053, Number 385
Narrated 'Amr bin 'Auf Al-Ansari: (who was an ally of Bam 'Amr bin Lu'ai and one of those who had taken part in (the Ghazwa of) Badr): Allah's Apostle sent Abu 'Ubaida bin Al-Jarreh to Bahrain to collect the Jizya. Allah's Apostle had established peace with the people of Bahrain and appointed Al-'Ala' bin Al-Hadrami as their governor. When Abu 'Ubaida came from Bahrain with the money, the Ansar heard of Abu 'Ubaida's arrival which coincided with the time of the morning prayer with the Prophet. When Allah's Apostle led them in the morning prayer and finished, the Ansar approached him, and he looked at them and smiled on seeing them and said, "I feel that you have heard that Abu. 'Ubaida has brought something?" They said, "Yes, O Allah's Apostle' He said, "Rejoice and hope for what will please you! By Allah, I am not afraid of your poverty but I am afraid that you will lead a life of luxury as past nations did, whereupon you will compete with each other for it, as they competed for it, and it will destroy you as it destroyed them."

Sahih Bukhari Volume 004, Book 053, Number 386
Narrated Jubair bin Haiya: 'Umar sent the Muslims to the great countries to fight the pagans. When Al-Hurmuzan embraced Islam, 'Umar said to him. "I would like to consult you regarding these countries which I intend to invade." Al-Hurmuzan said, "Yes, the example of these countries and their inhabitants who are the enemies. of the Muslims, is like a bird with a head, two wings and two legs; If one of its wings got broken, it would get up over its two legs, with one wing and the head; and if the other wing got broken, it would get up with two legs and a head, but if its head got destroyed, then the two legs, two wings and the head would become useless. The head stands for Khosrau, and one wing stands for Caesar and the other wing stands for Faris. So, order the Muslims to go towards Khosrau." So, 'Umar sent us (to Khosrau) appointing An-Numan bin Muqrin as our commander. When we reached the land of the enemy, the representative of Khosrau came out with forty-thousand warriors, and an interpreter got up saying, "Let one of you talk to me!" Al-Mughira replied, "Ask whatever you wish." The other asked, "Who are you?" Al-Mughira replied, "We are some people from the Arabs; we led a hard, miserable, disastrous life: we used to suck the hides and the date stones from hunger; we used to wear clothes made up of fur of camels and hair of goats, and to worship trees and stones. While we were in this state, the Lord of the Heavens and the Earths, Elevated is His Remembrance and Majestic is His Highness, sent to us from among ourselves a Prophet whose father and mother are known to us. Our Prophet, the Messenger of our Lord, has ordered us to fight you till you worship Allah Alone or give Jizya (i.e. tribute); and our Prophet has informed us that our Lord says:-- "Whoever amongst us is killed (i.e. martyred), shall go to Paradise to lead such a luxurious life as he has never seen, and whoever amongst us remain alive, shall become your master." (Al-Mughira, then blamed An-Numan for delaying the attack and) An-Nu' man said to Al-Mughira, "If you had participated in a similar battle, in the company of Allah's Apostle he would not have blamed you for waiting, nor would he have disgraced you. But I accompanied Allah's Apostle in many battles and it was his custom that if he did not fight early by daytime, he would wait till the wind had started blowing and the time for the prayer was due (i.e. after midday)."

Sahih Bukhari Volume 004, Book 053, Number 404
Narrated Ali: We did not, write anything from the Prophet except the Quran and what is written in this paper, (wherein) the Prophet said, "Medina is a sanctuary from (the mountain of) Air to so and-so, therefore, whoever innovates (in it) an heresy or commits a sin, or gives shelter to such an innovator, will incur the Curse of Allah. the angels and all the people; and none of his compulsory or optional good deeds of worship will be accepted And the asylum granted by any Muslim Is to be secured by all the Muslims even if it is granted by one of the lowest social status among them. And whoever betrays a Muslim in this respect will incur the Curse of Allah, the angels and all the people, and his compulsory and optional good deeds of worship will not be accepted. And any freed slave will take as masters (befriends) people other than his own real masters who freed him without taking the permission of the latter, will incur the Curse of Allah, the angels and all the people, and his compulsory and optional good deeds of worship will not be accepted."
Narrated Said: Abu Huraira once said (to the people), "What will your state be when you can get no Dinar or Dirhan (i.e. taxes from the Dhimmis)?" on that someone asked him, "What makes you know that this state will take place, O Abu- Hu raira?" He said, "By Him in Whose Hands Abu Huraira's life is, I know it through the statement of the true and truly inspired one (i.e. the Prophet)." The people asked, "What does the Statement say?" He replied, "Allah and His Apostle's asylum granted to Dhimmis, i.e. non-Muslims living in a Muslim territory) will be outraged, and so Allah will make the hearts of these Dhimmis so daring that they will refuse to pay the Jizya they will be supposed to pay."

Sahih Muslim
Sahih Muslim Book 001, Number 0287
Abu Huraira reported that the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) said: By Him in Whose hand is my life, the son of Mary (may peace be upon him) will soon descend among you as a just judge. He will break crosses, kill swine and abolish Jizya and the wealth will pour forth to such an extent that no one will accept it.

See Also Sahih Muslim Book 001, Number 0289

Sahih Muslim Book 019, Number 4294
It has been reported from Sulaiman b. Buraid through his father that when the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) appointed anyone as leader of an army or detachment he would especially exhort him to fear Allah and to be good to the Muslims who were with him. He would say: Fight in the name of Allah and in the way of Allah. Fight against those who disbelieve in Allah. Make a holy war, do not embezzle the spoils; do not break your pledge; and do not mutilate (the dead) bodies; do not kill the children. When you meet your enemies who are polytheists, invite them to three courses of action. If they respond to any one of these, you also accept it and withold yourself from doing them any harm. Invite them to (accept) Islam; if they respond to you, accept it from them and desist from fighting against them. Then invite them to migrate from their lands to the land of Muhairs and inform them that, if they do so, they shall have all the privileges and obligations of the Muhajirs. If they refuse to migrate, tell them that they will have the status of Bedouin Muilims and will be subjected to the Commands of Allah like other Muslims, but they will not get any share from the spoils of war or Fai' except when they actually fight with the Muslims (against the disbelievers). If they refuse to accept Islam, demand from them the Jizya. If they agree to pay, accept it from them and hold off your hands. If they refuse to pay the tax, seek Allah's help and fight them. When you lay siege to a fort and the besieged appeal to you for protection in the name of Allah and His Prophet, do not accord to them the guarantee of Allah and His Prophet, but accord to them your own guarantee and the guarantee of your companions for it is a lesser sin that the security given by you or your companions be disregarded than that the security granted in the name of Allah and His Prophet be violated When you besiege a fort and the besieged want you to let them out in accordance with Allah's Command, do not let them come out in accordance with His Command, but do so at your (own) command, for you do not know whether or not you will be able to carry out Allah's behest with regard to them.

Sahih Muslim Book 032, Number 6328
Hisham reported on the authority of his father that Hisham b. Hakim b. Hizam happened to pass by people, the farmers of Syria, who had been made to stand in the sun. He said: What is the matter with them? They said: They have been detained for Jizya. Thereupon Hisham said: I bear testimony to the fact that I heard Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) as saying: Allah would torment those who torment people in the world.

Sahih Muslim Book 042, Number 7065
'Amr b. 'Auf, who was an ally of Banu 'Amir b. Luwayy (and he was one amongst them) who participated in Badr along with Allah's Messenger (way peace be upon him). reported that, Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) sent Abu Ubaida b. Jarrah to Bahrain for collecting Jizya and Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) had made a truce with the people of Bahrain and had appointed 'Ala' b. Hadrami and Abu Ubaida (for this purpose). They came with wealth from Bahrain and the Ansar beard about the arrival of Abu Ubaida and they had observed the dawn prayer along with Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him), and when Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) had finished the prayer they (the Ansar) came before him and Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) smiled as he saw them and then said: I think you have heard about the arrival of Abu Ubaida with goods from Bahrain. They said: Allah's Messenger. yes, it is so. Thereupon he said: Be happy and be hopeful of that what gives you delight. By Allah, it is not the poverty about which I fear in regard to you but I am afraid in your case that (the worldly) riches way be given to you as were given to those who had gone before you and you begin to vie with one another for them as they vied for them. and these may destroy you as these destroyed them.

Sunan Abu Dawud
Sunan Abu Dawud Book 019, Number 2955
Narrated Umar ibn al-Khattab: A son of Adi ibn Adi al-Kindi said that Umar ibn AbdulAziz wrote (to his governors): If anyone asks about the places where spoils (fay') should be spent, that should be done in accordance with the decision made by Umar ibn al-Khattab (Allah be pleased with him). The believers considered him to be just, according to the saying of the Prophet (peace_be_upon_him): Allah has placed truth upon Umar's tongue and heart. He fixed stipends for Muslims, and provided protection for the people of other religions by levying jizyah (poll-tax) on them, deducting no fifth from it, nor taking it as booty.

Sunan Abu Dawud Book 019, Number 3031
Narrated Anas ibn Malik ; Uthman ibn AbuSulayman: The Prophet (peace_be_upon_him) sent Khalid ibn al-Walid to Ukaydir of Dumah. He was seized and they brought him to him (i.e. the Prophet). He spared his life and made peace with him on condition that he should pay jizyah (poll-tax).

Sunan Abu Dawud Book 037, Number 4310
Narrated AbuHurayrah: The Prophet (peace_be_upon_him) said: There is no prophet between me and him, that is, Jesus (peace_be_upon_him). He will descent (to the earth). When you see him, recognise him: a man of medium height, reddish fair, wearing two light yellow garments, looking as if drops were falling down from his head though it will not be wet. He will fight the people for the cause of Islam. He will break the cross, kill swine, and abolish jizyah. Allah will perish all religions except Islam. He will destroy the Antichrist and will live on the earth for forty years and then he will die. The Muslims will pray over him.

Malik's Muwatta Book 17, Number 17.24.42
Yahya related to me from Malik that Ibn Shihab said, "I have heard that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, took jizya from the magians of Bahrain, that Umar ibn al-Khattab took it from the magians of Persia and that Uthman ibn Affan took it from the Berbers."

Malik's Muwatta Book 17, Number 17.24.44
Yahya related to me from Malik from Nafi from Aslam, the mawla of Umar ibn al-Khattab, that Umar ibn al-Khattab imposed a jizya tax of four dinars on those living where gold was the currency, and forty dirhams on those living where silver was the currency. In addition, they had to provide for the muslims and receive them as guests for three days.

Malik's Muwatta Book 17, Number 17.24.45
Yahya related to me from Malik from Zayd ibn Aslam from his father that he said to Umar ibn al-Khattab, "There is a blind she-camel behind the house, soUmar said, "Hand it over to a household so that they can make (some) use of it." He said, "But she is blind." Umar replied, "Then put it in a line with other camels." He said, "How will it be able to eat from the ground?" Umar asked, "Is it from the livestock of the jizya or the zakat?" and Aslam replied, "From the livestock of the jizya." Umar said, "By AIIah, you wish to eat it." Aslam said, "It has the brand of the jizya on it." So Umar ordered it to be slaughtered. He had nine platters, and on each of the platters he put some of every fruit and delicacy that there was and then sent them to the wives of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and the one he sent to his daughter Hafsa was the last of them all, and if there was any deficiency in any of them it was in Hafsa's portion.
"He put meat from the slaughtered animal on the platters and sent them to the wives of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and he ordered what was left of the meat of the slaughtered animal to be prepared. Then he invited the Muhajirun and the Ansar to eat it."
Malik said, "I do not think that livestock should be taken from people who pay the jizya except as jizya."

Malik's Muwatta Book 17, Number 17.24.46
Yahya related to me from Malik that he had heard that Umar ibn Abd al-Aziz wrote to his governors telling them to relieve any people who payed the jizya from paying the jizya if they became muslims.
Malik said, "The sunna is that there is no jizya due from women or children of people of the Book, and that jizya is only taken from men who have reached puberty. The people of dhimma and the magians do not have to pay any zakat on their palms or their vines or their crops or their livestock. This is because zakat is imposed on the muslims to purify them and to be given back to their poor, whereas jizya is imposed on the people of the Book to humble them. As long as they are in the country they have agreed to live in, they do not have to pay anything on their property except the jizya. If, however, they trade in muslim countries, coming and going in them, a tenth is taken from what they invest in such trade. This is because jizya is only imposed on them on conditions, which they have agreed on, namely that they will remain in their own countries, and that war will be waged for them on any enemy of theirs, and that if they then leave that land to go anywhere else to do business they will haveto pay a tenth. Whoever among them does business with the people of Egypt, and then goes to Syria, and then does business with the people of Syria and then goes to Iraq and does business with them and then goes on to Madina, or Yemen, or other similar places, has to pay a tenth.
People of the Book and magians do not have to pay any zakat on any of their property, livestock, produce or crops. The sunna still continues like that. They remain in the deen they were in, and they continue to do what they used to do. If in any one year they frequently come and go in muslim countries then they have to pay a tenth every time they do so, since that is outside what they have agreed upon, and not one of the conditions stipulated for them. This is what I have seen the people of knowledge of our city doing."

Tabari IX:75
He who holds fast to his religion, Judaism or Christianity, is not to be tempted from it. It is incumbent on them to pay the jizyah protection tax. For every adult, male or female, free or slave, one full denarius, or its value in al-ma'afir [fine cloth]. He who pays that to the Messenger has the protection of Allah and His Messenger, and he who holds back from it is the enemy of Allah and His Messenger.

Tabari IX:76
The Messenger has sent Zur'ah and his Companions to you. ‘I commend them to your care. Collect the zakat and jizyah from your districts and hand the money over to my messengers.' The Prophet is the master of your rich and your poor.

Tabari VII:26
In this year Muhammad ordered people to pay the zakat tax. It is said that the Prophet commanded them to do this.


Muhammad wrote in a letter to the Christians and Jews of Elath

Thou hast to accept Islam, or pay the tax, and obey God and His Messenger and the messengers of His Messenger, and do them honor and dress them in fine clothing, not in the raiment of raiders…for if you satisfy my envoys you will satisfy me. Surely the tax is known to you. Therefore if you wish to be secure on land and on sea, obey God and His Messenger…But be careful lest thou do not satisfy…for then I shall not accept anything from you, but I shall fight you and take the young as captives and slay the elderly…Come then, before a calamity befalls you...[1]

A Major Source of Revenue for Early Muslims

The Jizya tax was a major source of revenue for the early Muslims.
Sahih Bukhari Volume 004, Book 053, Number 388
Narrated Juwairiya bin Qudama At-Tamimi: We said to 'Umar bin Al-Khattab, O Chief of the believers! Advise us." He said, "I advise you to fulfill Allah's Convention (made with the Dhimmis) as it is the convention of your Prophet and the source of the livelihood of your dependents (i.e. the taxes from the Dhimmis.)."

Zoroastrians Must Also Pay the Jizya
Tabari IX:38
In this year, the Messenger sent Amr to collect the zakat tax from Jayfar and Amr, the clans of Julanda and Azd.... He collected the jizyah from the Zoroastrians.

Muslim Kaffir Friendships
Do Not Befriend Kafir
Quran 003:118
O you who believe! do not take for intimate friends from among others than your own people; they do not fall short of inflicting loss upon you; they love what distresses you; vehement hatred has already appeared from out of their mouths, and what their breasts conceal is greater still; indeed, We have made the communications clear to you, if you will understand.

Quran 004:144
O ye who believe! Take not for friends unbelievers rather than believers: Do ye wish to offer Allah an open proof against yourselves?

Quran 005:051
O ye who believe! take not the Jews and the Christians for your friends and protectors: They are but friends and protectors to each other. And he amongst you that turns to them (for friendship) is of them. Verily Allah guideth not a people unjust.

Quran 005:057
O Ye who believe! Choose not for guardians such of those who received the Scripture before you, and of the disbelievers, as make a jest and sport of your religion. But keep your duty to Allah if ye are true believers.

Quran 009:023
O ye who believe! Choose not your fathers nor your brethren for friends if they take pleasure in disbelief rather than faith. Whoso of you taketh them for friends, such are wrong-doers.

Quran 058:022
You shall not find a people who believe in Allah and the latter day befriending those who act in opposition to Allah and His Messenger, even though they were their (own) fathers, or their sons, or their brothers, or their kinsfolk; these are they into whose hearts He has impressed faith, and whom He has strengthened with an inspiration from Him: and He will cause them to enter gardens beneath which rivers flow, abiding therein; Allah is well-pleased with them and they are well-pleased with Him these are Allah's party: now surely the party of Allah are the successful ones.

Note that Quran 58:22 even divides families.
Quran 060:004
There is for you an excellent example (to follow) in Abraham and those with him, when they said to their people: "We are clear of you and of whatever ye worship besides Allah: we have rejected you, and there has arisen, between us and you, enmity and hatred for ever,- unless ye believe in Allah and Him alone": But not when Abraham said to his father: "I will pray for forgiveness for thee, though I have no power (to get) aught on thy behalf from Allah." (They prayed): "Our Lord! in Thee do we trust, and to Thee do we turn in repentance: to Thee is (our) Final Goal.

Forsake your Kaffir Family Members
Quran 009:023
O ye who believe! Choose not your fathers nor your brethren for friends if they take pleasure in disbelief rather than faith. Whoso of you taketh them for friends, such are wrong-doers.

Treatment of Dhimmi
Jews and Christians
Sahih Muslim Book 026, Number 5389
Abu Huraira reported Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) as saying: Do not greet the Jews and the Christians before they greet you and when you meet any one of them on the roads force him to go to the narrowest part of it.

See Also Sahih Muslim Book 026, Number 5390, Sunan Abu Dawud Book 041, Number 5186

Sunan Abu Dawud Book 001, Number 0022
Narrated Amr ibn al-'As: AbdurRahman ibn Hasanah reported: I and Amr ibn al-'As went to the Prophet (peace_be_upon_him). He came out with a leather shield (in his hand). He covered himself with it and urinated. Then we said: Look at him. He is urinating as a woman does. The Prophet (peace_be_upon_him), heard this and said: Do you not know what befell a person from amongst Banu Isra'il (the children of Israel)? When urine fell on them, they would cut off the place where the urine fell; but he (that person) forbade them (to do so), and was punished in his grave.

Sahih Muslim Book 042, Number 7135
Abu Huraira reported that Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) said: A group of Bani Isra'il was lost. I do not know what happened to it, but I think (that it 'underwent a process of metamorphosis) and assumed the shape of rats. Don't you see when the milk of the camel is placed before them, these do not drink and when the milk of goat is placed before them, these do drink. Abu Huraira said: I narrated this very hadith to Ka'b and he said: Did you hear this from Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him)? I (Abu Huraira) said: Yes. He said this again and again, and I said: Have I read Torah? This hadith has been transmitted on the authority of Ishaq with a slight variation of wording.

See Also Sahih Muslim Book 042, Number 7136

Sahih Muslim Book 042, Number 7135
Abu Huraira reported that Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) said: A group of Bani Isra'il was lost. I do not know what happened to it, but I think (that it 'underwent a process of metamorphosis) and assumed the shape of rats. Don't you see when the milk of the camel is placed before them, these do not drink and when the milk of goat is placed before them, these do drink. Abu Huraira said: I narrated this very hadith to Ka'b and he said: Did you hear this from Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him)? I (Abu Huraira) said: Yes. He said this again and again, and I said: Have I read Torah? This hadith has been transmitted on the authority of Ishaq with a slight variation of wording.

Sahih Muslim Book 042, Number 7136
Abu Huraira reported that the rat (is the result of) metamorphosis (of a group of Bani Isra'il) and the proof of this is that when the milk of goat is placed before it, it drinks it, and when the milk of the camel is placed before it, it would not taste it at all. Ka'b said: Did you hear it from Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him)? Thereupon he said: Has Torah been revealed to me?

Sahih Muslim Book 037, Number 6665
Abu Musa' reported that Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) said: When it will be the Day of Resurrection Allah would deliver to every Muslim a Jew or a Christian and say: That is your rescue from Hell-Fire.

Sahih Bukhari Volume 003, Book 034, Number 427
Narrated Abu Huraira: Allah's Apostle said, "May Allah curse the Jews, because Allah made fat illegal for them but they sold it and ate its price. "

Sahih Bukhari Volume 004, Book 052, Number 177
Narrated Abu Huraira: Allah's Apostle said, "The Hour will not be established until you fight with the Jews, and the stone behind which a Jew will be hiding will say. "O Muslim! There is a Jew hiding behind me, so kill him."

See Also Sahih Bukhari Volume 004, Book 052, Number 176, Sahih Bukhari Volume 004, Book 056, Number 791

Apostates (Ridda)
Quran 003:023 - Quran 003:024
Have you not considered those (Jews) who are given a portion of the Book? They are invited to the Book of Allah that it might decide between them, then a part of them turn back and they withdraw.
This is because they say: The fire shall not touch us but for a few days; and what they have forged deceives them in the matter of their religion.

Quran 008:049
Lo! the hypocrites say, and those in whose hearts is a disease: "These people,- their religion has misled them." But if any trust in Allah, behold! Allah is Exalted in might, Wise.

Apostates are Damned to Hell
Quran 002:027
Those who break the covenant of Allah after ratifying it, and sever that which Allah ordered to be joined, and (who) make mischief in the earth: Those are they who are the losers.

Quran 002:039
But they who disbelieve, and deny Our revelations, such are rightful Peoples of the Fire. They will abide therein.

Quran 003:090 - Quran 003:091
Lo! those who disbelieve after their (profession of) belief, and afterward grow violent in disbelief: their repentance will not be accepted. And such are those who are astray.
Lo! those who disbelieve, and die in disbelief, the (whole) earth full of gold would not be accepted from such an one if it were offered as a ransom (for his soul). Theirs will be a painful doom and they will have no helpers.

Quran 004:114
If anyone contends with the Messenger even after guidance has been plainly conveyed to him, and follows a path other than that becoming to men of Faith, We shall leave him in the path he has chosen, and land him in Hell,- what an evil refuge!

Quran 009:066
Make no excuse. Ye have disbelieved after your (confession of) belief. If We forgive a party of you, a party of you We shall punish because they have been guilty.

Quran 009:074
They swear by Allah that they said nothing (evil), but indeed they uttered blasphemy, and they did it after accepting Islam; and they meditated a plot which they were unable to carry out: this revenge of theirs was (their) only return for the bounty with which Allah and His Messenger had enriched them! If they repent, it will be best for them; but if they turn back (to their evil ways), Allah will punish them with a grievous penalty in this life and in the Hereafter: They shall have none on earth to protect or help them.

Quran 047:025 - Quran 047:026
Those who turn back as apostates after Guidance was clearly shown to them,- the Evil One has instigated them and busied them up with false hopes.
This, because they said to those who hate what Allah has revealed, "We will obey you in part of (this) matter"; but Allah knows their (inner) secrets.

Sahih Bukhari Volume 008, Book 076, Number 585
Narrated Abu Hazim from Sahl bin Sa'd: The Prophet said, "I am your predecessor (forerunner) at the Lake-Fount, and whoever will pass by there, he will drink from it and whoever will drink from it, he will never be thirsty. There will come to me some people whom I will recognize, and they will recognize me, but a barrier will be placed between me and them." Abu Hazim added: An-Nu'man bin Abi 'Aiyash, on hearing me, said. "Did you hear this from Sahl?" I said, "Yes." He said, " I bear witness that I heard Abu Said Al-Khudri saying the same, adding that the Prophet said: 'I will say: They are of me (i.e. my followers). It will be said, 'You do not know what they innovated (new things) in the religion after you left'. I will say, 'Far removed, far removed (from mercy), those who changed (their religion) after me." Abu Huraira narrated that the Prophet said, "On the Day of Resurrection a group of companions will come to me, but will be driven away from the Lake-Fount, and I will say, 'O Lord (those are) my companions!' It will be said, 'You have no knowledge as to what they innovated after you left; they turned apostate as renegades (reverted from Islam)."

See Also Sahih Bukhari Volume 008, Book 076, Number 586

Sahih Bukhari Volume 008, Book 076, Number 587
Narrated Abu Huraira: The Prophet said, "While I was sleeping, a group (of my followers were brought close to me), and when I recognized them, a man (an angel) came out from amongst (us) me and them, he said (to them), 'Come along.' I asked, 'Where?' He said, 'To the (Hell) Fire, by Allah' I asked, 'what is wrong with them' He said, 'They turned apostate as renegades after you left.' Then behold! (Another) group (of my followers) were brought close to me, and when I recognized them, a man (an angel) came out from (me and them) he said (to them); Come along.' I asked, "Where?' He said, 'To the (Hell) Fire, by Allah.' I asked, What is wrong with them?' He said, 'They turned apostate as renegades after you left. So I did not see anyone of them escaping except a few who were like camels without a shepherd."

Death is Ordained for Apostates
Quran 004:089
They but wish that ye should reject Faith, as they do, and thus be on the same footing (as they): But take not friends from their ranks until they flee in the way of Allah (From what is forbidden). But if they turn renegades, seize them and slay them wherever ye find them; and (in any case) take no friends or helpers from their ranks;-

Sahih Bukhari Volume 004, Book 052, Number 260
Narrated Ikrima: Ali burnt some people and this news reached Ibn 'Abbas, who said, "Had I been in his place I would not have burnt them, as the Prophet said, 'Don't punish (anybody) with Allah's Punishment.' No doubt, I would have killed them, for the Prophet said, 'If somebody (a Muslim) discards his religion, kill him.' "

Sahih Bukhari Volume 009, Book 084, Number 057
Narrated 'Ikrima: Some Zanadiqa (atheists) were brought to 'Ali and he burnt them
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Post by ali5196 »

http://www.sonsofapesandpigs.org/2008/0 ... ggest.html

The Koran does not actually ever use the word unbeliever. It calls non-Muslims "kafirs" [or kufars]. The Koran defines the kafir and says that the kafir is to be:

Hated 40:35, Mocked 83:34, Punished 25:77, Beheaded 47:4, Confused 6:25, Plotted against 86:15, Terrorized 8:12, Annihilated 6:45, Killed 4:91, Crucified 5:33, Made war on 9:29, Not befriended 3:28, Disgraced 37:18 Considered Evil 23:97, considered a partner of Satan: 25:55, considered Unclean: 9:28, considered Cursed: 33:60

Christians and Jews are infidels, but infidels are kafirs, too. Polytheists are Hindus, but they are also kafirs. The terms infidel and polytheist are religious words. Only the word kafir shows the common political treatment of Christian, Jew, Hindu, Buddhist, [and Zoroastrian, Bahai, Shintoist], animist, atheist and humanist.

The Koran defines the kafir, and kafir is not a neutral word. A kafir is not merely someone who does not agree with Islam, but a kafir is evil, disgusting, and the lowest form of life. Kafirs can be tortured, killed, lied to and cheated. So the usual word 'unbeliever' does not reflect the political reality of Islam. http://www.politicalislam.com/pages/kafir
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Post by ali5196 »

http://www.indonesia.faithfreedom.org/f ... &start=320

Tidak boleh ada agama lain selain Islam di Jazirah Arab. Nih hadis pesan Muhammad sebelum mati di atas ranjangnya:
Hadith Sahih Bukhari, Volume 4, Book 52, Number 288:
Narrated Said bin Jubair:
Ibn 'Abbas said, "Thursday! What (great thing) took place on Thursday!" Then he started weeping till his tears wetted the gravels of the ground . Then he said, "On Thursday the illness of Allah's Apostle was aggravated and he said, "Fetch me writing materials so that I may have something written to you after which you will never go astray." The people (present there) differed in this matter and people should not differ before a prophet. They said, "Allah's Apostle is seriously sick.' The Prophet said, "Let me alone, as the state in which I am now, is better than what you are calling me for." The Prophet on his death-bed, gave three orders saying, "
(1) Expel the pagans from the Arabian Peninsula,
(2) respect and give gifts to the foreign delegates as you have seen me dealing with them."
I forgot the third (order)" (Ya'qub bin Muhammad said, "I asked Al-Mughira bin 'Abdur-Rahman about the Arabian Peninsula and he said, 'It comprises Mecca, Medina, Al-Yama-ma and Yemen." Ya'qub added, "And Al-Arj, the beginning of Tihama.")
dikisahkan oleh bin Jubair:
Ibn 'Abbas berkata, "Kamis! Betapa hebatnya kejadian yang terjadi di hari Kamis!" Lalu dia mulai menangis sampai airmatanya membasahi bebatuan di tanah. Kemudian dia berkata, "Di hari Kamis penyakit sang Rasul Allah semakin menjadi dan dia berkata, "Ambilkan alat2 tulis sehingga aku bisa menuliskan bagi kalian sehingga kalian tidak akan pernah sesat." Orang (yang ada di situ) berselisih pendapat dan mereka tidak seharusnya melakukan itu di hadapan seorang nabi. Mereka berkata, "Rasul Allah sangat sakit." Sang Nabi berkata, "Biarkan aku sendiri, dalam keadaanku sekarang, ini lebih baik daripada apa yang kalian minta dariku."
Sang Nabi di atas ranjangnya sekarat, memberi tiga perintah, katanya:
1. Usir para pemuja berhala dari Jazirah Arabia.
2. Hormati dan beri hadiah utusan2 asing seperti kalian lihat aku bersikap dengan mereka.
Aku lupa perintah yang ketiga. (Ya'qub bin Muhammad berkata, "Aku bertanya pada Al-Mughira bin 'Abdur-Rahman tentang Jazirah Arabia dan katanya, "Itu termasuk daerah Mekah, Medina, Al-Yama-ma dan Yemen." Ya'qub menambahkan, "Dan Al-Arj, bagian depan dari Tihama.")
Hadith Sahih Muslim, Book 019, Number 4366:
It has been narrated by 'Umar b. al-Khattib that he heard the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) say: I will expel the Jews and Christians from the Arabian Peninsula and will not leave any but Muslim.
Dikisahkan oleh 'Umar b. al-Khattib bahwa dia mendengar Rasul Allah (semoga damai besertanya) berkata: Aku akan mengusir para Yahudi dan Kristen dari Jazirah Arabia dan tidak memberikannya pada siapun kecuali Muslim.
Hadis ibn-Malik, book 45, number 45.5.17
Yahya related to me from Malik from Ismail ibn Abi Hakim that he heard Umar ibn Abd al-Aziz say, "One of the last things that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said was, 'May Allah fight the jews and the christians. They took the graves of their Prophets as places of prostration. Two deens shall not co-exist in the land of the Arabs.' "
Yahya melaporkan padaku dari Malik dari Ismail ibn Abi Hakim bahwa dia mendengar Umar ibn Abd al-Aziz berkata, "Satu dari pesan2 terakhir yang dikatakan Rasul Allah, semoga Allah SWT memberkatinya dan memberinya damai, adalah, "Semoga Allah memerangi orang2 Yahudi dan Kristen. Mereka membuat kuburan2 Nabi mereka sebagai tempat ibadah. Tidak boleh ada dua agama di tanah Arab.'"
Hadis ibn-Malik, book 45, number 45.5.18
Yahya related to me from Malik from Ibn Shihab that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Two deens shall not co-exist in the Arabian Peninsula." Malik said that Ibn Shihab said, ''Umar ibn al-Khattab searched for information about that until he was absolutely convinced that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, had said, 'Two deens shall not co-exist in the Arabian Peninsula,' and he therefore expelled the jews from Khaybar."
Yahya menyampaikan padaku dari Malik dari Ibn Shihab bahwa Rasul Allah, semoga Allah SWT memberkatinya dan memberinya damai, berkata, "Tidak boleh ada dua agama di Jazirah Arabia," Malik berkata bahwa Ibn Shihab berkata, "Umar ibn al-Khattab mencari penjelasan atas perintah itu sampai dia benar2 yakin bahwa Rasul Allah telah berkata, 'Tidak boleh ada dua agama di Jazirah Arabia, ' dan karenanya dia lalu mengusir orang2 Yahudi dari Khaybar."
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Post by ali5196 »

With thanks to Adadeh:
http://www.indonesia.faithfreedom.org/f ... hp?t=25699


Lihat nih keterangan di halaman 463 dan 464 tentang kondisi yang memungkinkan diumumkannya Jihad bunuh kafir:

Gue terjemahin yang digarisi merah ya:
Kondisi untuk mengumumkan perang, seperti yang disetujui, adalah ajakan untuk menerima Islam, yakni, Muslim tidak boleh memerangi kafir jika ajakan masuk Islam belum disampaikan pada kafir. Hal ini disetujui para ahli Islam karena firman yang Maha Kuasa, "Kami tidak pernah menghukum sampai Kami mengirim seorang utusan." [320]

... Jadi tindakan ustad bekas pacarmu membunuh kafir yang menolak Islam itu memang sesuai dengan perintah Allah SWT/Muhammad. Memang Islam menetapkan bahwa pertama-tama, Muslim harus mengajak kafir memeluk Islam. Kalau kafir menolak, naaah.... kondisi jihad bunuh kafir sudah terbuka.
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Post by ali5196 »

Ex Muslim : 'KAFIR' = lebih buruk dari hewan ****
http://www.indonesia.faithfreedom.org/f ... hp?t=26499
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Post by ali5196 »

DISKUSI: Kafir menurut Al Qur'an
http://www.indonesia.faithfreedom.org/f ... 047#360047

Kafir menurut Al Qur’an antara lain :

Kafir Juhud Kafir juhud ada 2 pengertian :
Pertama : Orang yang tidak mengakui wujud Allah, misalnya orang atheis, komunis.
Kedua : Mereka yang mengetahui kebenaran tetapi menolaknya.
Kafir Ni’nah Mereka yang tidak mensyukuri nikmat Allah.
Kafir Bara’ah Mereka yang tidak merestui dan melepaskan diri.
Kafir Harbi yaitu orang kafir yang memerangi dan diperangi.
Kafir Dzimi yaitu orang kafir yang tunduk pada penguasa Islam dan membayar jizyah
Kafir Muahad yaitu orang kafir yang tinggal di Negara kafir, yang ada perjanjian damai dengan Negara Islam.
Kafir Musta’man yaitu orang kafir yang masuk ke Negara Islam,dan mendapatkan jaminan keamanan dari pemerintah.
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Post by antikris »

... Jadi tindakan ustad bekas pacarmu membunuh kafir yang menolak Islam itu memang sesuai dengan perintah Allah SWT/Muhammad. Memang Islam menetapkan bahwa pertama-tama, Muslim harus mengajak kafir memeluk Islam. Kalau kafir menolak, naaah.... kondisi jihad bunuh kafir sudah terbuka.

-------->>> lha bukannya itu kerjaannya penginjil???
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Post by truthneverchange »

antikris wrote:... Jadi tindakan ustad bekas pacarmu membunuh kafir yang menolak Islam itu memang sesuai dengan perintah Allah SWT/Muhammad. Memang Islam menetapkan bahwa pertama-tama, Muslim harus mengajak kafir memeluk Islam. Kalau kafir menolak, naaah.... kondisi jihad bunuh kafir sudah terbuka.

-------->>> lha bukannya itu kerjaannya penginjil???
anda mau taqiya (bohong) ya? apakah agamamu (islam) mengajarkan untuk taqiya (berbohong)?

yang sering ngatain orang lain kafir itu muslim ato non-muslim?

penginjil emang kenal allah swt?

setahu saya penginjil itu kenalnya allah bapa. emangnya allah bapa = allah swt ya? klo sama kenapa muslim ngga nyebut allahnya dengan sebutan allah bapa?
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Re: [Quran & Hadis] Segala ketentuan ttg KAFIR****

Post by access »

antikris wrote:... Jadi tindakan ustad bekas pacarmu membunuh kafir yang menolak Islam itu memang sesuai dengan perintah Allah SWT/Muhammad. Memang Islam menetapkan bahwa pertama-tama, Muslim harus mengajak kafir memeluk Islam. Kalau kafir menolak, naaah.... kondisi jihad bunuh kafir sudah terbuka.

-------->>> lha bukannya itu kerjaannya penginjil???

anda ini mau ngelawak?? dimana-mana penginjil itu yang dibunuhin sama muslim wakakaka, udah jaman internet kok bodohnya masih ga ketolongan... search aja digoogle gitu aja kok repot

beda halnya dengan ajaran islam, fatwa mati buat penginjil dan pendeta aja ada, ga percaya? mau bukti? tar kalau saya kasih jangan kabur ya? atau terus ga OL pake id lain ( udah biasa jurus muslim mah) terus pake ilmu taqqiya lagi tar.
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Re: [Quran & Hadis] Segala ketentuan ttg KAFIR****

Post by sabdopalon »

Asal-usul Allah: Tinjauan dari Bahasa Arab

Kalau dr. Suradi mula-mula, -- sebagaimana banyak artikel-artikel polemik Kristen terbitan Amerika, -- menyangkal sama sekali bahwa istilah Allah cognate dengan El, Eloah, Elohim (Ibrani) dan Elah, Alaha (Aram/Suryani), kini para penerusnya mencoba memisahkan antara kata-kata ilah (sembahan), alihat, (sembahan-sembahan) dan al-Ilah (sembahan itu, sembahan yang benar) yang se-rumpun dengan istilah el, eloah, elohim dengan Allah yang dianggapnya "nama dari dewa Arab yang mengairi bumi". Allah, yang dianggapnya sebagai nama "dewa air", dirujuknya dari artikel Wahyuni Nafis, dalam bunga rampai The Passing Over: Melintas Batas Agama, menjadi dasar penolakannya terhadap penggunaan kata Allah dalam Alkitab Kristen di Indonesia.

Untuk meneguhkan pembedaan antara ilah, alih-ah, dan al-Ilah dengan Allah, Teguh Hendarto lalu menyangkal bahwa istilah Allah berasal dari al-Ilah (Bahana, Maret 2001). Menurut argumentasinya yang sangat awam mengenai bahasa Arab, ia menulis kalau al-Ilah dapat disingkat menjadi Allah, mengapa Alkitab tidak menjadi Altab? Untuk itu saya harus menjelaskannya secara sabar, karena mungkin ia tidak bisa membaca sepotongpun huruf Arab, meski gayanya yang kelewat percaya diri seolah-olah mau menggurui saya.

Begini, pada prinsipnya sebuah kata dalam bahasa-bahasa semitik dibentuk dari akar kata (al-jidr) yang biasanya terdiri dari 3 konsonan. Akar kata itu bisa dipecah-pecah menjadi kata benda, kata sifat, kata kerja dan kata benda baru. Misalnya, kitab dari kata k-t-b. Dari akar kata ini, lalu dibentuklah menjadi banyak kata: kata benda, kata kerja, dan sebagainya. Dari akar kata k-t-b kita dapat menemukan kata-kata sebagai berikut: kitaab (buku), kaatib (penulis), maktabah (perpustakaan), maktub (tertulis, termaktub), uktub (tulislah!), dan seterusnya.

Sedangkan kata Ilah, al-Ilah terbentuk dari 3 akar kata hamzah, lam, haa (`-l-h). Dari akar kata ini, kita mengenal isltilah ilah, alihah, dan al-Ilah (atau bentuk singkatnya: Allah). Sebagai sesama bahasa rumpun semitis, bahasa Ibrani dan bahasa Aram mempunyai ciri yang sama. Saya juga pernah menulis, bahwa kata Ibrani Elah, Eloah berasal dari kata el (kuat) dan alah (sumpah). Al- dalam kata Allah berbeda dengan El (kuat) dalam bahasa Ibrani. Kata Ibrani El, sejajar dengan bahasa Arab Ilah, sedangkan kata sandang Al- yang mendahului Ilah sejajar dengan bahasa Ibrani ha-elohim (Raja-raja 18:39). Tetapi kasus penyingkatan al-Ilah menjadi Allah hanya terjadi dalam bahasa Arab, tidak terjadi dalam bahasa Ibrani atau Aram.

Selanjutnya, memisahkan sebutan Allah dari Ilah, al-Ilah juga tidak bisa dipertahankan. Sebab ahli bahasa Arab, baik dari kalangan Islam maupun Kristen, juga banyak yang menganggap bahwa sebutan Allah itu musytaq atau dapat dilacak asal-usulnya dari kata lain. Jadi, tidak benar anggapan kaum penentang Allah itu yang mengatakan bahwa Allah tidak bisa diterjemahkan dalam bahasa-bahasa lain. Memang, ada penerjemah al-Qur'an yang berpandangan demikian, misalnya terjemahan Abdallah Yusuf Ali, The Meaning of The Holy Quran.

Jadi, tidak semua umat Islam berpandangan bahwa istilah Allah itu ghayr al-musytaq (tidak berasal dari kata lain, karena dianggap the proper name). Sama seperti kaum penentang Allah yang menganggap YHWH tidak bisa diterjemahkan, begitu juga di kalangan Islam ada yang berpandangan seperti itu. Pdt. Jacob Sulistiono mengutip majalah Islam Sabili, yang memuat tulisan seorang Muslim yang menganggap bahwa Allah itu tidak bisa diterjemahkan, tetapi itu tidak mewakili pendapat seluruh umat Islam di dunia. Bahkan di kalangan Islam sendiri, Sabili sering dianggap mewakili kelompok Islam garis keras, setali tiga uang dengan kaum penentang Allah, minimal dalam pandangan teologisnya yang sama-sama hitam putih itu.

Salah satu diantara terjemahan al-Qur'an dalam bahasa Inggris yang menerjemahkan istilah Allah, misalnya silahkan membaca: The Massage of the Qur'an, oleh Muhammad Asad. Dalam terjemahan yang cukup otoritatif di dunia Islam Barat ini, ungkapan: Bismillahi Rahmani Rahim diterjemahkan: "In the Name of God, The Most Grocious, The Dispenser of Grace".

Memang, Sabili dalam salah satu terbitannya pernah menguraikan bahwa secara etimologis, kata Allah yang terdiri dari huruf alif, lam, lam dan ha' dengan tasydid sebagai tanda idgham lam pertama pada lam kedua) adalah ghairu musytaq (tidak ada asal katanya dan bukan pecahan dari kata lain). Karena itu, kata ini tidak bisa diubah menjadi bentuk tatsniyah (ganda) dan jama' (plural). Demikian pula kata ini tidak dapat dijadikan sebagai mudhaf. Jacob Sulistiono mengutip ini, saya yakin ia sendiri tidak mengerti apa itu bentuk mutsanah, jama' atau mudhaf dalam bahasa Arab.

Harus saya jelaskan sekali lagi, padangan Sabili sama sekali tidak bisa dianggap representatif mewakili Islam. Banyak ulama Islam terkemuka yang berpandangan sebaliknya. Contohnya, kita bisa membaca kitab yang sangat terkenal di dunia Arab, al-Mu'jam al-Mufahras, yang menempatkan kata Allah tersebut di bawah heading (judul): hamzah, lam, haa ( `-l-h). Mengapa? Karena Al- pada Allah adalah hamzah wasl, sehingga Al- bisa hilang dalam kata: wallahi, bi-lahi, lil-lahi, dan sebagainya. Misalnya, pada kalimat Alhamdu lil-lah (segala puji bagi Allah), lil-lahi ta'ala (karena Allah Yang Maha Tinggi), kata sandang Al- di depan Allah juga dihilangkan.

Sedangkan kata Allah tidak bisa dijumpai dalam bentuk ganda dan jamak, secara historis dibuktikan karena kata sandang al- yang mendahului kata ilah, muncul untuk menegaskan: ilah itu, yang sudah mengandung makna pengkhususan. Maksudnya, bisa berarti Dia adalah ilah yang paling besar, sedangkan ilah-ilah lain berada di bawahnya, seperti dianut kaum Mekkah pra-Islam, seiring dengan pergeseran dari paham politeisme menuju henoteisme. Sebaliknya, bisa juga berarti "ilah satu-satunya, yang tidak ada ilah selain-Nya". Makna kedua ini, antara lain diberikan oleh orang-orang Yahudi, Kristen, kaum Hanif pra-Islam di wilayah Arab untuk menegaskan Keesaan-Nya. Tradisi monoteisme inilah yang kemudian dilanjutkan oleh Islam.

Selanjutnya, kata Allah memang tidak dapat dijadikan mudhaf, tetapi itu tidak berarti bahwa Allah itu nama diri. Sebab bukan hanya nama diri yang tidak bisa dijadikan mudhaf, tetapi setiap bentuk ma'rifah juga tidak bisa dijadikan mudhaf. Misalnya, kita berkata: Baitu al-Kabiiri (Rumah yang besar itu). Kata baitu dalam kalimat ini adalah mudhaf, sedangkan al-kabiiri adalah mudhaf ilaih. Tetapi kalau kita tambahkan al- sebelum bait, misalnya: al-baitu kabiirun (Rumah itu besar). Jadi, maknanya berbeda. Mengapa? Karena al-bait disini menjadi mubtada' (subyek), bukan mudhaf lagi, sedangkan kabiirun adalah khabar (predikat).

Metode "debat Kusir" dan "Logika Jungkir Balik" Penentang Allah

Saya sangat paham apabila LAI selama ini tidak pernah menggubris tuntutan kelompok sempalan ini, yang menuntut agar dalam Alkitab bahasa Indonesia dihilangkan kata Allah. Mengapa? Anda baru mengetahui alasannya, kalau anda mengikuti metode debat kusir dan logika jungkir balik mereka. Saya sekedar mengulang beberapa contoh:

Mula-mula mereka menuduh Allah itu "dewa air" berdasarkan beberapa rujukan yang mereka anggap mendukung, bahwa Allah pernah disembah bersama dewa-dewa kafir Mekkah pra-Islam. Tuduhan ini lalu saya tanggapi, Pertama: berdasarkan inkripsi-inskripsi Arab Kristen pra-Islam, yaitu Zabad (521 M) dan Umm al-Jimmal (pertengahan abad ke-6 M) bahwa Allah sudah dimaknai secara monoteistik Kristen, lengkap dengan foto-foto inskripsi, bacaannya, ulasan para ahli filologi, dan perkembangannya di gereja-gereja Arab setelah Islam hingga zaman kita sekarang; dan kedua: berdasarkan inskripsi Kirbeth el-Qom dan Kunlitet Ajrud, yang ditemukan di wilayah Hebron, YHWH pun juga pernah disembah bersama dewi kesuburan, Asyera.

Tanggapan saya ditanggapi balik. Pertama, bukti-bukti pemakaian Allah menurut inskripsi pra-Kristen itu, menurutnya tidak membuktikan keabsahan kata Allah, melainkan karena orang Arab Kristen tidak tahu asal-usulnya. Jadi, Hendarto sudah mempunyai praduga dulu, bahwa Allah itu "dewa air", "dewa bulan", "dewa matahari", atau dewa apapun Allah itu, ia tidak perduli, yang penting kata itu harus ditolak. Ia tidak menyelidiki dulu, bahkan buku Roberts Morrey, yang lebih merupakan karya polemik yang sangat provokatif anti-Islam itu, disebutnya sebagai bukti archeologis?

Padahal, dalam buku ini tidak ada pembahasan arkheologis sama sekali, kecuali berbagai sumber bacaan yang dirangkai-rangkai tanpa penelitian mendalam. Juga buku Steppen van Natan, Allah: Divine or Demonic, yang lebih menyerupai traktat tersebut, bagaimana buku sampah begini bisa disejajarkan dengan hasil penelitian Prof. Littmann, misalnya, yang meneliti inkripsi-inskripsi Arab pra-Islam itu sangat mendalam, bahkan banyak ahli-ahli lain yang reputasinya tidak diragukan, yang telah menyerahkan hampir seluruh hidup mereka untuk penelitian ilmiah.

Jadi, mereka menolak kata Allah berdasarkan buku-buku para penginjil yang berangkat dari asumsi teologis hitam-putih dan sama sekali tidak mempunyai keahlian di bidang sejarah dan arkheologi. Tetapi ketika saya counter dengan bukti-bukti sejarah, dikatakannya "bahwa itu hanya statement manusia, yaitu orang Islam dan Kristen Arab, yang tidak korelasinya dengan Firman Tuhan dalam Alkitab". Komentar ini, mungkin disebabkan karena saya tidak banyak main kutip ayat-ayatseperti mereka. Maksudnya, banyak ayat Alkitab mereka ajukan untuk mendukung anggapan mereka bahwa nama Yahwe tidak boleh diterjemahkan, sedangkan mereka mamahami nama ilahi itu sama seperti nama-nama makhluk-Nya. Untuk menunjukkan kedangkalan pemikiran mereka, silahkan baca artikel saya: "Nama YHWH: Harus Dipertahankan atau Boleh Diterjemahkan?".

Kedua, kalau saya buktikan bahwa Yahwe juga pernah disembah bersama dengan dewi Asyera, dengan enteng ia mengatakan bahwa itu hasil sinkretisme di Israel pada zaman dahulu, tanpa secara fair juga menerapkan penilaian yang sama untuk kata Allah, bahwa istilah Arab ini juga diartikan secara salah oleh orang-orang Arab pra-Islam. Padahal bahasa itu netral, tergantung apa makna yang kita berikan. Inilah yang saya namakan motode debat kusir alias debat tukang dokar, dengan logika jungkir balik mereka itu.

Yang lebih menggelikan lagi, Teguh Hendarto mengkoreksi terjemahan Alkitab al-Muqaddas (Today's Arabic Version), terbitan Dar al-Kitab al-Muqaddas fi al-Syarq al-Ausath, Beirut, yang saya kutip dalam makalah saya. Ungkapan Laa Ilaha illa Allah (Tidak ada Ilah kecuali Allah) yang tercatat dalam 1 Korintus 8:4, dengan gayanya yang menggurui, katanya terjemahan yang benar: Laa Ilaha al-Wahid. Ini bahasa Arab apa? Tidak ada artinya sama sekali, dan terang saja akan ditertawakan santri desa yang baru belajar Juzz Amma. Tetapi, ya itulah kualitas rata-rata kaum Penentang Allah itu. Semua ini saya ungkap di sini, karena gerakan mereka semakin gencar dan ngawur, seperti yang akan kita lihat di bawah ini.

Teguran Keras Mubaliq se-Indonesia: Provokasi Opo maneh iki, Rek?

Sama ngototnya dengan Hendarto, kita juga dikacau oleh Pdt. Jacob Sulistyono, seorang penganut sekte YHWH, yang lebih Yahudi ketimbang Yahudi sendiri, dalam perdebatannya di http://www.salib.net Banyak orang menduga, bahwa ia sendiri berada di belakang kasus "Surat Teguran Keras Mubaligh se-Indonesia", yang tidak jelas juntrungannya itu. Menurutnya, Allah dalam Islam dan Yahwe dalam Kristen itu mutlak berbeda. "Umat Islam tidak suka orang Kristen menyebut Allah", tulisnya, "karena ada istilah Allah Bapa, Putra dan Roh Kudus, sedangkan Islam percaya bahwa Allah itu tdk bisa disamakan dengan apapun". Hal ini sesuai dengan Al-Qur'an yang menyebutkan sebagai berikut:

Qul huwa llaahu ahad. Allahush shamad. Lam Yalid wa lam yulad. Wa Lam Yakun lahu kufuwwan ahad.

Artinya: "Katakanlah Dialah Allah Yang Esa. Allah, Dia adalah tempat bergantung kepada-Nya segala sesuatu. Tidak beranak dan tidak pula diperanakkan. Dan tidak ada sesuatu pun yang setara dengan-Nya
(Q.s. al-Ikhlas 112/1–4).

Laqad kafar alladzina qaluu Innallaha huwa al-Masih ibn Maryam.

Artinya: "Sesungguhnya telah kafirlah orang-orang yang berkata: Sesungguhnya Allah itu ialah al-Masih Putra Maryam"
(Q.s. Al-Maaidah/5:17).

Dengan keterangan di atas, ia seolah-olah malah membenarkan bahwa Tuhan orang Kristen itu beranak dan diperanakkan. Padahal mestinya, sebagai orang yang mengaku pengikut Kristus, justru seharusnya ia menjelaskan kepada umat Islam bahwa istilah Putra Allah itu bukan dalam makna "beranak dan diperanakkan", bukan malah membenarkannya, sekedar demi mendukung penolakannya atas istilah Allah. Q.s. al-Ikhlas ditujukan untuk menolak keyakinan pra-Islam di Mekkah, bahwa Allah mempunyai anak-anak perempuan, yaitu al-Latta, Uzza dan Manah.

Sedangkan Q.s. al-Maidah 17 lebih diarahkan kepada keyakinan semacam mujja-simah (antropomorfisme) bidat Kristen di Mekkah, yang menganggap bahwa Allah sama dengan tubuh kemanusiaan Yesus itu sendiri. Sudah barang tentu, keyakinan ganjil seperti ini juga tidak pernah dianut oleh orang Kristen manapun, baik itu gereja Katolik, gereja-gereja ortodoks dan reformasi Protestan sekarang ini.

Para ahli lain juga menghubungkan keyakinan yang diserang al-Qur'an itu dengan sekte bidat Kristen Maryamin (penyembah Maryam), yang memuja Maryam dan mengarak patungnya di sekeliling ka'bah serta mempersembahkan kepadanya collyrida (roti persembahan), sehingga disebut juga sekte Collyridianisme. Karena itu, tepatnya yang ditolak al-Qur'an adalah keyakinan pseudo-trinity yang terdiri: Allah, `Isa al-Masih dan Maryam (Q.s. an-Nisa'/4:171; al-Maidah/5: 73, 116), dan sema sekali tidak cocok diterapkan untuk keyakinan Kristen sebenarnya.

Sebelum saya tutup artikel ini dengan penjelasan singkat makna Putra Allah dalam Iman Kristen, perlu saya tanyakan mengenai tuntutan Mubaligh se-Indonesia? Lembaga ini kalau memang ada, mewakili siapa sehingga berani meng-claim dirinya seolah-olah seluruh umat Islam Indonesia? Ini sangat berbahaya bagi kerukanan umat beragama, apalagi kalau lembaga fiktif ini sengaja dibuat kelompok Kristen tertentu untuk meloloskan pandangan-pandangannya yang tidak ilmiah itu.

Makna term Putra Allah: Belajar Dari "bahasa teologis" Kristen Arab

Kalau begitu, apakah makna sebenarnya istilah Putra Allah dalam Iman Kristen? Harus ditegaskan, bahwa tidak ada umat Kristen yang pernah mempunyai sebersit pemikiran pun bahwa Allah secara fisik mempunyai anak, seperti keyakinan primitif orang-orang Mekkah pra-Islam tersebut. Saya ingin menjelaskan metafora ini berdasarkan teks-teks sumber Kristen Arab, supaya terbangun kesalingpahaman teologis Kristen-Islam di Indonesia. Sebab selama ini ada jarak yang cukup lebar secara kultural antara bahasa teologis Kristen Barat, yang memang tidak pernah bersentuhan dengan Islam, sehingga kesalahpahaman semakin berlarut-larut.

Istilah Putra Allah yang diterapkan bagi Yesus dalam Iman Kristen untuk menekankan praeksistensi-Nya sebagai Firman Allah yang kekal, seperti disebutkan dalam Injil Yohanes 1:1-3. Ungkapan "Pada mulanya adalah Firman", untuk menekankan bahwa Firman Allah itu tidak berpermulaan, sama abadi dengan Allah karena Firman itu adalah Firman Allah sendiri.

Selanjutnya, "Firman itu bersama-sama Allah", menekankan bahwa Firman itu berbeda dengan Allah. Allah adalah Esensi Ilahi (Arab: al-dzat, the essence), yang dikiaskan Sang Bapa, dan Firman menunjuk kepada "Pikiran Allah dan Sabda-Nya. Akal Ilahi sekaligus Sabda-Nya" (`aqlullah al-naatiqi, au natiqullah al-`aaqli, faahiya ta'na al-`aqlu wa al-naatiqu ma'an), demikianlah term-term teologis yang sering dijumpai dalam teks-teks Kristen Arab. Sedangkan penegasan "Firman itu adalah Allah", menekankan bahwa Firman itu, sekalipun dibedakan dari Allah, tetapi tidak berdiri di luar Dzat Allah. Mengapa? "Tentu saja", tulis Baba Shenuda III dalam bukunya Lahut al-Masih (Keilahian Kristus), "Pikiran Allah tidak akan dapat dipisahkan dari Allah ( `an `aqlu llahi laa yunfashilu `an Allah)". Dengan penegasan bahwa Firman itu adalah Allah sendiri, makan keesaan Allah (tauhid) dipertahankan.

Ungkapan "Firman itu bersama-sama dengan Allah", tetapi sekaligus "Firman itu adalah Allah", bisa dibandingkan dengan kerumitan pergulatan pemikiran Ilmu Kalam dalam Islam, yang merumuskan hubungan antara Allah dan sifat-sifatnya: Ash Shifat laysat al-dzat wa laa hiya ghayruha (Sifat Allah tidak sama, tetapi juga tidak berbeda dengan Dzat Allah). Jadi, kata shifat dalam Ilmu Kalam Islam tidak hanya bermakna sifat dalam bahasa sehari-hari, melainkan mendekati makna hypostasis dalam bahasa teologis Kristen.

Dalam sumber-sumber Kristen Arab sebelum munculkan ilmu Kalam al-Asy'ari, hyposistasis sering diterjemahkan baik shifat maupun uqnum , "pribadi" (jamak: aqanim), asal saja dimaknai secara metafisik seperti maksud bapa-bapa gereja, bukan dalam makna psikologis. Sedangkan ousia diterjemahkan dzat, dan kadang-kadang jauhar. Istilah dzat dan shifat tersebut akhirnya dipentaskan kembali oleh kaum Suni dalam menghadapi kaum Mu'tazili yang menyangkal keabadian Kalam Allah (Al-Qur'an), sebagaimana gereja menghadapi bidat Arius yang menyangkal keabadian Yesus sebagai Firman Allah.

Kembali ke makna Putra Allah. Melalui Putra-Nya atau Firman-Nya itu Allah menciptakan segala sesuatu. "Segala seuatu diciptakan oleh Dia, dan tanpa Dia tidak sesuatupun yang jadi dari segala yang dijadikan" (Yohanes 1:3). Jelaslah bahwa mempertahankan keilahian Yesus dalam Iman Kristen, tidak berarti mempertuhankan kemanusiaan-Nya, apalagi dengan rumusan yang jelas-jelas keliru: "Sesungguhnya Allah adalah al-Masih Putra Maryam" (innallaha huwa al-masih ibn maryam).

Dalam rumusan ini, yang ditentang al-Qur'an adalah menyamakan kemanusiaan Yesus dengan Allah. Padahal yang kita dimaksudkan ketika mempertahankan keilahian Yesus, menunjuk kepada Firman yang kekal bersama-sama Allah, yang melalui-Nya alam semesta dan segala isinya ini telah diciptakan.

Dan karena sejak kekal Kristus adalah Akal Allah dan Sabda-Nya, maka jelaslah Firman itu adalah Allah. Karena Akal Allah berdiam dalam Allah sejak kekal (wa madaama al-Masih huwa `aql allah al-naatiqi, idzan faahuwa llah, lianna `aql allah ka'inu fii llahi mundzu azali). Dan karena itu pula, Firman itu bukan ciptaan (ghayr al-makhluq), karena setiap ciptaan pernah tidak ada sebelum diciptakan).

Secara logis, mustahillah kita membayangkan pernah ada waktu dimana Allah ada tanpa Firman-Nya, kemudian Allah menciptakan Firman itu untuk Diri-Nya sendiri. Bagaimana mungkin Allah ada tanpa Pikiran atau Firman-Nya? Kini kita memahami secara jelas ajaran Tritunggal Yang Mahaesa, bahwa Allah, Firman dan Roh-Nya adalah kekal, sedangkan Firman dan Roh Allah selalu berdiam dalam keesaan Dzat-Nya, berada sejak kekal dalam Allah).

Selanjutnya, istilah Putra Allah berarti "Allah mewahyukan Diri-Nya sendiri melalui Firman-Nya". Allah itu transenden, tidak tampak, tidak terikat ruang dan waktu. "Tidak seorangpun melihat Allah", tulis Rasul Yohanes dalam Yohanes 1:18, "tetapi Anak Tunggal Allah yang ada di pangkuan Bapa Dialah yang menyatakan-Nya". Inilah makna tajjasad (inkarnasi). "Dengan inkarnasi Firman-Nya", tulis Baba Shenouda III, "kita melihat Allah. Tidak seorangpun melihat Allah dalam wujud ilahi-Nya yang kekal, tetapi dengan nuzulnya Firman Allah, kita melihat pewahyuan diri-Nya dalam daging" (Allahu lam yarahu ahadun qathu fi lahutihi, wa lakinahu lamma tajjasad, lamma thahara bi al-jasad).

Melalui Firman-Nya Allah dikenal, ibarat seseorang mengenal diri kita setelah kita menyatakan diri dengan kata-kata kita sendiri. Jadi, sebagaimana kata-kata seseorang yang keluar dari pikiran seseorang mengungkapkan identitas diri, begitu Allah menyatakan Diri-Nya melalui Firman-Nya. Inilah maka ungkapan dalam Qanun al-Iman (Syahadat Nikea/Konstantinopel tahun 325/381), yang mengatakan bahwa Putra Allah yang Tunggal telah "lahir dari Sang Bapa sebelum segala zaman" (Arab: al-maulud min al-Abi qabla kulli duhur). Adakah di dunia ini seseorang yang dilahirkan dari Bapa? Jawabnya, tentu saja tidak ada! Setiap orang lahir dari ibu. Karena itu, Yesus disebut Putra Allah jelas bukan kelahiran fisik, tetapi kelahiran ilahi-Nya sebagai Firman yang kekal sebelum segala zaman.

Tetapi bukankah secara manusia Yesus dilahirkan oleh Bunda Maria? Betul, itulah makna kelahiran-Nya yang kedua dalam daging. Mengenai misteri ini, Bapa-bapa gereja merumuskan2 makna kelahiran (wiladah) Kristus itu, seperti dirumuskan dalam ungkapan yang indah:

As-Sayid al-Masih lahu miladain: Miladi azali min Ab bi ghayr umm qabla kulli ad-duhur, wa miladi akhara fi mal'i al-zamaan min umm bi ghayr ab.

Artinya: "Junjungan kita al-Masih mempunyai dua kelahiran: Kelahiran kekal-Nya dari Bapa tanpa seorang ibu, dan kelahiran-Nya dalam keterbatasan zaman dari ibu tanpa seorang bapa insani'.

"Lahir dari Bapa tanpa seorang ibu", menunjuk kepada kelahiran kekal Firman Allah dari Wujud Allah. Tanpa seorang ibu, untuk menekankan bahwa kelahiran itu tidak terjadi dalam ruang dan waktu yang terbatas, bukan kelahiran jasadi (bi ghayr jasadin) melalui seorang ibu, karena memang "Allah tidak beranak dan tidak diperanakkan". Jadi, dalam hal ini Iman Kristen bisa sepenuhnya menerima dalil al-Qur'an: Lam Yalid wa Lam Yulad, karena memang tidak bertabrakan dengan makna teologis gelar Yesus sebagai Putra Allah.

Sebaliknya, "Lahir dari ibu tanpa bapa", menekankan bahwa secara manusia Yesus dilahirkan dalam ruang dan waktu yang terbatas. Meskipun demikian, karena Yesus bukan manusia biasa seperti kita, melainkan Firman yang menjadi manusia, maka kelahiran fisik-Nya ditandai dengan mukjizat tanpa perantaraan seorang ayah insani. Kelahiran-Nya yang kedua ke dunia karena kuasa Roh Allah ini, menyaksikan dan meneguhkan kelahiran kekal-Nya "sebelum segala abad". Dan karena Dia dikandung oleh kuasa Roh Kudus, maka Yesus dilahirkan oleh Sayidatina Maryam al-Adzra' (Bunda Perawan Maria) tanpa seorang ayah.

Dari deskripsi di atas, jelaslah bahwa ajaran Tritunggal sama sekali tidak berbicara tentang ilah-ilah selain Allah. Ajaran rasuli ini justru mengungkapkan misteri keesaan Allah berkat pewahyuan diri-Nya dalam Kristus, Penyelamat Dunia. Dalam Allah (Sang Bapa), selalu berdiam secara kekal Firman-Nya (Sang Putra) dan Roh Kudus-Nya. Kalau Putra Allah berarti Pikiran Allah dan Sabda-Nya, maka Roh Kudus adalah Roh Allah sendiri, yaitu hidup Allah yang abadi. Bukan Malaikat Jibril seperti yang sering dituduhkan beberapa orang Muslim selama ini. Firman Allah dan Roh Allah tersebut bukan berdiri di luar Allah, melainkan berada dalam Allah dari kekal sampai kekal.

Jadi, jelaslah bahwa Iman Kristen tidak menganut ajaran sesat yang diserang oleh al-Qur'an, bahwa Allah itu beranak dan diperanakkan. Untuk memahami Iman Kristen mengenai Firman Allah yang nuzul (turun) menjadi manusia ini, umat Islam hendaknya membandingkan dengan turunnya al-Qur'an alam Allah (nuzul al-Qur'an). Kaum Muslim Suni (Ahl l-Sunnah wa al-Jama'ah) juga meyakini keabadian al-Qur'an sebagai kalam nafsi (Sabda Allah yang kekal) yang berdiri pada Dzat-Nya, tetapi serentak juga terikat oleh ruang dan waktu, yaitu sebagai kalam lafdzi (Sabda Tuhan yang temporal) dalam bentuk mushaf al-Qur'an dalam bahasa Arab yang serba terbatas tersebut.

Dan sperti fisik kemanusiaan Yesus yang terikat ruang dan waktu, yang "dibunuh dalam keadaannya sebagai manusia" (1 Petrus 3:18), begitu juga mushaf al-Qur'an bisa rusak dan hancur. Tetapi Kalam Allah tidak bisa rusak bersama rusaknya kertas al-Qur'an. Demikianlah Iman Kristen memahami kematian Yesus, kematian-Nya tidak berarti kematian Allah, karena Allah tidak bisa mati. Saya kemukakan data-data paralelisasi ini bukan untuk mencocok-cocokkan dengan Ilmu Kalam Islam. Mengapa? Sebab justru seperti sudah saya tulis di atas, pergulatan Islam mengenai Ilmu Kalam dirumuskan setelah teolog-teolog Kristen Arab, menerjemahkan istilah-istilah teologis dari bahasa Yunani dan Aram ke dalam bahasa Arab.

Akhirul Kalam, semoga tulisan ini semakin merangsang pembaca untuk meng-gumuli teologi kontekstual yang mendesak dibutuhkan gereja-gereja di Indonesia, khususnya dalam merentas jalan menuju dialog teologis dengan Islam. Bukankah dialog teologis Kristen-Islam selama ini sering mengalami kebuntuan, karena "kesenjangan bahasa teologis" antara keduanya, akibat tajamnya pengkutuban Barat-Timur selama ini? Marilah kita realisasikan pesan rasuli, supaya kita siap sedia segala waktu "untuk memberi pertanggungan jawab kepada tiap-tiap orang yang meminta pertanggungan jawab dari kamu tentang pengharapan yang ada padamu…." (1 Petrus 3:15), dan bukan malah menghabiskan energi kita untuk mengurusi "kelompok-kelompok kurang cerdas yang suka bikin onar" itu.

Bambang Noorsena
Madinat al-Tahrir, Cairo, 16 Nopember 2004.

Penulis adalah Pengamat Gereja-gereja Arab di Timur Tengah, Pendiri Institute for Syriac Christian Studies (ISCS), anggota dewan konsultatif Indonesian Conference on Religion and Peace (ICRP), kini sedang melanjutkan studi di Kairo, Mesir.

Semoga bisa menjawab apa itu kafir. Memang dalam transkrip literatur Islam banyak definisi Kafir. Tapi menurut pemahaman saya Kafir=Orang/Manusia yg meninggalkan Allah=Setan yg diusir dari surga karena membangkang Perintah Nya.
Adapun Agama lain yg selain Islam bukanlah Kafir karena tetap saja Agama tersebut adalah Tauhid. Apapun Sebutan Nya, kita manusia hanya menunjuk Satu yg tdk bs kita lihat tapi memiliki kekuatan yg mengatur hidup kita dan alam semesta.Kita tdk usah ribut masalah Sebutan.
Dalam Alquran pun semua Nabi dan Rasul diakui dan disebut sebagai pemeluk Islam.Islam adalah agamaKu.(Firman Allah).
Jadi boleh saya menafsirkan kalau ISLAM=Tauhid . Semua Agama yg Tauhid = Islam.

Walahualam/Hanya Gusti yg Tahu
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