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Susunan Otoritas dalam Islam Sunni

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Susunan Otoritas dalam Islam Sunni

Postby Kibou » Tue Feb 24, 2015 10:51 am

SUSUNAN OTORITAS DALAM ISLAM SUNNI

PENDAHULUAN

Untuk siapakah esai ini ditulis? Untuk para non-muslim yang ingin lebih tahu mengenai islam, namun bingung harus bertanya kepada siapa.

Bagi seorang non-muslim yang tertarik untuk mempelajari islam, sebaiknya tidak sembarangan bertanya kepada teman-teman muslim dalam pergaulan sehari-hari karena dalam islam sendiri, otoritas dalam mengeluarkan pendapat, mengambil keputusan, mencari dasar hukum, semuanya harus dilakukan oleh seorang mujtahid atau seseorang yang memang ahli dalam berbagai bidang mengenai islam. Jika kita bertanya mengenai islam kepada seorang muslim awam itu ibarat bertanya soal mekanika quantum kepada anak SD. Muslim awam tidak berkompetensi mengajari non-muslim mengenai islam.

Untuk tujuan apakah esai ini ditulis? Supaya non-muslim tidak percaya begitu saja pendapat muslim awam mengenai agama islam. Ujilah segala sesuatu, terima apa yang baik. Tapi hati-hati menerima informasi dari sumber yang tidak kompeten memberi pendapat.

Untuk mempelajari islam, pertama kali seorang non-muslim harus memahami dulu susunan otoritas dalam islam. Tulisan pendek ini bertujuan untuk memperkenalkan kepada non-muslim mengenai susunan otoritas dalam islam Sunni, yaitu aliran islam terbesar di dunia saat ini. Tulisan ini juga memberikan rujukan-rujukan kepada buku-buku Sunni islam yang ditulis oleh para mujtahid dan semua sumber rujukan utama dalam tulisan ini bisa diunduh gratis dari internet (tautan unduh akan disertakan dalam esai).

Apakah esai ini netral? Bacalah esai ini sampai selesai dan barulah setelah itu ambil kesimpulan sendiri. Lebih baik lagi kalau membaca juga semua sumber utama yang dikutip dalam esai ini. Esai ini ditulis dari sudut pandang non-muslim, tapi memakai sumber-sumber dari islam Sunni sendiri. Oleh karena itu esai ini tidak berangkat dari asumsi bahwa Muhamad adalah seorang nabi dan Allah SWT adalah Sang Pencipta. Apakah Muhamad benar-benar nabi atau apakah Allah SWT benar-benar Tuhan, berada di luar cakupan esai ini.

Apa manfaat esai ini bagi muslim? Esai ini bukan untuk muslim. Seorang muslim sudah terlebih dulu memegang asumsi bahwa Muhamad adalah nabi dan Allah SWT adalah Sang Pencipta, sehingga sulit bagi dirinya membaca esai ini dengan hati yang tenang dan pikiran yang terbuka. Kalau memang ada muslim yang bersedia membaca esai ini sampai habis, kiranya bisa memberi sudut pandang baru dalam melihat agamanya sendiri, dan kiranya bisa membuat dirinya lebih toleran kepada keyakinan orang lain.

Apakah esai ini mengajarkan kebencian terhadap muslim? Tidak. Sebagai sesama manusia kita hendaknya saling mengasihi. Tapi keyakinan atau agama itu bukan manusia. Keyakinan tidak bisa tersinggung. Keyakinan apapun, baik yang tidak relijius maupun yang relijius hendaknya boleh dipertanyakan. Selama proses mempertanyakan ini dilakukan dengan jujur dan bertanggungjawab, semoga manusia yang memegang keyakinan tersebut bisa berjiwa besar dan tidak serta merta mengamuk dan membenci si penanya.

Semoga apa yang ditulis di esai ini bisa membantu non-muslim dalam memahami islam dan membawa manfaat.
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Re: Susunan Otoritas dalam Islam Sunni

Postby Kibou » Tue Feb 24, 2015 10:52 am

SUMBER UTAMA RUJUKAN ESAI

“A matter must be established by the testimony of two or three witnesses.” - Deuteronomy

Dengan mengikuti prinsip kesaksian lebih dari satu sumber, tulisan ini memakai tiga sumber utama yaitu:

1. Tafsir Quran oleh Ibn Kathir.
2. Reliance of The Traveller, terjemahan Inggris dari Umdat Al Salik oleh Nuh Ha Mim Keller.
3. Principles of Islamic Jurisprudence oleh Profesor M.H. Kamali.

Semua sumber di atas mewakili pandangan Islam Sunni. Rujukan kepada sumber lain akan digunakan sebagai pelengkap ketiga sumber di atas.


SEKILAS MENGENAI KETIGA SUMBER RUJUKAN

Sebelum menuju ke pembahasan, ada baiknya kita kenali lebih dulu ketiga sumber utama esai ini yaitu:

1. Mengenai Tafsir Quran oleh Ibn Kathir (https://www.kalamullah.com/ibn-kathir.html)

“The Qur'an is the revelation of Allah's Own Words for the guidance of His creatures. Since the Qur'an is the primary source of Islamic teachings, the correct understanding for the Qur'an is necessary for every Muslim. The Tafsir of Ibn Kathir is among the most renowned and accepted explanation of the Qur'an in the entire world. In it one finds the best presentation of Hadiths, history, and scholarly commentary.”

One of the greatest books that Ibn Kathir wrote was his Tafsir of the Noble Qur'an, which is one of the best Tafsir that rely on narrations [of Ahadith, the Tafsir of the Companions, etc.]. The Tafsir by Ibn Kathir was printed many times and several scholars have summarized it.”


Ibn Kathir adalah seorang mujtahid (ahli bahasa Arab, Quran, Hadits, dan Fiqh):

Also, the renowned historian Abu Al-Mahasin, Jamal Ad-Din Yusuf bin Sayf Ad-Din (Ibn Taghri Bardi), said in his book, Al Manhal As-Safi, "He is the Shaykh, the Imam, the great scholar ` Imad Ad-Din Abu Al-Fida'. He learned extensively and was very active in collecting knowledge and writing. He was excellent in the areas of Fiqh, Tafsir and Hadith. He collected knowledge,authored (books), taught, narrated Hadith and wrote. He had immense knowledge in the fields of Hadith, Tafsir, Fiqh, the Arabic language, and so forth. He gave Fatawa (religious verdicts) and taught until he died, may Allah grant him mercy. He was known for his precision and vast knowledge, and as a scholar of history, Hadith and Tafsir."


Beberapa kesaksian mengenai karakter Ibn Kathir:

Ibn Hajji was one of Ibn Kathir's students, and he described Ibn Kathir: "He had the best memory of the Hadith texts. He also had the most knowledge concerning the narrators and authenticity, his contemporaries and teachers admitted to these qualities. Every time I met him I gained some benefit from him."


International lslamic Publishing House Arab Saudi menulis mengenai Ibn Kathir:

...His Tafsir (explanation) has been recognised by the majority of the scholars as one of the best. His excellence stemmed from the fact that he adopted the standard and correct method in approaching this work which is, the explanation of the Qur'ân by the Qur'ân itself, then by the Sunnah, then by the Companions, then by language and lastly by the opinion of the scholars of the Sunnah, in that order. By maintaining this order, Ibn Kathir has preserved the Book of Allah from the false interpretations of the philosophers and rationalists....
We ask Allah, the Majestic, to make this book a source of inspiration to those who strive in His Cause and a proof against those who try to distort the truth by deviant Tafsir.

Muhammad Abdul Muhsin AI Tuwaijri
International lslamic Publishing House
Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.


2. Mengenai Reliance Of The Traveller (https://archive.org/details/RelianceOfT ... edLawumdat)

"Ahmad ibn Naqib al-Misri (d. 769/1368) is the author of the basic text, 'Umdat al-salik wa 'uddat al-nasik [The reliance of the traveller and tools of the worshipper], which is vowelled in the Arabic."

"In an age when some Muslims are calling for an end to the four schools of jurisprudence in order to make way for a single school exclusively taken, it is claimed, from the texts of the Koran and hadith, it might be wondered: why offer Muslims a book from a particular school at all? The answer, in part, is that each school does not merely comprise the work of a single Imam, but rather represents a large collectivity of scholars whose research in Sacred Law and its ancillary disciplines has been characterized by considerable division of labor and specialization over a very long period of time."

“Among the specialists in the field of hadith, for example, who were Shafi'is are such scholars as Bukhari, Muslim, Tirmidhi, Nasa'i, Ibn Majah. Abu Dawud. Ibn Kathir, Dhahabi, and Nawawi; while the school has also had many Koranic exegetes, scholars of the sciences of Arabic, and legal specialists, most of whom were actively involved in contributing to the school's jurisprudence. The result of this division of labor has been a body of legal texts that are arguably superior in evidence, detail, range, and in sheer usefulness to virtually any recent attempt to present Islam as a unified system of human life. For most nontraditional works seen up to the present have been one-man efforts, while the classic texts have been checked and refined by a large number of scholars, and the difference is manifest."

"As for sources, the authors translated are, with few exceptions, well-known scholars of the Shafi'i school of jurisprudence and Ash'ari school of tenets ot faith as appears in their biographies. The many who were Sufis were of the strictest observance of the Sacred Law. While such affiliations, and indeed much of what can be termed traditional Sunni Islam, have not been spared the criticism of certain post-caliphal Muslim writers and theorists. The authors of the present volume and their positions do represent the orthodox Muslim intellectual and spiritual heritage that has been the strength of the Community for over a thousand years, and the means through which Allah has preserved His religion, in its purest and fullest sense, to the present day."


Beberapa kesaksian atas terjemahan Inggris Umdat Al Salik:

"Praise be to Allah, Lord of the Worlds. Allah bless our liegelord Muhammad, his folk, and his Companions and give them peace. The writer of these words, 'Abd al-Wakil Durubi, says: Brother Nuh Ha Mim Keller has heard from me all the chapters of this book, whose basic text is 'Umdat al-salik wa 'uddat alnasik, together with the additions he has made to the text from the commentary entitled Fayd al-Ilah ai-Malik, as well as other chapters on principles of law and faith (usul) and particular rulings (furo') that he has placed before and after the main work; he understands the texts of this volume and is qualified to expound it and translate it to his native English. This took place in sessions, the first of which was in the month of Rajab, AH. 1405, and the last of which was in the month of Sha'ban. A.H. 1408. Written by the slave in need of Allah Most High, Sha'ban, A.H. 1408 [April, 1988] 'Abd al-Wakil Durubi [stamped]

Imam of the Mosque of Darwish Pasha
Damascus, Syria"

"Praise be to Allah, Lord of the Worlds. May Allah bless our Liegelord Muhammad and give him peace, and his folk and Companions one and all. To commence: I have read all the chapters of this book, whose basic text is 'Umdat al-salik wa 'uddat al-nasik, made notes on some matters of it, and reviewed it with brother Nuh Ha Mim Keller in numerous sessions, the first of which was in the month of Safar, A.H.1405, and the last of which was in the month of Jumada II, A.H. 1409; during which I found the above-mentioned brother knowledgeable in what it contains and qualified to expound it and translate it into his native English, and I observed his accuracy and integrity in quoting the texts he has added before and after the main work, of principles of law and faith (usul) and particular rulings (furu'). He has interspersed the texts of the above mentioned work with passages from its commentary entitled Fayd al-Ilah alMalik, and he was successful in this, choosing passages needed to clarify the text and distinguishing the latter from the commentary with symbols. I ask Allah to give him success, reward him the best reward for it, and to benefit him and benefit others through him. May Allah bless our liegelord Muhammad and give him peace, and his folk and Companions. Composed in Jumada II, A.H. 1409 [February, 1989] and written by:

Nuh 'Ali Salman [signed]
Mufti of the Jordanian Armed Forces"


Kesaksian International Institute of Islamic Thought:

"Report on the English translation of' Umdat al-salik by Ahmad ibn Naqib al~Misri al-Shafi'i undertaken by the scholar Nuh Ha Mim Keller:
(1) There is no doubt that this translation is a valuable and important work, whether as a textbook for teaching Islamic jurisprudence to English-speakers, or as a legal reference for use by scholars, educated laymen, and students in this language,
(2) As for the correctness of the translation, its accuracy, and its fidelity to the meanings and objects, we had our colleague in the~Research Department of the International Institute of Islamic Thought, the scholar Yusuf Talal DeLorenzo, member of the Fiqh Council of North America and former chief of the Translation Bureau at the International Islamic University, Islamabad, review its texts and check it against the Arabic original. He found that the translation presents the legal questions in a faithful and precise idiom that clearly delivers the complete meaning in a sound English style. The translation is far from literalism, but does not exceed the author's intent, thereby demonstrating the translator's knowledge of Sacred Law and ability in jurisprudence as well as his complete command of both the Arabic and English languages.
(3) In view of the utility of this eminent work of Islamic jurisprudence and its rank among well known standard Shafi'i legal texts, its translation into English is regarded as a useful, auspicious step, as is the translator's work, which, in clarifying fine shades of meaning and abstruse legal questions, succeeds in serving the book, making its objects accessible, and rendering it of general benefit to both followers of the Shafi'i school and others of the Muslim community. The book will be of great use in Southeast Asia in particular, and in America, Britain, and Canada.
(4) From a purely academic point of view, this translation is superior to anything produced by orientalists in the way of translations of major Islamic works, in that while faithfully maintaining the required scholarly level, its aim is to imbue the consciousness of the non-Arabic-speaking Muslim with a sound understanding of Sacred Law, and the success of the translator lies in the notes, commentaries, appendices, and indexes he has added that help give the Muslim access to what will benefit him in his religion and this-worldly concerns and earn him the pleasure of Allah Most High. And this is the great triumph.

Dr. Taha Jabir al-'Alwani [signed]
President of the International Institute of Islamic Thought
Member of Islamic Fiqh Academy at Jedda
President of the Fiqh Council of North America"


Kesaksian al-Azhar:

"al-Azhar
Islamic Research Academy
General Department for Research, Writing, and Translation

Mr, Nuh Ha Mim Keller
Amman, Jordan

Peace be upon you, and the mercy of Allah and His blessings. To commence: In response to the request you have submitted concerning the examination of the English translation of the book 'Umdat al-salik wa 'uddat alnasik by Ahmad ibn Naqib in the Shafi'i school of jurisprudence, together with appendices by Islamic scholars on matters of Islamic law, tenets of faith, and personal ethics and character: we certify that the above-mentioned translation corresponds to the Arabic original and conforms to the practice and faith of the orthodox Sunni Community (Ahl al-Sunna wa al-Jama'a). There is no objection to printing it and circulating it. The stamping of the pages of the above-mentioned work with the seal of the department has been completed. May Allah give you success in serving Sacred Knowledge and the religion. Peace be upon you, and the mercy of Allah and His blessings. Composed on 26 Rajab 1411 A.H.l11 February 1991 A.D.

General Director of Research, Writing, and Translation
Fath Allah Ya Sin Jazar [signed]"


3. Mengenai Principles of Islamic Jurisprudence (https://www.kalamullah.com/Books/Princi ... udence.pdf)

This third edition of the best-selling title Principles of Islamic Jurisprudence has been completely revised and substantially enlarged. In this work, Prof Kamali offers us the first detailed presentation available in English of the theory of Muslim law (usul al-fiqh). Often regarded as the most sophisticated of the traditional Islamic disciplines, Islamic Jurisprudence is concerned with the way in which the rituals and laws of religion are derived from the Qur’an and the Sunnah—the precedent of the Prophet. Written as a university textbook, Principles of Islamic Jurisprudence is distinguished by its clarity and readability; it is an essential reference work not only for students of Islamic law, but also for anyone with an interest in Muslim society or in issues of comparative Jurisprudence.


Mengenai Profesor M.H. Kamali (http://www.worde.org/specialists/mohammadhashimkamali/):

He is currently a Fellow of that Institute and also a member of the Royal Academy of Jordan. He was a member and Chairman of the Constitution Review Commission of Afghanistan (2003). He is on the International Advisory Board of eleven academic journals published in Malaysia, USA, Canada, Kuwait, India, Australia and Pakistan. Professor Kamali has served as a UN consultant on constitutional reforms in the Maldives, and as a Shariah expert on the constitution of Iraq (2005 – 2006).

He is currently a member of the Global Expert Finder Network of the UN Alliance of Civilisations, Chairman of the CIMB Shariah Committee and Chairman of Shariah Board, Stanlib Corporation of South Africa. Professor Kamali is a signatory to the “Common Word” between Muslims and Christians worldwide, has addressed over 120 national and international conferences, published 16 books and over 110 academic articles. He delivered the Prominent Scholars Lecture Series (Silsila Muhadarat Ulama’ alBarizin) No. 20 at the Islamic Research and Training Institute of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, 1996 and the Multaqa Sultan Ahmad Shah Lecture in Kuantan 2002. Professor Kamali has featured frequently on the print media, radio, TV and the internet. He featured a full page article in Berliner Zeitung just before the Taliban blew up the Bamian Statues and on the Iran Television network just before the US invasion of Afghanistan. He also appeared on RTM Malaysia, Afghanistan Ariana TV, TV Kuwait, Al Arabiya, The Maldives TV, and AlJazira, the last just before the Archbishop of Canterbury spoke on recognition of aspects of Shariah in Britain. He received the Isma’il alFaruqi Award for Academic Excellence twice in 1995 and 1997, and he is listed in a number of leading Who’s Whos in the World.


Image
Prof Kamali dan Paus Benedict

Image
Prof Kamali dan Paus Francis
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Re: Susunan Otoritas dalam Islam Sunni

Postby Kibou » Thu Feb 26, 2015 11:59 am

QURAN SUMBER OTORITAS TERTINGGI DALAM ISLAM

1. Quran adalah otoritas tertinggi dalam Islam.

Sumber dari semua aturan dan hukum bagi muslim adalah Allah SWT.

Ibn Kathir:

“(O you who believe! Believe in Allah, and His Messenger (Muhammad ), and the Book (the Qur'an) which He has sent down to His Messenger, and the Scripture which He sent down to those before (him)) (4:16).

Therefore, in this Ayah Allah commanded the believers to believe, and this command is not redundant since what is sought here is firmness and continuity of performing the deeds that help one remain on the path of faith.”

Umdat al Salik:
“Abd al-Wahhab Khallaf: There is no disagreement among the scholars of the Muslims that the source of legal rulings for all the acts of those who are morally responsible is Allah Most Glorious.”

Dari manakah para muslim mengetahui apa yang diperintahkan oleh Allah SWT? Dari Quran.

Ibn Kathir:

"Allah then said, (And whoever disbelieves in the Ayat of Allah) meaning, whoever rejects what Allah sent down in His Book, (then surely, Allah is Swift in reckoning. ) Allah will punish him for his reject ion, reckon him for his denial, and torment him for defying His Book.


Kamali:
“The Qur’an consists of manifest revelation (wahy zahir), which is defined communication from God to the Prophet Muhammad, conveyed by the angel Gabriel, in the very words of God.”

Apa yang diperintahkan oleh Allah SWT semuanya diketahui berdasarkan apa yang diucapkan oleh Muhamad dan diyakini muslim sebagai ayat-ayat Quran.
Kamali:
“Being the verbal noun of the root word qara'a (to read), 'Qur’an' literally means 'reading' or 'recitation'. It may be defined as 'the book containing the speech of God revealed to the Prophet Muhammad in Arabic and transmitted to us by continuous testimony, or tawatur'.”

“It is a proof of the prophecy of Muhammad, the most authoritative guide for Muslims, and the first source of the Shari’ah. The ulema are unanimous on this, and some even say that it is the only source and that all other sources are explanatory to the Qur’an.”

Perhatikan kata-kata: "there is no disagreement among the scholars of the Muslims" dan “the ulema are unanimous on this“. Ini maksudnya adalah ijma, atau kesepakatan para mujtahid. Kita akan membahas soal ijma belakangan.

Semua ayat Quran berasal dari mulut Muhamad dan bukan mulut orang lain. Jika ada ayat Quran yang berasal bukan dari mulut Muhamad maka Muhamad bukan nabi terakhir.

Ibn Kathir:
"O people ! Muhammad has no sons among ye men, but verily, he is the Apostle of God and the last in the line of Prophets. And God is Aware of everything." (Quran Surah Al Ahzab: 40) This Ayah clearly states that there will be no Prophet after him. If there will be no Prophet after him then there will surely be no Messenger after him either, because the status of a Messenger is higher than that of a Prophet, for every Messenger is a Prophet but the reverse is not the case.”

Bagaimana dengan perkataan nabi-nabi terdahulu? Muhamad adalah nabi terakhir dan salah satu tugas Muhamad adalah meluruskan semua ajaran-ajaran nabi yang terdahulu.
Ibn Kathir:
“The `Books' are the Divinely revealed Books from Allah to the Prophets, which were finalized by the most honorable Book (the Qur'an). The Qur'an supercedes all previous Books, it mentions all types of righteousness, and the way to happiness in this life and the Hereafter. The Qur'an abrogates all previous Books and testifies to all of Allah's Prophets, from the first Prophet to the Final Prophet, Muhammad, may Allah's peace and blessings be upon them all.”

Maka perkataan Muhamad adalah kata terakhir dan kata penutup semua wahyu terdahulu.
Umdat al Salik:
“Allah Most High sent Muhammad (Allah bless him and give him peace), the Qurayshite unlettered prophet, to deliever His inspired message to the entire world, Arabs and non-Arabs, jinn and mankind, superseding and abrogating all previous religious systems with the Prophet's Sacred Law, except for the provisions of them that the new revelation expicitly reconfirmed. Allah has favored him above all the other prophets and made him the hightest of mankind, rejecting anyone's attesting to the divine oneness by saying "There is no god but Allah," unless they also attest to the Prophet by saying "Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah." He has obliged men and jinn to believe everything the Prophet (Allah bless him and giver him peace) has informed us concerning this world and the next, and does not accept anyone's faith unless they believe in what he has told us will happen after death.”

Menyangkal Muhamad sebagai penutup semua nabi adalah sesat dan menyesatkan.

Ibn Kathir:
“Jubayr bin Mut`im, may Allah be pleased with him, said that he heard the Messenger of Allah say: (I have several names: I am Muhammad, and I am Ahmad; I am Al-Mahi (the eradicator) through whom Allah will erase disbelief; I am Al-Hashir (the gatherer) at whose feet mankind will gather; and I am Al-`Aqib (the final one) after whom there will be no Prophet.) It was also recorded in the Two Sahihs. And there are many other Hadiths on this topic. Allah has told us in His Book, and His Messenger has told us in the Mutawatir Sunnah, that there will be no Prophet after him, so that it may be known that everyone who claims this status after him is a liar and fabricator who is misguided and is misguiding others. Even if he twists meanings, comes up with false claims and uses tricks and vagaries, all of this is false and is misguidance as will be clear to those who have understanding.”

Yang menentukan ucapan Muhamad mana saja yang merupakan ayat Quran adalah Muhamad sendiri.
Kamali:
“The Qur'an was recorded in writing from beginning to end during the lifetime of the Prophet, who ascertained that the Qur'an was preserved as he received it through divine revelation.”
“The Qur'an in none of its parts consists of conceptual transmission, that is, transmission in the words of the narrator himself. Both the concepts and words of the Qur'an have been recorded and transmitted as the Prophet received them.”

Jadi secara teori sumber otoritas tertinggi dalam islam adalah Quran (Allah SWT), namun secara praktis sumber otoritas tertinggi dalam islam adalah Muhamad.
Segala sesuatu mengenai islam ditentukan oleh Quran (yang hanya diturunkan kepada Muhamad secara eksklusif) dan peraturan-peraturan yang diberikan oleh Muhamad langsung (Sunna).

Kamali:
“When the Prophet was alive, the necessary guidance and solutions to problems were obtained either through divine revelation, or his direct ruling.”

Jika secara praktis Muhamad adalah sumber otoritas tertinggi dalam islam, lalu apakah peranan akal sehat dan hati nurani manusia di dalam islam?

Umdat al Salik:
“The basic premise of this school of thought is that the good of the acts of those morally responsible is what the Lawgiver (syn. Allah or His messenger (Allah bless him and give him peace)) has indicated is good by permitting it or asking it be done. And the bad is what the Lawgiver has indicated is bad by asking it not be done. The good is not what reason considers good, nor the bad what reason considers bad. The measure of good and bad, according to this school of thought, is the Sacred Law, not reason.”

Apa yang baik dan apa yang jahat tidak ditentukan oleh rasionalitas ataupun hati nurani, melainkan apa yang dikatakan Allah SWT melalui Muhamad.
Kamali:
“From an Islamic perspective, right and wrong are determined, not by reference to the 'nature of things', but because God has determined them as such.”

“The fact that obedience to the Prophet is specifically enjoined next to obeying God warrants the conclusion that obedience to the Prophet means obeying him whenever he orders or prohibits something on which the Qur'an might be silent.”

“Explicit commands and prohibitions require total obedience without any allowance for individual circumstances and regardless as to whether they are found to be rational or not. For it is in the essence of devotion (ibadah) that obedience does not depend on the rationality or otherwise of an injunction.”

Perkataan Allah yang berupa ayat-ayat Quran berasal hanya dari mulut Muhamad dan bukan mulut orang lain. Maka apa yang baik dan apa jahat tidak ditentukan oleh rasionalitas ataupun hati nurani muslim, melainkan apa yang keluar dari mulut Muhamad dan diakui oleh Muhamad sebagai ayat-ayat Quran dan kemudian diterima oleh muslim dengan ketaatan penuh.

Kamali:
“In more than one place, the Qur'an enjoins obedience to the Prophet and makes it a duty of the believers to submit to his judgment and his authority without question.”

“The authority of the Qur’an as the principal source of the Shari’ah is basically independent of ratiocination. The believers are supposed to accept its rulings regardless of whether they can be rationally explained.”

“Elsewhere the Qur'an clearly places submission and obedience to the Prophet at the very heart of the faith as a test of one's acceptance of Islam. This is the purport of the ayah which reads: 'By thy Lord, they will not believe till they make thee the judge regarding disagreements between them, and find in themselves no resistance against the verdict, but accept it in full submission' (al-Nisa, 4:65).”
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Re: Susunan Otoritas dalam Islam Sunni

Postby Kibou » Mon Mar 02, 2015 3:57 pm

QURAN TIDAK BISA BERDIRI SENDIRI TANPA SUNNA

2. Sunna adalah otoritas kedua setelah Quran.

Sunna adalah teladan bagi muslim yang telah dicontohkan oleh Muhamad, baik dalam perkataan maupun perbuatan dan perilaku.

Kamali:
“To the ulema of Hadith, Sunnah refers to all that is narrated from the Prophet, his acts, his sayings and whatever he has tacitly approved, plus all the reports which describe his physical attributes and character.”


Pada masa lalu Sunna juga merupakan teladan dari para pengikut awal Muhamad.

Kamali:
“Initially the use of the term ‘Sunnah’ was not restricted to the Sunnah of the Prophet but was used to imply the practice of the community and precedent of the Companions.”


Sunna didasarkan kepada Hadith.

Kamali:
“Literally, Hadith means a narrative, communication or news consisting of the factual account of an event. The word occurs frequently in the Qur'an (23 times to be precise) and in all cases it carries the meaning of a narrative or communication. In none of these instances has Hadith been used in its technical sense, that is, the exclusive saying of the Prophet. In the early days of Islam following the demise of the Prophet, stories relating to the life and activities of the Prophet dominated all other kinds of narratives, so the word began to be used almost exclusively to a narrative from, or a saying of, the Prophet.”

“Hadith differs from Sunnah in the sense that Hadith is a narration of the conduct of the Prophet whereas Sunnah is the example or the law that is deduced from it. Hadith in this sense is the vehicle or the carrier of Sunnah, although Sunnah is a wider concept and used to be so especially before its literal meaning gave way to its juristic usage. Sunnah thus preferred not only to the Hadith of the Prophet but also to the established practice of the community.”


Dari bagian sebelumnya, kita sudah melihat bahwa secara praktis, Muhamad adalah otoritas tertinggi dalam islam. Hal ini semakin dipertegas ketika kita mempelajari Sunna.

Karena Quran isinya hanya berupa ucapan-ucapan yang diakui Muhamad sebagai ucapan-ucapan Allah SWT, sangat sulit bagi siapapun untuk menafsirkan Quran tanpa konteks. Sunna (Hadith) mutlak diperlukan untuk mengetahui urutan turunnya ayat-ayat Quran, karena ayat-ayat Quran disusun bukan secara kronologis berdasarkan kapan ayat tersebut disampaikan kepada Muhamad.

Kamali:
“The contents of the Qur’an are not classified subject-wise. The ayat on various topics appear in unexpected places, and no particular order can be ascertained in the sequence of its text.”


Untuk itu dibutuhkan sumber lain yang memberikan konteks dan penjelasan kepada ucapan-ucapan Allah SWT tersebut, yaitu Sunna.

Kamali:
“...the proper role that the Sunnah plays in relationship to the Qur’an: it explains it.”
“That the Qur’an is mainly concerned with general principles is borne out by the fact that its contents require a great deal of elaboration, which is often provided, although not exhaustively, by the Sunnah.”


Sunna juga penting untuk menjelaskan ayat-ayat Quran yang sulit dimengerti.

Kamali:
“The fact that the Sunnah explains and determines the precise meaning of the Qur’an means that the Qur'an is more dependent on the Sunnah than the Sunnah is on the Qur’an.[59. While quoting Awza'i on this point, Shawkani (Irshad, p. 33) concurs with the view that the Sunnah is an independent source of Shari'ah, and not necessarily, as it were, a commentary on the Qur'an only. See also Shatibi, Muwafaqat, IV, 4.]”

“In the event, for example, where the text of the Qur'an imparts more than one meaning or when it is conveyed in general terms, it is the Sunnah which specifies the meaning that must prevail. Again, the manifest (Zahir) of the Qur'an may be abandoned by the authority of the Sunnah, just as the Sunnah may qualify the absolute (mutlaq) in the Qur'an. The Qur'an on the other hand does not play the same role with regard to the Sunnah. It is not the declared purpose of the Qur'an to explain or clarify the Sunnah, as this was done by the Prophet himself. Since the Sunnah explains, qualifies, and determines the purport of the Qur'an, it must take priority over the Qur'an.”

“Furthermore, according to the majority opinion, before implementing a Qur'anic rule one must resort to the Sunnah and ascertain that the ruling in question has not been qualified in any way or given an interpretation on which the text of the Qur'an is not self-evident.[61. See Shatibi, Muwafaqat, IV, 5., see also Siba`i, Al-Sunnah, pp. 378-79.]”

“In the discussion of the qat’i and zanni, the Qur’an and Sunnah are seen as complementary and integral to one another. The reason is that the speculative of the Qur’an can be made definitive by the Sunnah and vice versa.”
“Once again the fact that legislation in the Qur’an mainly occurs in brief and general terms has to a large extent determined the nature of the relationship between the Qur’an and Sunnah. Since the general, the ambiguous and the difficult portions of the Qur’an were in need of elaboration and takhsis (specification), the Prophet was expected to provide the necessary details and determine the particular focus of the general rulings of the Qur’an. It was due to these and other such factors that a unique relationship was forged between the Sunnah and the Qur’an in that the two are often integral to one another and inseparable.”


Banyak aturan wajib dalam islam yang hanya bisa diketahui secara menyeluruh melalui Sunna. Aturan rinci mengenai sholat, puasa, zakat, dan naik haji diketahui melalui Sunna.

Kamali:
“In the area of ritual performances (ibadat) such as salah, fasting and hajj, on the other hand, although these too are meant to be unchangeable, the Qur’an is nevertheless brief, and most of the necessary details have been supplied by the Sunnah.”

“The details of zakat such as the quorum, the amount to be given and its numerous other conditions have been supplied by the Sunnah.”


Begitu pula hal-hal seperti perdagangan dan hak milik.

Kamali:
“The detailed varieties of lawful trade, the forms of unlawful interference with the property of others, and the varieties of usurious transactions, are matters which the Qur’an has not elaborated. Some of these have been explained and elaborated by the Sunnah.”


Selain Quran, Sunna juga memberikan perintah-perintah yang wajib ditaati oleh muslim, bahkan aturan wajib yang tidak ditemukan dalam Quran sendiri.

Kamali:
“...the Sunnah may consist of rulings on which the Qur'an is silent, in which case the ruling in question originates in the Sunnah itself.”

The ulema are unanimous to the effect that Sunnah is a source of Shari'ah and that in its rulings with regard to halal and haram it stands on the same footing as the Qur'an.' [18. Shawkani, Irshad, p. 33.] The Sunnah of the Prophet is a proof (hujjah) for the Qur'an, testifies to its authority and enjoins the Muslim to comply with it.”

“In more than one place, the Qur'an enjoins obedience to the Prophet and makes it a duty of the believers to submit to his judgment and his authority without question. The following ayat are all explicit on this theme, all of which are quoted by al-Shafi'i in his renowned work, Al-Risalah (P. 47ff):

And whatever the Messenger gives you, take it, and whatever he forbids you, abstain from it (al-Hashr, 59:7).

Obey God and obey the Messenger and those who are in charge of affairs among you. Should you happen to dispute over something, then refer it to God and to the Messenger (al-Nisa', 4:58-59).”

“The Sunnah is another source which supplements the Qur’an and interprets its rulings. When the necessary interpretation can be found in an authentic Hadith, it becomes an integral part of the Qur’an and both together carry a binding force.”


Secara teori, bisa dikatakan Quran lebih tinggi dari Sunna.

Kamali:
As Sunnah is the second source of the Shari'ah next to the Qur'an, the mujtahid is bound to observe an order of priority between the Qur'an and Sunnah. Hence in his search for a solution to a particular problem, the jurist must resort to the Sunnah only when he fails to find any guidance in the Qur'an. Should there be a clear text in the Qur'an, it must be followed and be given priority over any ruling of the Sunnah which may happen to be in conflict with the Qur'an.”


Tapi secara praktis, Quran dan Sunna bisa dibilang sejajar, karena keduanya berasal dari Muhamad.

Kamali:
“In his capacity as Messenger of God, the Prophet has introduced laws some of which originate in the Qur'an while others do not. But all Prophetic legislation emanates in divine authority. The Sunnah and the Qur'an are of the same provenance, and all must be upheld and obeyed. Others have held the view that the Prophetic mission itself, that is the fact that the Prophet is the chosen Messenger of God, is sufficient proof for the authority of the Sunnah. For it is through the Sunnah that the Prophet fulfilled his divine mission.”

“The majority view, which seeks to establish an almost total identity between the Sunnah and the Qur'an, further refers to the saying of the Prophet's widow, 'A'ishah, when she attempted to interpret the Qur'anic epithet wa innaka la 'ala khuluqin 'azim ('and you possess an excellent character') (al-Qalam, 68:4). 'A'ishah is quoted to have said that 'his (the Prophet's) khuluq was the Qur'an'. Khuluq in this context means the conduct of the Prophet, his acts, sayings, and all that he has approved. Thus it is concluded that the Sunnah is not separate from the Qur'an. [77. Qurtubi, Tafsir, XVIII, 227.]”

“Since the Qur'an provides ample evidence to the effect that the Prophet explains the Qur'an and that he must be obeyed, there is no need to advance a theoretical conflict between the two facets of a basic unity.”

“To refer the judgment of a dispute to God means recourse to the Qur'an, and referring it to the Messenger means recourse to the Sunnah.[22. Shatibi, Muwafaqat, IV, 7.] In another passage, the Qur'an emphasizes: 'Whoever obeys the Messenger verily obeys God' (al-Nisa 4:80). And finally, the Qur'an is categorical to the effect that the definitive rulings of the Qur'an and Sunnah are binding on the believers in that they are no longer at liberty to differ with the dictates of the divine will or to follow a course of their own choice: 'Whenever God and His Messenger have decided a matter' it is not for a faithful man or woman to follow another course of his or her own choice' (al-Ahzab, 33:36). In yet another place the Qur'an stresses that submission to the authority of the Prophet is not a matter of mere formalistic legality but is an integral part of the Muslim faith: 'By thy Lord, they will not believe till they make thee a judge regarding disagreements between them and find in themselves no resistance against accepting your verdict in full submission' (al-Nisa', 4:65). It is concluded from these and other similar passages in the Qur'an that the Sunnah is a proof next to the Qur'an in all shar'i matters and that conformity to the terms of Prophetic legislation is a Qur'anic obligation on all Muslims. 'The Companions have reached a consensus on this point: Both during the lifetime of the Prophet and following his demise' they eagerly obeyed the Prophet's instructions and followed his examples regardless as to whether his commands or prohibitions originated in the Qur'an or otherwise.”

“...It was due to these and other such factors that a unique relationship was forged between the Sunnah and the Qur’an in that the two are often integral to one another and inseparable.”
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Re: Susunan Otoritas dalam Islam Sunni

Postby Kibou » Tue Mar 17, 2015 3:55 pm

QURAN DAN SUNNA MENENTUKAN, IJMA MENEGASKAN ULANG

3. Ijma adalah otoritas ketiga setelah Sunna.

Ijma adalah kesepakatan para mujtahid yang dicapai mengenai masalah- masalah tertentu setelah wafatnya Muhamad.

Kamali:
“Ijma` is defined as the unanimous agreement of the mujtahidun, of the Muslim community of any period following the demise of the Prophet Muhammad on any matter.”

Muslim awam tidak berhak ikut serta dalam usaha mencapai ijma.

Kamali:
“In this definition, the reference to the mujtahidun precludes the agreement of laymen from the purview of ijma`.”


Pada awalnya ijma berasal dari para Sahaba (orang-orang terdekat Muhamad) dan kemudian diteruskan oleh penerus para Sahaba (tabi'un) hinggga muslim generasi ketiga setelah wafatnya Muhamad.

Kamali:
“In all probability, ijma` occurred for the first time among the Companions in the city of Madinah. Following the demise of the Prophet, the Companions used to consult each other over the problems they encountered, and their collective agreement was accepted by the community. After the Companions, this leadership role passed on to the next generation, the Successors (tabi'un) and then to the second generation of Successors. When these latter differed on a point, they naturally referred to the views and practices of the Companions and the Successors. In this way, a fertile ground was created for the development of the theory of ijma'.[6. Cf. Aghnides, Muhammedan Theories, pp. 37-38.]”

“The Sunnah is another source which supplements the Qur’an and interprets its rulings. When the necessary interpretation can be found in an authentic Hadith, it becomes an integral part of the Qur’an and both together carry a binding force. Next in this order comes the Companions who are particularly well qualified to interpret the Qur'an in light of their close familiarity with its text, the surrounding circumstances, and the teachings of the Prophet.”

“When the Prophet was alive, the necessary guidance and solutions to problems were obtained either through divine revelation, or his direct ruling. Similarly, during the period following the demise of the Prophet, the Companions remained in close contact with the teachings of the Prophet and their decisions were mainly inspired by his precedent. Their proximity to the source and intimate knowledge of the events provided them with the authority to rule on practical problems without there being a pressing need for methodology.”

The only form of ijma' which has been generally upheld is that of the Companions of the Prophet, which is partly due to their special status and not always due to their participation and consensus.”

Sama halnya seperti Quran dan Sunna, ijma memiliki kuasa yang harus ditaati oleh muslim.

Kamali:
“...the Qur’an, Sunnah and ijma' are definitive proofs in the sense that they are decisive and binding.”


Apa yang kurang jelas di Quran dan Sunna bisa diperjelas oleh ijma, terutama ijma para Sahaba.

Kamali:
“And then the zanni of both the Qur’an and Sunnah may be elevated into qat’i by means of a conclusive ijma’, especially the ijma of Companions.”

Ijma menegaskan kembali apa yang sudah diputuskan secara jelas oleh Quran dan Sunna. Selain itu Ijma juga menjaga kelestarian tafsir Quran dan tradisi Sunna.

Kamali:
“Ijma' ensures the correct interpretation of the Qur'an, the faithful understanding and transmission of the
Sunnah
, and the legitimate use of ijtihad.”

“Only ijma' can put an end to doubt, and when it throws its weight behind a ruling, this becomes decisive and infallible. Ijma` has primarily been regarded as the instrument of conservatism and of preserving the heritage of the past. This is obvious enough in the sense that whatever is accepted by the entire Muslim community as true and correct must be accepted as such.”


Begitu suatu ijma tercapai, sifatnya menjadi permanen dan tidak bisa dirubah oleh ijma yang lain.

Kamali:
“...once an ijma' is finalised, especially when all of its constituents have passed away, no further ijma' may be concluded on the same subject. Should there be a second ijma `on the same point, it will be of no account.[21. Khallaf, `Ilm, pp. 46-47; Abu Zahrah, Usul, p. 167.]”


Sekali lagi, ilmu fiqh kembali menegaskan betapa totalnya otoritas Muhamad dalam islam, karena ijma tidak boleh bertentangan dengan apa yang sudah dibuat menjadi jelas oleh Quran dan Sunna (apa yang berasal dari ucapan dan perilaku yang dicontohkan Muhamad).

Kamali:
“Although the consensus or ijma' of the community, or of its learned members, is a recognised source of
law in Islam, in the final analysis, ijma' is subservient to divine revelation and can never overrule the explicit injunctions of the Qur’an and Sunnah.”

The legislative organ of an Islamic state, on the other hand, cannot abrogate the Qur'an or the Sunnah, although it may abrogate a law which is based on maslahah or istihsan, etc. Abrogation is, on the whole, of a limited application to the definite rulings of divine revelation and has basically come to an end with the demise of the Prophet.”

“...ijma` is redundant in the face of a decisive ruling of the Qur'an or the Sunnah.”

“the majority of ulema have held that ijma` neither abrogates nor can be abrogated itself; and at any rate ijma cannot abrogate a nass of the Qur'an or the Sunnah. For a valid ijma' may never be concluded in contradiction to the Qur'an or the Sunnah in the first place.”
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Re: Susunan Otoritas dalam Islam Sunni

Postby Kibou » Thu Mar 19, 2015 10:28 am

Kita telah mempelajari sedikit mengenai ketiga sumber otoritas tertinggi dalam islam, yaitu Quran, Sunna, dan ijma.

Walaupun secara teori muslim itu harus taat kepada Allah SWT, tapi pada prakteknya mereka harus taat kepada Muhamad, karena dua sumber otoritas tertinggi islam yaitu Quran dan Sunna berasal dari Muhamad sedangkan ijma tidak boleh menentang apa yang sudah jelas ditentukan dan diputuskan oleh Quran dan Sunna (Muhamad). Hal ini diterima oleh muslim Sunni dengan kepatuhan absolut.

Kamali:
“In more than one place, the Qur'an enjoins obedience to the Prophet and makes it a duty of the believers to submit to his judgment and his authority without question."

“Since the Qur'an provides ample evidence to the effect that the Prophet explains the Qur'an and that he must be obeyed, there is no need to advance a theoretical conflict between the two facets of a basic unity.”


Dalam hal ini, baik ahli fiqh jaman dulu maupun jaman modern mengakui totalitas kuasa otoritas Muhamad dalam islam.

Umdat al Salik:
"Allah has favored him above all the other prophets and made him the hightest of mankind, rejecting anyone's attesting to the divine oneness by saying "There is no god but Allah," unless they also attest to the Prophet by saying "Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah."


Kamali:
“Elsewhere the Qur'an clearly places submission and obedience to the Prophet at the very heart of the faith as a test of one's acceptance of Islam."


Sehingga bisa dikatakan bahwa islam adalah Muhamad dan Muhamad adalah islam.

Setelah memahami betul susunan atau tingkatan otoritas dalam islam Sunni, menjadi amat jelas betapa muslim awam itu sama sekali tidak kompeten mengeluarkan opini mengenai hal-hal yang memegang posisi penting dalam doktrin atau ajaran islam Sunni. Misalnya soal ajaran Jihad. Dengan entengnya muslim awam beropini bahwa islam itu agama damai, padahal mereka sama sekali buta soal ajaran Jihad dalam Quran, Sunna, dan Ijma para mujtahid terkemuka di sepanjang sejarah kejayaan islam.

Muslim awam juga buta sejarah jihad ekspansif islam ke wilayah-wilayah non-muslim sejak masa Hijrah hingga masa kejayaan para kalifah muslim; masa kejayaan islam sebelum serangan besar-besaran muslim terhadap Eropa mengalami kegagalan memalukan, yaitu ketika pasukan Ottoman kalifah Turki dipukul mundur di kota Vienna di tahun 1683. Sejak kekalahan pasukan muslim di Vienna, islam mengalami kemunduran dan akhirnya tidak bisa lagi melancarkan jihad ekspansif ke wilayah non-muslim seperti masa lalu.

Jadi apa yang dikatakan otoritas islam Sunni mengenai ajaran Jihad? Masalah ini akan dibahas dalam esai Status Jihad dalam Fiqh di:

viewtopic.php?f=88&t=55708

Terima kasih atas perhatian para pembaca sekalian.

Salam damai,

Kibou, 2015
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