Page 1 of 1

Penghancuran Perpustakaan ALEXANDRIA oleh Muslim

PostPosted: Tue Jul 29, 2008 1:32 pm
by ali5196
http://freecopts.net/english/index.php? ... iew&id=343

SIAPA YG MEMBAKAR PERPUSTAKAAN PALING TERMASYUR DUNIA DI ALEXANDRIA ?
Written by Fanous, The Free Copts
Thursday, 05 October 2006
Volume 1 Issue 4 October 2006

Image
Ada yg mengatakan bahwa Bibliotheca Alexandrina atau the Royal Library bersejarah itu diluluh-lantahkan Kaisar Romawi Julius Caesar (100-44 SM). Salah satu dasar tuduhan ini adalah bahwa Caesar sendiri menulis dlm bukunya 'Alexandrian Wars' (Perang2 Alexandria) bahwa api yg dibakar pasukannya utk membakar angkatan laut Mesir di pelabuhan Alexandria juga melahap sebuah 'gudang/tempat penyimpanan penuh dgn papirus dan berlokasi didekat pelabuhan.' TETAPI, lokasi Bibliotheca Alexandrina ini berada di Bruchion, bukan di pelabuhan. Jadi, 'gudang/tempat penyimpanan' itu bukan perpustakaan yg dimaksud.

Tuduhan ini juga dibantah dlm buku Geography yg ditulis oleh Strabo. Ia mengunjungi Alexandria th 25 SM dan bukunya menggunakan referensi yg berada dlm Perpustakaan Alexandria, yg berarti bahwa Bibliotheca itu masih EKSIS pada saat itu. Belum lagi, Cicero, sejarawan Romawi yg paling terkenal di jamannya, dan sangat membenci Julius Caesar, bahkan sama sekali tidak menyebut peristiwa pembakaran itu dlm bukunya Philippics. Ini saja membuktukan bahwa Caesar bebas dari tuduhan ini.

Yg setuju bahwa Julius Caesar membakar sang Bibliotheca bisa dilihat dari :

-sejarawan Plutarch, yg menyebutnya dlm bukunya Life of Caesar, yg ditulis pada akhir abad 1M, bahwa Caesar membakar perpustakaan Alexandria saat ia membakar angkatan laut Mesir.

- di abad 2M, sejarawan Aulus Gellius menulis dlm Attic Nights bahwa perpustakaan itu dibakar secara tidak sengaja oleh tentara Romawi Caesar.

- di abad 4M, sejarawan pagan, Ammianus Marcellinus dan Orosius (Kristen) setuju bahwa perpustakaan itu dibakar secara tidak sengaja, menyusul api yg dimulai Caesar. Namun kemungkinan besar sejarawan2 ini mencampur-adukkan dua kata Yunani ini : bibliothekas, yg berarti “kumpulan buku2” dgn bibliotheka, yg berarti Perpustakaan.

Akibatnya, mereka menyangka bahwa 'pembakaran buku2 yg disimpan didekat pelabuhan' adalah pembakaran Perpustakaan termasyur Alexandria.

Mencari jalan tengah dari kesimpulan2 diatas, kemungkinan besar the Royal Alexandrian Library itu dibakar setelah kunjungan Strabo ke kota itu (25SM) tapi sebelum permulaan abad 2M. Kemungkinan juga bahwa perpustakaan itu dibakar oleh pihak selain Caesar.

Yang jelas adalah bahwa the Royal Alexandrian Library, atau yg juga dijuluki sang Museum, yg mencakup versi2 orisinal buku2 yg paling penting didunia, BUKAN satu2nya perpustakaan dlm kota itu. Paling tidak ada DUA perpustakaan lain di kota itu : perpustakaan milik Kuil Serapeum dan perpustakaan Kuil Cesarion. Kontinuitas kehidupan sastra dan saintifik di Alexandria setelah penghancuran the Royal Library itu, dan berkembangnya kota itu sbg pusat dunia bagi sains dan sastra antara abad 1 dan 6M, sebagian besar juga tergantung pada kehadiran kedua perpustakaan lain itu.

Image
Inscription regarding Tiberius Claudius Balbilus of Rome (d. c. 79 CE) which confirms that the Library of Alexandria must have existed in some form in the First century.


The Royal Library merupakan sebuah perpustakaan privat keluarga kerajaan Mesir, para saintis dan periset, sementara perpustakaan2 kuil2 Serapeum & Cesarion adalah perpustakaan2 yg terbuka bagi rakyat umum. Perpustakaan megah itu didirikan oleh Kaisar Ptolemy II Philadelphus di kompleks kerajaan Bruchion didekat istana2 dan taman2 kerajaan, sementara puteranya, Ptolemy III, mendirikan perpustakaan Serapeum dikawasan populer, Rhakotis. Kemudian, Serapeum dikenal sbg Perpustakaan Cabang Puteri (the Daughter Library), karena mengandung versi2 orisinal buku2 dlm perpustakaan induk, the Royal Library.

Setelah pembakaran the Royal Library, Serapeum, yg lebih besar dari Cesarion, menjadi perpustakaan utama kota itu. Rujukan sejarah pertama ttg perpustakaan ini ditemukan dlm buku The Apology oleh penulis Kristen, Tertullian (155-230M). Dlm bukunya, Tertullian menyebut bahwa perpustakaan raja2 Ptolemi itu disimpan dlm perpustakaan Serapeum, dan diantaranya termasuk copy Perjanjian Lama yg dikunjungi Yahudi2 Alexandria yg ingin mendengarkan pembacaannya. Jadi, kalau kita mengasumsi bahwa 'perpustakaan raja2 Ptolemi' ini sbg the Royal Library, kita bisa simpulkan bahwa versi2 orisinal dari the
Royal Library telah dipindahkan ke perpustakaan Serapeum.

Analisa ini didukung oleh Surat2 Aristeas (penulis Yahudi Alexandria) pada akhir abad 1M dan menyatakan bahwa manuskrip2 the Royal Library dipindahkan dari perpustakaan induk ke Serapeum. Akhirnya, thn 379M, Santo Yohanes Chrysostom merujuk pada perpustakaan Serapeum dlm pidatonya kpd rakyat Antiochian, bahwa perpustakaan itu mengandung versi orisinal Perjanjian Lama (Septuagint) shg Ptolemy II
Philadelphus memerintahkannya agar diterjemahkan dari bhs Yahudi ke ke bhs Yunani.

Th 391M, Paus Theophilus dari Alexandria memerintahkan bagi dihancurkannya kuil pagan Serapeum dan mendirikan gereja diatas puing2nya. Tapi penghancuran kuil itu TIDAK mempengaruhi perpustakaan disebelahnya, kemungkinan besar karena mengandung buku2 Yahudi dan Kristen, selain buku2 sains yg penting bagi ilmuwan2 pagan maupun Kristen. Jadi, sampai akhir abad 6M, kita masih bisa menemukan referensi sejarah ttg eksistensi perpustakaan Serapeum di Alexandria. Salah satu referensi itu adalah deskripsi
filsuf Alexandria, Ammonius, ttg perpustakaan itu dan buku2 yg dikandungnya, termasuk dua copy dari the Categories'nya Aristotel.

NAH, ketika pasukan2 ARAB menginvasi Alexandria dibawah komando Amr Ibn Al Aas bln Desember 22, 640M, mereka menghancurkan tembok2 Alexandria dan menjarah kota itu. Lalu Ibn Al Aas berkenalan dgn seorang teolog Kristen tua atas nama John Philoponus (atau John Grammaticus). Philoponus, pengikut Ammonius, dikenal Arab sbg Yehia Al Nahawi. Tulisan2nya sangat penting bagi transfer budaya Yunani kpd kaum Arab.

Setelah berbagai diskusi religous antara Philoponus dan Ibn Al Aas ttg sifat ilahi Kristus dan Trinitas, Philoponus meminta Ibn Al Aas utk menjamin keselamatan buku2 dlm Perpustakaan Alexandria, karena “lain dari toko2, istana dan taman2 kota itu, buku2 itu tidak ada gunanya bagi Amr dan gerombolannya.” TAPI kemudian, Ibn Al Aas bertanya ttg asal usul buku2 itu dan apa guna mereka. Philoponus mulai meriwayahkan cerita the Bibliotheca Alexandrina sejak pendiriannya oleh Ptolemy II Philadelphus.

TAPI jawaban Amr Ibn Al Aas adalah, keputusan ada ditangan kalifnya, Umar Ibn Al Khattab. Ibn Al Aas lalu menulis kpd Umar dan meminta nasehatnya ttg apa yg harus dilakukan terhdp perpustakaan dan buku2nya. sambil menunggu jawabannya, Ibn Al Aas memberi ijin kpd Philoponus utk mengunjungi perpustakaan itu, ditemani pengikut Yahudi Philoponus, Philaretes si ahli fisikia (Philaretes adalah penulis buku medis ttg detak jantung).

Beberapa hari kemudian jawaban Umar datang. Isinya : “[…] sehubungan dgn buku2 yg anda sebut, jika mereka mengandung hal2 yg sesuai dgn buku Allah (Quran), maka buku Allah sudah cukup (tidak diperlukan buku2 lain). Dan jika mereka mengandung buku2 yg mengkontradiksi buku Allah, maka kita tidak memerlukannya.”

Ibn Al Aas serta merta memerintahkan buku2 itu dilemparkan ke ribuan sumur2 tempat pemandian di Alexandria dan dibakar. Apinya masih berguna utk keperluan menghangatkan tentara2 Muslim. :shock:

Image

Dlm bukunya, History of the Wise Men, sejarawan Muslim, Al Qifti, menyebut ttg pembakaran buku2 ini yg berlangsung sampai ENAM BULAN, dan buku2 yg diselamatkan hanya buku2 Aristotel, Euclid -sang pakar matematika dan Ptolemy-sang geografer.

Cerita pembakaran perpustakaan Serapeum di tangan Muslim juga didukung oleh kesaksian sejarawan Muslim dan Arab spt bapak sejarawan Mesir, Al Makrizi, dlm Sermons and Lessons in the Mention of Plans and Monuments, The Index-nya Ibn Al Nadim, dan buku Georgy Zeidan, History of Islamic Urbanization.

Dlm bukunya, Prolegomena, sejarawan Muslim Ibn Khaldun mendukung cerita pembakaran Bibliotheca Alexandrina oleh Muslim mengingat sikap Arab jaman itu terhadap buku2 pada umumnya, spt membuang buku2 Persia dlm air dna api oleh pemimpin Arab, Saad Ibn Abi Waqqas, lagi2 menyusul perintah Kalif Umar yg mengatakan kpd Ibn Abi Waqqas dlm sebuah surat : “Jika [buku2 ini] mencakup pengarahan, [ketahuilah bahwa] Allah memberikan kami pengarahan yg lebih baik. Dan kalau mereka mengandung pembelokan, maka semoga Allah melindungi kami.”

Image
ENAM bulan dan 1000 kolam renang diperlukan utk membakar koleksi buku perpustakaan Alexandria !

Image
Persis MUSLIM di abad 7M: Berlin, Mei 10, 1933 - saat siswa2 Jerman dari universitas yg dianggap paling jitu didunia, berkumpul di Berlin dan kota2 lainnya utk membakar buku2 yg mengandung ide2 yg 'tidak Jermani' yg ditulis musuh2 Allah mereka (Hitler), yi Freud, Einstein, Thomas Mann, Jack London, H.G. Wells sambil meneriakkan versi Allahu Akbar mereka : 'SIEG HEIL, SIEG HEIL' !! Hanya ucapan, filosofi dan ajaran2 sang allah merangkap kalif, HITLER, yg boleh beredar.
http://www.historyplace.com/worldwar2/t ... okburn.htm

PostPosted: Tue Jul 29, 2008 3:00 pm
by ali5196
SURGA ISLAM Hanya bagi Mslm Buta Huruf, Miskin, Terbelakang
http://www.indonesia.faithfreedom.org/f ... hp?t=27156

Perpustakaan itu terbuka bagi ilmuwan dari bagian dunia. Thn 642M, Amr Ibn Al Aas, jendral yg memimpin pasukan tentara Kalifat Umar mengepung Alexandria, ibukota Mesir saat itu dan atas perintah sang kalif MENGHANCURKAN SELURUH KOLEKSI perpustakaan tsb, sampai harus menggunakan bahan bakar yg bisa menghangatkan 4000 tempat pemandian umum kota itu. Hancurnya perpustakaan itu merupakan tamparan keras bagi ilmuwan2 dan jenius2 literatur serta sejarawan Romawi. Umar membenarkan tindakan barbarnya itu dgn mengatakan, "Kalau tulisan2 orang2 Yunani ini sesuai dgn Quran, maka mereka tidak ada gunanya dan tidak perlu disimpan. Kalau mereka tidak sesuai dgn Quran, maka mereka menghujad dan perlu dihancurkan. " (Trifkovic, 2002, p. 196). 6 bulan diperlukan utk membakar semua manuskrip.

Memang banyak Muslim jaman sekarang menganggap tuduhan insiden pembakaran ini sbg sentiment antiIslam. Tapi berapa dari Muslim2 apologis ini yg tahu bahwa SEMUA penerus Umar abad 12-PUN sering memuja2 insiden ini (Trifkovic, 2002, p. 196) ?

Di INDIApun terjadi insiden serupa pada salah satu universitasnya yg paling tua, Nalanda Mahavidyalaya. Dijaman itu, Nalanda sejajar dgn universitas2 Harvard, Yale, Oxford, Cambridge, Berkeley & Stanford jaman ini. Pada masa kejayaannya, Nalanda menjadi tuan rumah 10.000 siswa dan 2000 guru. Siswa2 dari negara2 sejauh Arabia, China, Korea, Jepang, Myanmar, Indonesia, Persia, Turki & Sri Lanka sampai mendaftarkan diri di Nalanda (Oak, 1996, p. 101). Semua subyek2 Budhis dan semua ‘Darshanas’ (sistim filosofi Hindu), fonetik, tata bahasa, nyaya/ retorik, bahasa, medisin, astronomi, kimia dan kesenian, kesemuanya bisa dicari di Nalanda. TAPI kini tidak ada lagi bekasnya, gara2 siapa kalau bukan karena INVASI ISLAM thn 1193M.

Bhaktiyar Khilji, kepala invasi Muslim Turki itu bertanya terlebih dahulu apakah ada sebuah Qu’ran dlm perpustakaan itu sebelum ia MENJARAH dan MEMBAKAR seluruh kompleks universitas. Pembunuhan massal brutal terhdp siswa dan para dosen dianggap sbg ‘membawa kejayaan islam.’

Islam menghancurkan dlm beberapa bulan saja, apa yg dibangun Hindu & Budhis selama berabad2. Destruksi patung Budha di Bamiyan hanyalah sebuah insiden kecil dibandingkan dgn insiden pembantaian massal dan pemberangusan Nalanda .

PostPosted: Tue Jul 29, 2008 3:03 pm
by ali5196
A SINA : Islam Politik = FASISME ?
http://www.indonesia.faithfreedom.org/f ... hp?t=12705

Perpustakaan (The Royal Library of Alexandria) di Mesir dulunya adalah yg terbesar di dunia ini. Perpustaan megah itu didirikan pada abad ke 3SM selama kekuasaan Ptolemeus II dari Mesir . Pada masa kejayaannya, perpustakaan itu menyimpan 400.000 – 700.000 gulungan tulisan (scrolls). Th 640M, Muslim merebut dan menjarah kota itu dan setelah mengetahui bahwa ada "sebuah perpustakaan besar yg mengandung segala pengetahuan didunia ini," sang jendral meminta perintah Khalif Umar. Umar dikutip sbg mengatakan, "Isi perpustakaan itu entah akan meng-kontradiksi Quran, yg berarti mereka menghujat, atau mereka akan setuju dgn Quran, yg berarti mereka mubasir." Dan biar pasti, ia memerintahkan seluruh perpustakaan itu dihancurkan dan semua bukunya dibakar.

PostPosted: Tue Jul 29, 2008 3:06 pm
by ali5196
Bagian 4 : Jihad vs Koptik-Mesir 639-641M**
http://www.indonesia.faithfreedom.org/f ... php?t=2674

Pencaplokan Alexandria dgn cara tipuan

Ketika sang Khalif menerima laporan dari Amir bin Al-Aas ttg kalahnya Amir, ia memerintahkan agar SETIAP dan SEMUA kafir diberanguskan dari Mesir. Ia memerintahkan Amir utk mencaplok kota pelabuhan Alexandria (yg kemudian dirubah namanya oleh Muslim menjadi Iskandariya).

...

PENGHANCURAN PERPUSATAAN ALEXANDRIA

Amir, atas instruksi kalif Arab, Umar, MENGHANCURKAN PERPUSTAKAAN KOTA ITU. Diperlukan waktu ENAM BULAN utk menghancurkan buku2 perpustakaan dalam 1000 kolam renang Alexandria. Ini merupakan tindakan memalukan oleh para Arab buta huruf yg mentalitas Islamnya mengatakan bahwa tidak diperlukan satu bukupun, karena Quran berisi SEMUA yg perlu diketahui !

Inilah alasan Arab2 beringas haus darah yg tidak berbudaya dan pemakan kadal itu utk membakar semua perpustaan, tidak hanya di Mesir, tapi juga di Syria, Persia, Spanyol dan India (dimana mereka membakar universitas Buddhis; Nalanda). Pembakaran terhdp buku2 peninggalan jaman itu adalah kekejaman Muslim yg paling besar terhdp sejarah umat manusia yg tidak dapat dimaafkan.

The Fate of the Library of Alexandria****

PostPosted: Wed Apr 28, 2010 7:05 am
by Jarum_Kudus
The Fate of the Library of Alexandria: Do the Pyramids Hold the Secret?

by John O’Neill

The great Library of Alexandria, established by Ptolemy II (circa 280 BC), has come to symbolize, in the mind of modern man, the learning of Classical Civilization, a learning cruelly snuffed out in the Middle Ages. At its height, the Library contained an estimated forty thousand volumes on a wide variety of topics. As well as works on astronomy, mathematics, physics, medicine, and philosophy — many of which were copied from the hieroglyphic and cuneiform texts of the Egyptians and Babylonians — there were histories of all the countries of the known world: histories of Egypt, of Babylonia, of Persia, of the lands of North Africa, of the lands of Western Europe, etc. Although it was the greatest bibliographic collection in the ancient world, the Library probably held few books that were unique to it: Almost all were copies of others held in other libraries or institutes of learning. Nonetheless, the Alexandria Library was celebrated as the most important repository of knowledge in the world at the time, and its disappearance is rightly seen as a catastrophe and symbolic of the loss of respect for knowledge which followed the collapse of Classical Civilization.

Of the volumes held by the Library, as well as the other libraries of the time, it has been estimated that something like 95% are lost. What remains of the writings of antiquity is but a tiny relic of what once existed.

A story, apparently first appearing in the thirteenth century (mentioned first by Abd al Latif, who died in 1231, and later by Gregory Bar Hebraeus, who died in 1286), said that the Arabs, under Caliph Umar, destroyed the Alexandria Library shortly after the conquest of Egypt in 639 AD. The story was told that the Caliph, when informed about the institution, declared that if the books it contained agreed with the Koran, they were superfluous; and if they disagreed, they were heretical. In either event, they were worthless and should be destroyed. The books of the Library were put to the torch — used to heat the palace baths.

For centuries, Europeans had little cause to doubt this story. There were very good reasons indeed, as we shall see, for believing it to be true. Yet by the late nineteenth century historians were having second thoughts. Evidence, they said, showed that the early Arabs had great respect for learning, and the period between the seventh and eleventh centuries was coming to be regarded as an Islamic Golden Age, when Muslim societies led the world in science and medicine. Indeed, it now came to be argued that the Arabs were the saviours, rather than the destroyers, of Classical learning. A prime example of this genre of thinking was Robert Briffault’s 1919 book, The Making of Humanity, which argued that the real Renaissance, or rebirth, of Classical learning, actually occurred in eleventh century Islamic Spain rather than fifteenth century Italy.

Briffault’s thinking, which, with its negative view of Christianity and European culture, may be regarded as an early form of political correctness, has now become the default mode of thought in much of academia. And this is reflected in theories about the fate of the Library at Alexandria. A prime example of this may be seen in the Wikipedia page dealing with the Library. Here we encounter a lengthy discussion of the destruction of the institution. The accidental destruction caused by Julius Caesar is given pride of place, as are other real or apparent destructions which occurred at later periods of the Roman Empire. The final destruction, which must surely be the most important — that carried out by the Arabs — is mentioned rather briefly at the end, only to be dismissed as a “hoax”.
- - - - - - - - -
But if the destruction carried out by the Arabs was a hoax, what happened to the Library? Even the authors of the Wikipedia page admit that, following the earlier destruction by Caesar, the Library was rebuilt and restocked. And this needs to be stressed: Until the disappearance of Classical Civilization (apparently in the seventh century), the Library could be restocked and recreated — for the great majority of the volumes it contained were not unique to it: They were copies of books also available in the other libraries and institutes of learning that dotted the Mediterranean world. It was only with the disappearance of Classical Civilization as a whole — along with the cultural, social and economic infrastructure that underpinned it — that the restocking and re-endowing of the Library became impossible. The lost volumes could not then be replaced because all other copies, in the other libraries and academies, were also gone.

Leaving aside the assertions of the Wikipedia authors, there is irrefutable proof that the wider dissolution of Classical Culture occurred in the seventh century; and that this was a direct consequence of the Arab conquests. Furthermore, there is clear evidence that this dissolution and destruction was the result of a deliberate act of policy on the part of the Arabs.

This is seen most clearly in the sudden rupture, in the seventh century (in the lands conquered and controlled by the Muslims), of all cultural links to the past.

Until the first quarter of the seventh century Classical Civilization was alive and well in the Mediterranean world. City life flourished, as did the economy and the arts. Literacy was widespread, and the works of the Classical historians, as well as the philosophers, mathematicians, and physicians, were readily available and discussed in the academies and libraries located throughout the Near East, North Africa, and Europe. In Egypt, during the sixth century, renowned philosophers such as Olympiodorus (died 570) presided over the academy which presumably had — if not the original Library — at least a well-stocked and funded library of some sort. The Alexandrian academy of this time was regarded as the most illustrious institute of learning in the known world; and it is virtually beyond doubt that its library matched, if indeed it did not surpass, the original Library founded by Ptolemy II. The writings of Olympiodorus and his contemporaries demonstrate intimate familiarity with the great works of classical antiquity — very often quoting obscure philosophers and historians whose works have long since disappeared. Among the general population of the time literacy was the norm, and the appetite for reading was fed by a large class of professional writers who composed plays, poems and short stories — the latter taking the form of mini-novels. In Egypt, the works of Greek writers such as Herodotus and Diodorus were familiar and widely quoted. Both the latter, as well as native Egyptian writers such as Manetho, had composed extensive histories of Egypt of the time of the pharaohs. These works provided, for the citizens of Egypt and other parts of the Empire, a direct link with the pharaohnic past. Here the educated citizen encountered the name of the pharaoh (Kheops) who built the Great Pyramid, as well as that of his son (Khephren), who built the second pyramid at Giza, and that of his grandson Mykerinos, who raised the third and smallest structure. These Hellenized versions of the names were extremely accurate transcriptions of the actual Egyptian names (Khufu, Khafre, and Menkaure). In the history of the country written by Manetho, the educated citizen of the Empire would have had a detailed description of Egypt’s past, complete with an in-depth account of the deeds of the pharaohs as well as descriptions of the various monuments and the kings who built them.

The change that came over Egypt following the Arab Conquest can only be described as catastrophic. All knowledge of the country’s past disappears, and does so almost overnight. Consider the account of the Giza Pyramids and their construction written by the Arab historian Al Masudi (regarded as the “Arab Herodotus”), apparently in the tenth century (though there are good grounds for believing substantially earlier):

“Surid, Ben Shaluk, Ben Sermuni, Ben Termidun, Ben Tedresan, Ben Sal, one of the kings of Egypt before the flood, built two great pyramids; and, notwithstanding, they were subsequently named after a person called Shaddad Ben Ad … they were not built by the Adites, who could not conquer Egypt, on account of their powers, which the Egyptians possessed by means of enchantment … the reason for the building of the pyramids was the following dream, which happened to Surid three hundred years previous to the flood. It appeared to him that the earth was overthrown, and that the inhabitants were laid prostrate upon it, that the stars wandered confusedly from their courses, and clashed together with tremendous noise. The king though greatly affected by this vision, did not disclose it to any person, but was conscious that some great event was about to take place.” (From L. Cottrell, The Mountains of Pharaoh (London, 1956)).

This was what passed for “history” in Egypt after the Arab conquest — little more than a collection of Arab fables. Egypt, effectively, had lost her history. Other Arab writers display the same ignorance. Take for example the comments of Ibn Jubayr, who worked as a secretary to the Moorish governor of Granada, and who visited Cairo in 1182. He commented on “the ancient pyramids, of miraculous construction and wonderful to look upon, [which looked] like huge pavilions rearing to the skies; two in particular shock the firmament …” He wondered whether they might be the tombs of early prophets mention in the Koran, or whether they were granaries of the biblical patriarch Joseph, but in the end came to the conclusion, “To be short, none but the Great and Glorious God can know their story.” (Andrew Beattie, Cairo: A Cultural History (Oxford University Press, 2005) p. 50)

We should not imagine that this loss of connection with the past occurred gradually. From the very beginning, the Arabs displayed absolute contempt for the culture and history of both Egypt and the other countries of the region they conquered. Immediately upon the invasion of Egypt, the Caliph established a commission whose purpose was to discover and plunder the pharaohnic tombs. We know that Christian churches and monasteries — many of the latter possessing well-stocked libraries — suffered the same fate. The larger monuments of Roman and pharaohnic times were similarly plundered for their cut-stone, and Saladin, the Muslim hero lionized in so much politically-correct literature and art, began the process by the exploitation of the smaller Giza monuments. From these, he constructed the citadel at Cairo (between 1193 and 1198). His son and successor, Al-Aziz Uthman, went further, and made a determined effort to demolish the Great Pyramid itself. (Ibid.) He succeeded in stripping the outer casing of smooth limestone blocks from the structure (covered with historically invaluable inscriptions), but eventually canceled the project owing to its cost.

The loss of contact with the past occurred in all the lands conquered by the Muslims. Here we need only point to the fact that the Persian poet and mathematician Omar Khayyam, at the end of the eleventh century, was largely ignorant of his own country’s illustrious history, and imagined that the great palaces built by the Achaemenid Emperors Darius and Xerxes, as Persepolis and Susa, were raised by a genie-king named Jamshid.

What then of the much-vaunted Arab respect for learning and science that we hear so much of in modern academic literature? That the Arabs did permit some of the science and learning they encountered in the great cities of Egypt, Syria, Babylonia, and Persia to survive — for a while — is beyond doubt. Yet the learning they tolerated was entirely of a practical or utilitarian nature — and this is a fact admitted even by Islamophiles such as Briffault. Thus, for a while, they patronised physicists, mathematicians and physicians. Yet the very fact that knowledge has to plead its usefulness in order to be permitted to survive at all speaks volumes in itself. And even this utilitarian learning was soon to be snuffed out under the weight of an Islamic theocracy (promulgated by Al Ghazali in the eleventh century) which regarded the very concept of scientific laws as an affront to Allah and an infringement of his freedom to act.

And the crushing of all science occurred far earlier than is generally believed. As I explain in some detail in my Holy Warriors, the entire concept of an Islamic Golden Age, the three centuries between the seventh and tenth centuries during which the Muslim world enjoyed an altogether higher level of culture than Europe, is little more than a myth. The Golden Age of Islam, as archaeologists have found to their astonishment, has no archaeological confirmation. Not a trace of the supposedly fabulous wealthy Baghdad of Harun al Rashid, in the ninth century, has been found. The first Muslim remains in Baghdad, as everywhere else in the Muslim world, date from the first half of the tenth century. (a few monuments dated to the seventh century also occur, with nothing in between). This goes also for Cordoba in Spain, supposedly a metropolis of half a million souls during the eighth, ninth, and tenth centuries. Here too the earliest Islamic remains are dated to the mid-tenth century. All of which suggests that the appearance of Islam on the world stage has been seriously misdated and somehow placed three centuries in the past. This means, among other things, that the destruction of native cultures in the lands conquered by the Muslims occurred even quicker than is generally allowed. Thus Al Masudi would have displayed his complete ignorance of the pyramids and of Egyptian history not three centuries after the Muslim conquest, but only a few decades after.

Admittedly, the question of chronology is still extremely controversial. Further excavation throughout the Near East will need to confirm what has already been found. Yet more and more it begins to look as if the entire Islamic Golden Age is a phenomenon which existed only on paper and in the imagination of the storytellers of the Arabian Nights.

What then of the destruction of the Alexandrian Library? Were the Arabs responsible? The evidence indicates overwhelmingly that not only did the Arabs destroy the library or libraries of Alexandria, but they simultaneously put to the torch all secular learning (with the exception of the sciences) throughout the entire Middle and Near East.

Thus the Arabs, as I show in Holy Warriors, destroyed Classical Civilization in Europe through an economic blockade, but in the Middle East they destroyed it deliberately and methodically.


Holy Warriors: Islam and the Demise of Classical Civilization, is published by Felibri Publications. For information, see the Felibri website.

PostPosted: Wed Jan 30, 2013 9:00 am
by ali5196

PostPosted: Wed Jul 03, 2013 6:43 am
by ali5196
Muslim menghancurkan perpustakaan/universitas tua India, Nalanda
universitas-nalanda-akan-dibangun-lagi-stlh-dihancurkan-t52182/


India adalah bangsa yang paling maju dlm sains sejak 3500BC sampai 1200AD. Sains Mathematics, Mettalurgy, Medicine, Astronomy , Philosophy, Logic etc ) selalu menunjukkan bahwa India selangkah lebih maju drpd bangsa2 lain. TAPI ini semua berubah dengan dihancurkannya universitas2 spt Nalanda, Vikramshila Sarnath etc . Penghancuran pengetahuan ini, bersama dgn terjemahan teks2 Sansekerta kedalam bhs Latin membantu Eropa menjajah India thn 1600AD, yang berkulminasi pada transmisi kalkulus oleh misionaris Jesuit. Setelah Isaac Newton mendengar ttg teori kalkulus ini, ia membantu eropa mencapai ketenaran.

Islam memang penyakit. Dimanapun Islam bercokol, disitulah tersebar kesengsaraan dan kematian.

Nalanda
Mirror
Faithfreedom forum static

PostPosted: Wed Jul 03, 2013 6:54 am
by ali5196
http://www.ask.com/wiki/List_of_book-bu ... onquest.29

Image
Gerbang kota Ctesiphon

641M: Ketika panglima Arab, Saad ibn-e Abi Vaghas, menghadapi perpustakaan megah Ctesiphon, ia menulis kpd kalif Umar: apa yg harus dilakukan dgn buku2 ini? Umar jawab; buku2 shirk itu tidak diperlukan. Hanya Quran saja cukup. Dibakarlah buku2 (atau dibuang juga ke sungai Efrates) yang diproduksi berbagai generasi ilmuwan Persia.

Kemudian, pemimpin Arab berikutnya (Ghotaibeh ibn-e Moslem) di Khwarezmia, membantai semua kaum intelek & penulis Persia dan buku2 mereka dibakar sehingga 'generasi berikutnya menjadi buta huruf.' Perpustakaan2 lain di Ray & Khorassan juga mengalami nasib yg sama. Universitas termasyur, Gondishapour, juga diporak-porandakan dan semua bukunya hilang. Hanya beberapa saja masih selamat karena ilmuwan Persia dgn cepat menerjemahkan mrk ke bhs Arab utk menyelamatkan mrk.

Ini kehancuran katastrofal bagi ilmu pengetahuan di Persia. Buku2 ini sedianya merupakan jembatan antara dunia kuno dgn dunia modern. :snakeman:

Artikel Faithfreedom Indonesia
Mirror
Faithfreedom forum static