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Vietnam : Muslim Mengalami Diskriminasi

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Vietnam : Muslim Mengalami Diskriminasi

Postby Laurent » Sun Oct 02, 2011 11:06 am

» 09/09/2011 14:42
Post 9/11, Vietnamese Catholics promoters of dialogue with Islam
by J.B. Vu
The 2001attack on the U.S. affected the followers of all religions, with a part of the country marginalizing Muslims. The archdiocese of Saigon initiated moments of interreligious encounter and created a special commission. Vietnamese priest: contact with other religions "makes our faith stronger."

Ho Chi Minh City (AsiaNews) - The terrorist attack of September 11 and the dramatic images transmitted by television hit - albeit in a different way - the faithful of all religions in Vietnam. For this, the archdiocese of Saigon wanted to organize a group for interreligious dialogue, which to date, it has grown to become a Pastoral Commission for Ecumenism and Interreligious Dialogue. The day after the American tragedy, the Vietnamese began discriminating against Muslims, which is why the Catholic leaders created moments of encounter, dialogue and integration.

The Archdiocese of Ho Chi Minh City was the first to begin interfaith dialogue with Muslims: meetings, visits of courtesy, moments of cultural exchange, under the auspices of the Catholic Commission. A project that aims to develop the Church in every diocese in Vietnam, contributing to the growth of the country. So much so that in the pastoral letter of 2010 to the faithful, the People's Assembly of God, Christian leaders explained that " dialogue is at the service of God's salvation, an attempt at mutual understanding and serving the true happiness of man."

A priest of Saigon explains that "through contact and dialogue with Buddhists, Muslims, Protestants, Cao Đài and Bahai'i faithful, people can benefit" in their lives and relationships with others in the community . Although some of the faithful, he adds, fear that interreligious dialogue can deviate from Catholic teaching, on the contrary contact with other religions "is an invitation to make our faith stronger."

In Vietnam there are two different orders of Muslims, old and new, for a total of 64 thousand faithful throughout the country. In Ho Chi Minh City there are 4,850, divided into 16 communities and led by 69 local representatives. After the tragedy of 11 September 2001, they were victims of ostracism and discrimination by the majority of the population.

http://www.asianews.it/news-en/Post-9/1 ... 22592.html
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Re: Vietnam : Muslim Mengalami Diskriminasi

Postby akuadalahkafir » Sun Oct 02, 2011 2:06 pm

Yang punya temen orang Vietnam minta masuk ke faithfreedom.org dan sejenisnya..
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Re: Vietnam : Muslim Mengalami Diskriminasi

Postby Laurent » Tue Oct 04, 2011 11:05 am

Bearing the Weight of History - the Story of a Chăm Young Woman in America
by cqf

Published on 04-09-2011 07:11 PM Number of Views: 840 2 Comments The Story of Van-Anh Thanh


"I am a Chăm"

We met a young woman in San Jose who wore a scarf over her head, which identified her as a person of Islamic faith. But she spoke perfect Vietnamese. A Vietnamese Muslim - Wow - what a rare site! We asked her more questions and were curious about her background. "I am a Chăm," she said, looking keenly at us for our response. She wasn't sure if we knew what a Chăm is.

Viet's Twin Civilization

Probably all Vietnamese with basic formal education in Vietnam would know about "người Chàm," the native people of Central Vietnam. The Cham people were said to have a glorious culture built on Hindu and Islamic faiths. Tháp Chàm (Cham temple ruins) are famous historical relics, the largest of which at Mỹ Sơn is a UNESCO World Heritage Site. The Chams were brave sea-faring people. They traded with cultures all over Southeast Asia. Their language belongs to the great language family of Malayo-polynesian, whose origin stretched from East-African Madagascar to the Pacific Islands.

In terms of cultural development, the Viets and the Chams started out on a parallel course that mirrored each other like hands of the same person. Coming out of the stone age, the Chams developed a sophisticated iron-based technology, called the Sa Huỳnh culture, while the Viets in north cultivated the bronze-based Đồng Sơn culture. The Chams were a sea-faring people while the Viets, coming from the Austro-Asiatic language family (cousin to Khmer language), thrived on agriculture. The Viets imported Han-Chinese intellectualism for their societal development, while the Cham society was built on Hindu intellectualism. The Viet's family was patriarchal and male-centered, favored by labor-intensive agriculture; while the Cham's family - with the women being the community's pillars and the men spending long months at sea - was matrilineal and women-centered.

Even the Viet's myth of creation holds vague references to the Chams as well. The Myth talked about the angel Princess marrying a dragon Prince to create the first one hundred children who became the peoples of Southeast Asia. The angel princess, whose name was Âu Cơ, was the descendant of Thần Nông (the God of Agriculture) who supposedly lived somewhere in the Yangtze River region. The Dragon Prince, whose name was Lạc Long Quân, came from the sea. After the children were born, the couple split up, with half going with their mother back to the inland region and other half followed their father to live by the sea. The Myth said that modern Viets came from the stock that went with mother Âu Cơ. That explained the Viet's proclivity toward agriculture. But what modern people came from the group that lived with father Lạc Long Quân? Who else but the sea-faring Chams, of course!

Brothers no more

Hardly anyone outside of Southeast Asia knows about the Chams today, because the Viets had wiped their nation, Champa ("Chiêm Thành" in Vietnamese) off the world's map since the fourteenth century. There is a deep conflict within the Vietnamese cultural consciousness about what they had done to the Chams. On one hand, they railed against the Chinese for trying to take over their homeland, originally in the Red River delta in today North Vietnam. On other hand, they did the very same thing to the Cham by taking away the Cham's way of life and country.

This conflict is especially strong among the South Vietnamese who lost their country to North Vietnam in 1975. The Vietnamese refugees often said among themselves that the brutal Vietnam War and the subsequent loss of South Vietnam was a karmic retribution for their ancestor's unjust actions. It was also ironic that the Viets' new home, America, the land of dream and opportunity, was also built upon a bloody legacy at the expense of the native peoples. Human civilization seems to be full of savagery, and the Viets contributed their own dark chapter in their relations with the Chams.

"Don't call me 'Chàm'"

Our first meeting with Vân Anh did not get off so great. Off the bat, Vân-Anh, she politely stopped us from calling her "Chàm," a sound with a falling tone. "We are 'Chăm' (sound a little bit like 'chum'," she said, "Chàm is derogatory to us." For those thinking that fussing over a tiny diacritical mark is bordering on insanity, we want to remind them that in the tonal Vietnamese language tone is everything. "Má" (rising tone) means mother, but "Ma" (flat tone) means a ghost. "Tướng Không Quân" means an Air Force general, but "Tướng Không Quần" means a general without pants. Getting the wrong tone can get you into a lot of trouble.

That was how we got into trouble with Vân-Anh for calling her a "Chàm". Honesty, we never heard of the word "Chăm" before. All historical texts we learned used the word "Chàm." We were a bit irked by Vân-Anh's demand for different term. We never meant any disrespect and didn't like someone telling us to stop using a historically honored word. But when we checked the internet on the proper term to call the Cham people, sure enough, "Chăm" was indeed the term that Cham people call themselves. The early score: Vân-Anh 1, CQF 0.

Opening a big can of worms

The discovery of a thriving Chăm community on the internet pleased us. We were taught that the Chăm culture had been totally destroyed. So we organized a talk on January 9th, 2011 for Vân-Anh to tell us more about her family and culture. We didn't have a great turn out, as many of our Viet friends, admittedly were uncomfortable with the cross-cultural discussion that we attempted. "You are opening a very big can of worms," professor Trương Bổn Tài, a supporter of Cham culture, reminded the group.

Honestly, most Viets don't want to talk about this issue. "Why stir up the past?" one friend said. But Vân Anh reminded us that the legacy of maltreatment of the Chams is not of the past but the present. Even today, some Vietnamese still refer to the Chams as "mọi" (savages), cow and pig worshipers and cast them as an inferior race.

Other Viet friends are uncomfortable with the idea of speaking ill of our own forebearers. In the Confucian tradition, doing such thing amounts to being ungrateful if not a sin. But the fact of the matter is Vân-Anh is a Viet, Cham culture is a part of Viet's greater cultural landscape, and most if not all South Vietnamese have some trace of Cham ancestry in their blood due to generations of intermarriages. So it is only right and necessary to hear what Vân-Anh has to say and what her Cham community has experienced. Furthermore, as children of the same Mother Earth, we all have the power and the responsibility to ease any the historical burden and make it better for the future generations, just by understanding. So with this intent, talking about the difficult past legacy may turn out to be of much greater service for our ancestors than looking the other way.

Another worry we had was that the heavy historical topic would result in more bad feelings. Good intentions often beget disasters. Even Vân-Anh was nervous and she insisted on a low-key invitation-only crowd. Academic discussions on Cham-Viet relations in the past have been known to end up in fiery debates or cold resentments. At the outset, we looked naive for doing this program. If scholars could not enlighten Cham-Viet relation, how could a group of rag-tag non-experts like us do any good to a far-gone tragedy?

But we weren't interested in scholarly truth. We were interested in Vân Anh's personal truth. A part of our motivation to form Cultural Quest Foundation comes from the belief that every person holds an important truth about his or her own culture and history, worthy to be told and shared. The most valuable source of history is in the eyewitnesses, not in the books. We become truly ignorant of our history when we don't listen to our elders and neighbors, not when we don't get enough history units. So when Vân-Anh accepted our invite to tell her story, we were delighted to give her the center stage and used scholarly information only as backdrops. That was exactly what we did and we weren't disappointed. At the end of the program, all attendees felt satisfied, hopeful and appreciative of her sharing.

14th century map of Đại Việt (Vietnam) and Champa

Princess Huyền Trân

The golden age of Champa took place in the early centuries of the modern era along side with the rise of other great Hinduist worshiping centers such as Angkor in Cambodia and Bali in Indonesia. The Cham temples were adorn with curvacious Apsara dancers conjuring a time of elegance, grace and transcendence. Important Cham cities and towns were named after Hindu Gods, such as Indrapura (Đà Nẵng), Vijaya (Quy Nhơn) etc..., as professor Arti Nigam, an Indian psychologist, pointed out during the forum.

The Khmer and Cham Hindus had one of history's most interesting love-hate relationships. While the Chams worshiped God Shiva, the Khmer honored God Vishnu. Like a classic sibling rivalry, they fought each other like enemies and then helped each other like best friends. After the Viet invasion in the fourteenth century, Cham Hinduism declined and gave way to Islamic intellectualism. Some Chams became Buddhists much like the Khmer. Cham society became culturally fragmented, by which some people hung on to the Hindu faith, while others followed the newer Islamic trend.

The most famous story between the Cham and Viet during this time was that of Princess Huyền Trân, the daughter of Viet King Trần Anh Tông. After decades of conflict, King Trần Anh Tông and the Cham King Chế Mân signed a historic land-for-peace deal. In this agreement, the Chams would cede to the Viets two provinces and the Cham King would marry the beautiful Viet Princess, thus joining two kingdoms into one family.

But the Viets did not keep their side of the deal. After King Chế Mân died, the Viet king ordered an attack on the Chams to retrieve his daughter, because he feared that Princess Huyền Trân would be burned alive in the Cham king's funeral pyre as dictated by Cham's custom. That attack turned out to be the first shot in the Viet's campaign of Nam Tiến (southward expansion) that eventually annexed all of Champa and part of Khmer Kingdom into Vietnam's territory.

The story of Princess Huyền Trân captured Viet's imagination for the ages. It has a dramatic cast of characters including a powerful Viet king also a loving father, a courageous and lovely princess, and a barbaric enemy who would sacrifice an innocent woman, not to mention the man who would lead the Princess's rescue was rumored to be her own former lover.

But unbeknown to most Viets today, there is another side to this story. Apparently, Princess Huyền Trân was never in any danger of being sacrificed. According to Cham custom of the time, only the Queen could choose to sacrifice herself in order to empower the throne for her descendants. To do so, she would have needed approval from a ruling council, in case she was needed to rule the country. Sacrifice one's life for a greater cause was nothing new nor undesirable in either Viet or Cham culture at the time. It was the queen's choice to sacrifice herself. But Princess Huyền Trân was not the queen, but the King's concubine, albeit an important one. There was no way she could die from Cham custom.

Cultural Survival at Stake

The West never got to know Champa, except for what little Marco Polo had wrote about this fabled kingdom during his brief visit to the Cham's seaport Singapura (Hội An). Armed with Marco Polo's data, Christopher Columbus aimed to find "Ciamba" during his Western voyage to find Asia. The East Indies happened to lie roughly on a similar parallel as Champa. By the time Western countries arrived in large numbers in the latter centuries, Champa was already relegated to archeological and historical curiosities. French colonization that stopped Viet's expansionism came too late for the Chams, as it could only help to save the Khmer kingdom instead. As the Viets pushed southward, the once seafaring Chăm people moved farther south and then into Cambodia with the largest number living in a land-locked community called Kampong Cham.

Once both Hindus, the Khmer now Buddhists and the Chams now Muslims lived peacefully side by side, guided by each of their own gentle religion. But then the Vietnam War came and followed with the Khmer Rouge's reign of terror. Untold number of Chăm were killed in the seventies for the crime of being non-indigenous. Ironically this time, it was the Vietnamese communists that went into Cambodia to get rid of their fellow communists, the Khmer Rouge, and saved the whole country from total annihilation.

In the twenty-first century, the threat of physical persecution has lifted, but the struggle for cultural survival is more fierce than ever. Like all indigenous cultures, the Chăm culture faces a direct assault from the pop culture which sways young people away from traditional values. Vân Anh's generation must deal with the difficult task of redefining what it means to be a Chăm in today's complex globalized world.

Khmer Cham women visit the site where large number of Chams were killed during the Khmer Rouge reign of terror (1975-1979)

Indifference toward being different

In central Vietnam today, small Cham villages still remained. Vân Anh grew up in one of those villages near Phan Rang (formerly Panduranga). She spoke fluent Cham and Vietnamese. Her community was Islamic. They prayed and worshipped Allah and carried on a proud culture, personified in traditional dances, rituals and family's heirlooms and relics. Invisibility seemed to have been a good thing for Vân Anh, until she came to America in the post 9/11 era. Islam is viewed with deep suspicion here. Yet, she could not part from her head scarf that stands for her faith and integrity. Many people wanted her to take off her scarf, including some family members, for her own good in order to blend in with the hair-obsessed culture of America. But refusing to conform to societal norm may be an easier way for Vân Anh to cope. It may give her a tough day at work, but get her better sleep at night.

Flanked by international visitors, Cham villagers stand next to their makeshift mosque in Kampong Cham, Cambodia

To be able to dream is a success

It does not take much to realize that Vân Anh carries a heavy burden of history on her shoulders. Yet we never heard Vân Anh talking about violence and revenge against the Việt or anyone else. On a practical level that's a good thing because she's got too many identities to afford to let any of them be at war with each other. She is a Cham, a Viet, a Muslim and an American. - a quad-cultural identity Her cultural interest is in neither Cham nor Viet or American alone, but in how much all cultures have in common and bring richness to her spirit. Her interest in Islam is very intense.

She started a non-profit group, Moonlight Humanity to help the poor in Southeast Asia. Given that her Chăm people in Cambodia and Vietnam live in abject poverty and in much isolation from the world, she dreams of an ambitious plan to build schools, dig wells, finance new businesses, construct mosques and community centers, etc.... Visit her group's website at http://www.moonlighthumanity.org.

Starting an ambitious charitable organization at a time of global economic downturn may seem unwise, but it would be a mistake to dismiss her vision. We need to be reminded of who Vân-Anh is and where she came from. She is a Chăm, the people with a glorious history and persistent sense of survival. As a Chăm, she is still here, growing and thriving, rather than been succumbed to hatred and despair. For any human being who could come out of a genocidal history and still be able to dream big, not for one but for many, that is a success...a big success. Ultimately, as human beings, each of us are only responsible for our own dreams. The reality is often created by the collective dreams of many. There is nothing wrong with Vân Anh dreaming of a better life for her people. But her dream could only come true there if other Viets, Muslims, Americans and people in the world also share her dream for the Chăm people to get what they deserved all along: dignity, security and respect.

Watch our video the Shame of Đồ Bàn (Hận Đồ Bàn) - Đồ Bàn being the former Cham capital near present day Quy Nhơn.

"Why are old Vietnamese songs so sad?" asked a viewer. Many Cham and Viet old songs tend to be very sad, because they were not written for the mere entertainment value. They are more like spiritual doors onto the sacredness of life, love and relationship. Losses and heartbreaks have the power to help us appreciate life more deeply than pleasantries. These songs are like fish sauce for the soul. Salty, yes, but they suppose to bring out the full flavor of your own humanity. By the way, Quy Nhơn (the modern name for Đồ Bàn) means "returning to humanity". See if this song does that for you.

Want to hear what Cham singing sound like compared to Viet sound?

Listen to a part of the song Hòn Vọng Phu II (the Rock of the Waiting Wife II). The song is about a Cham-inspired Vietnamese legend that celebrated the woman's love for her husband. She waited for her husband who was at war for so long, that the weather washed away her flesh to leave behind her internal will in a form of a rock statue. Even mountains and rivers had to change their paths to yield to her desire and persistence. This song is spliced together with Cham language in the first part and Viet in the latter. English subtitle is included. Enjoy!

Listen to one of Vân Anh's favorite songs

Làng Chăm Quê Em (My Chăm Village) is a song Vân Anh knew from her childhood. It's about two young lovers of two different socioeconomic classes and religions looking to build a life together. The song, sung both in Vietnamese and Chăm, is performed by a famous Chăm-Viet singer Chế Linh. Performers wear authentic Chăm costumes of white garbs and red ear-tassels. The setting is in Cambodia's Angkor Thom, which was built in 10th century for Hindu worship. During that time, the Chăms were also Hindus and had vast temples similar to the Khmer. Today, Cambodia is home to the largest population of Cham people in the world. Enjoy this video from Vân Sơn Entertainment!

http://www.vietquest.org/content.php?15 ... in-America
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Re: Vietnam : Muslim Mengalami Diskriminasi

Postby Laurent » Sat Jul 07, 2012 7:24 am

http://m.republika.co.id/berita/dunia-i ... ara-dewa-i

27 Mei 2012 07:25
Komunitas Muslim di Negeri Para Dewa (I)
REPUBLIKA.CO.ID,Tidak keliru jika J Willoughby -- dalam artikel
The Champ Muslims of Indo-China -- menyebut komunitas
Champa sebagai satu dari sekian banyak minoritas Muslim yang
terabaikan dan terlupakan sejarah. Selama 600 tahun, terhitung sejak kekalahan
Jika Anda berkunjung ke Ho Chi Minh City, dulu bernama Saigon, jangan kaget
kalau menemukan sebuah Masjid Jami Cholon yang megah di Doang Du, Quan 1.
Arsitekturnya campuran; Cina, India, dan Barat, dan dua menara menjulang di
antara gedung-gedung tinggi. Hampir setiap hari, terutama pada waktu shalat
magrib, masjid satu-satunya di Vietnam ini dipenuhi jamaahnya.
Tidak sulit pula menemukan Muslim di tengah lautan komunitas Annam. Mereka
mudah dikenali lewat kopiah putih -- identitas yang membedakan mereka dari
lainnya -- yang selalu dikenakan sehari-hari. Namun, sangat sulit mengetahui
jumlah mereka. Dua situs yang dikelola Muslim Vietnam tidak menyebut angka
pasti komunitas ini. Sedangkan Adherent.com, mengutip sejumlah sumber,
memberikan angka beragam.
Rosemary Going dalam Larousse Dictionary of Beliefs & Religions memperkirakan
populasi Muslim Vietnam tahun 1994 mendekati satu persen dari seluruh
penduduk Vietnam. Sedangkan Gretchen Bratvold memperkirakan pada tahun
yang sama hanya ada 180 ribu Muslim di antara 71,8 juta penduduk Vietnam.
Sumber lain, Muslim Population in Asia Pacific Region memperkirakan pada 1996
jumlah pemeluk agama Islam di Vietnam hanya 41 ribu. Tapi, menurut KF Bin
Mohd Noor dalam Muslim Statistic.....for Year 2000 terdapat 531 ribu, atau 0,7
Tidak jelas angka mana yang mendekati kebenaran. Yang pasti, Muslim Vietnam
dapat digolongkan ke dalam tiga kelompok menurut garis etnis. Pertama, orang-
orang Champa. Kelompok ini merupakan mayoritas di antara Muslim Vietnam.
Kedua, keturunan atau anak cucu dari perkawinan campuran Vietnam dengan
pedagang Arab, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, dan Pakistan. Dua kelompok etnis ini
terkonsentrasi di Ho Chi Minh City, dan sebagian di Vietnam tengah.
Ketiga, etnis lokal Vietnam yang berinteraksi dengan pedagang-pedagang
Muslim. Mereka terkonsentrasi di desa Tan Bou, dan sebagian di propinsi Tan An.
Sebagai mayoritas, Champa merupakan komunitas inti di dalam masyarakat
Muslim. Mereka memainkan peran signifikan dalam mempertahankan eksistensi
Islam di Indochina. Namun, selama lebih 600 tahun mereka juga menjadi korban
penindasan, pembantaian, dan tindakan rasialis yang dilakukan berbagai rejim di
Red: M Irwan Ariefyanto
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Re: Vietnam : Muslim Mengalami Diskriminasi

Postby Laurent » Sat Jul 07, 2012 7:30 am

http://m.republika.co.id/berita/dunia-i ... ra-dewa-ii

27 Mei 2012 07:50
Komunitas Muslim di Negeri Para Dewa (II)
seperti komunitas Muslim
Vietnam umumnya, populasi
Champa juga tidak diketahui
secara pasti. Timothy L Gall
dalam Worldmark Encyclopedia of Cultre &
Daily Life memperkirakan tahun 1910 hanya
ada 45 ribu etnis Champa di Vietnam dan
Kamboja. Jumlah ini, masih menurut Gall,
meningkat tajam mendekati 1 juta pada tahun
Lima tahun kemudian, setelah komunis
memenangkan Perang Indochina II dan dan Pol
Pot merebut kekuasaan dari tangan Presiden
Lon Nol, hanya ada 200 ribu dan 150 ribu orang
Champa di Vietnam dan Kamboja. Jumlah ini
terus menyusut. Di Vietnam, politik isolasi rejim
komunis menyebabkan terjadinya migrasi
besar-besaran orang-orang Champa dan
Muslim Vietnam yang tinggal di Ho Chi Minh
City dan desa-desa sekitarnya, ke Kanada, AS,
Australia, dan negara-negara Eropa.
Di Kamboja, mesin pembunuh Pol Pot
melenyapkan hampir 90 ribu etnis Champa
yang bermukim di propinsi Kompong Cham
(Kampung Champa - red), dan Kompong
Chnang, serta memaksa puluhan ribu lainnya
melarikan diri lewat laut. Tidak heran jika
Hinduism Today Internasional edisi Februari
1996 memperkirakan hanya ada 16 ribu etnis
Champa di Vietnam. Laporan ini juga
menyebutkan tidak seluruh etnis Champa
memeluk Islam. Sebagian masih menyembah
Dewa Siva dan Parvati.
Terlepas dari angka-angka di atas, komunitas
Champa dan Muslim Vietnam relatif berhasil
mempertahankan eksistensi sistem
kepercayaannya selama sekian ratus tahun.
Memang ada masa-masa sebagian dari mereka
terabsorbsi ke dalam sekte-sekte agama Budha
yang bermunculan dalam kurun waktu 100
tahun terakhir. Atau, kembali menjadi pengikut
animis, terpengaruh Konfusianisme, Taoisme,
atau Hindu.
Misal, sampai tahun 1950 orang-orang Champa
di sejumlah desa di propinsi Nha Trang, Phan
Rang, Phan Ri, dan Phan Thit -- setelah sekian
ratus tahun terisolasi dengan dunia luar dan
gagal berhubungan dengan saudara-saudara
mereka yang bermigrasi ke Kamboja, Thailand,
dan Malaysia -- mempraktekan Islam
bercampur ritual Budha, Hindu, dan Ba La
Perubahan baru terjadi tahun 1959. Saat itu
orang-orang Champa dan Muslim Vietnam yang
tinggal di Ho Chi Minh, desa Chao Doc -- satu
dari 13 desa Muslim di Vietnam Selatan -- dan
Kamboja menjalin kontak dengan mereka.
Dimulai dari sekedar saling melepas rindu dan
berdialog dengan bahasa nenek moyang
mereka. Sampai akhirnya terjadi dialog
keagamaan yang intensif.
Hasilnya, di pertengahan 1959 terjadi
pengiriman besar-besaran para ulama ke
propinsi Nha Trang, Phan Rang, Phan Ri, dan
Phan Thit. Selagi para ulama dan ustadz ini
mengembalikan keislaman orang-orang
Champa di desa-desa itu, Muslim di Saigon --
yang saat itu relatif menikmati kebebasan ala
Barat pemerintahan Presiden Ngo Din Diem --
mengumpulkan dana untuk pembangunan
masjid di Van Lam, An Nhin, dan Phi Nhin di
Vietnam Tengah.
Tapi mengislamkan kembali orang-orang
Champa yang sekian lama terisolasi ini tidaklah
mudah. Terdapat sejumlah perlawanan, atau
lebih tepatnya penolakan, dari para 'tetua' desa
yang khawatir kehilangan pengaruh, akses
ekonomi, dan saluran ke pemerintahan.
Sikap para 'tetua' desa ini bisa dipahami
dengan terlebih dulu melihat sistem
pemerintahan desa dalam konsep
Konfusianisme. Desa, dalam konsep ini,
merupakan 'small imperial court' yang kurang-
lebih memiliki hak otonom. Di sini para tetua
memainkan peran sebagai pengumpul pajak,
pengontrol tanah-tanah kekayaan desa, dan
bertindak sebagai pemuka agama.
Sama seperti desa-desa lain di Vietnam,
masyarakat Champa yang terabsorbsi ke dalam
ajaran Konfusianisme atau Hindu memiliki
'dewa' masing-masing di setiap desa. Apa yang
mereka anggap dewa biasanya adalah tokoh
pendiri desa yang telah mati, yang diyakini akan
terus melindungi desa mereka.
Sama seperti umumnya Muslim di Asia
Tenggara, Muslim Champa dan Vietnam adalah
pengikut Sunni dari mazab Safi'i. Mereka relatif
bisa mengadopsi tradisi pra-Islam, yang
kemudian dikonversi dan diberi nafas
keislaman. Sehingga, kultur mereka sama
dengan saudara mereka di Jawa, Mindanao,
Semenanjung Malaysia, Kamboja, dan Brunei.
Meski relatif bisa mempertahankan identitas
etnis dan keislamannya, kondisi sosial-politik
dan ekonomi orang Champa secara umum
tetap tidak pernah berubah. Siddiq Osman
Noormuhammad, dalam Muslim of Vietnam
and Kampuchea, mengatakan secara materi
mereka tetap miskin. Orang Champa di desa-
desa, terutama di Vietnam Tengah, relatif gagal
mengikuti dinamika kehidupan saudara mereka
di Ho Chi Minh City, yang mampu mandiri dari
segi ekonomi. Kalau pun ada madrasah di desa
mereka, bukan dibangun atas dasar dana
swadana, tapi bantuan dari saudara mereka
yang jauh.
Secara politik -- sama seperti pengikut agama
lainnya; Cao Dai, Hoa Hao, Budha Theravada,
dan Katolik -- Muslim Vietnam terkooptasi.
Pemerintah komunis menyita properti milik
lembaga-lembaga keagamaan, dan
menjalankan lembaganya. Pada saat-saat
tertentu, rejim Hanoi juga merasa perlu
mewaspadai anggota Hoa Hao dan Cao Dai
yang relatif memiliki pengalaman berpolitik di
era Vietnam Selatan. Serta Katolik, yang
dianggap mewakili kepentingan Barat.
Hanoi memang tidak secara terang-terangan
memusuhi Islam dan komunitas Muslim.
Namun sejak 1975, atau setelah Vietnam
Selatan jatuh ke tangan komunis, Muslim tidak
bisa lagi menjalankan ibadah haji. Atau
menjalin kontak dengan saudara mereka di
negara-negara Asia Tenggara. Nasib yang relatif
berbeda diperlihatkan orang-orang Champa
yang tinggal di Kamboja. Mereka, orang
Champa di Kompong Cham dan Kompong
Chnang di Kamboja Tengah, mampu
membangun organisasi antar-desa yang
memungkinkan mereka tidak tercerai-berai.
Kecuali di masa rejim Pol Pot, etnis Champa di
Kamboja selalu aktif berpolitik. Saat ini mereka
menempat wakilnya di parlemen setelah Partai
Sam Rainsy yang didukungnya meraih sejumlah
kursi. Bahkan, pemerintahan PM Hun Sen juga
menunjuk Achmad Yahya -- etnis Champa --
sebagai Menlu Kamboja saat ini.
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Re: Vietnam : Muslim Mengalami Diskriminasi

Postby Laurent » Sun Aug 19, 2012 10:29 am

entah kenapa bisa begitu, apakah mereka takut negara mereka bisa kayak indonesia / malaysia jika islam diijinkan berkembang di vietnam
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Re: Vietnam : Muslim Mengalami Diskriminasi

Postby Laurent » Sat Dec 29, 2012 3:46 pm

Kampung Muslim di Chau Doc
Oleh Pratya Wedayana

Pertama kali saya mendengar adanya kampung muslim di Vietnam, saya sempat mengernyitkan dahi. Hingga pada akhirnya, kesempatan itu datang untuk melihatnya pertama kali, ketika saya berkunjung ke Vietnam tahun lalu.

Ketika itu saya ingin pergi ke Kamboja dari Ho Chi Minh City. Resepsionis hotel tempat saya tinggal di Ho Chi Minh City menyarankan saya untuk pergi ke Kamboja melalui Sungai Mekong, dan perjalanan tersebut membutuhkan menginap satu malam di Chau Doc, tempat adanya kampung muslim. Tanpa berpikir dua kali, saya mengiyakan dan ambil paket tersebut. Harganya 700.000 dong Vietnam atau sekitar Rp350.000.

Esok pagi, sekitar pukul 07:30 saya dan teman saya dijemput bis yang akan membawa saya ke Kamboja melalui Sungai Mekong.

Perjalanannya cukup lama dan melelahkan, karena baru sekitar pukul tujuh malam, bis yang kita tumpangi sampai di hotel di daerah Chau Doc.

Setelah masuk ke hotel dan mandi, kami berencana mencari makan malam di luar. Pegawai hotel mengatakan mereka tidak menyediakan makanan halal.

Setelah berputar-putar cukup lama, kami tidak menemukan rumah makan yang menyediakan makanan halal. Hanya ada penjual buah dan jajanan pasar. Untuk mengganjal perut yang sudah keroncongan, kami membeli buah apel dan pir.

Saat kami akan kembali ke hotel, kami berjumpa anak-anak muda dengan wajah Melayu dan berpakaian muslim. Kami ucapkan salam dan berbicara dalam bahasa Melayu, namun mereka tidak mengerti. Syukur, salah satu dari mereka mampu berbahasa Inggris meski terbata-bata. Dia menyarankan untuk menyeberang ke delta di seberang sungai, karena ada kampung muslim dan rumah makan halal.

Dengan membayar 1.500 dong Vietnam, kami menaiki feri yang akan menyeberang ke delta seberang. Selama kami menunggu, ada satu perempuan berjilbab dengan anaknya. Saya berusaha untuk berbahasa Melayu yang sederhana, namun dia hanya paham kalau saya lapar dan ingin makanan halal. Ada hal lucu di atas feri, ada tiga waria yang menggoda saya dan teman saya. Dan perempuan muslim ini sangat marah dan berbicara dalam bahasa Vietnam sambil mengibas tangannya untuk mengusir ketiga waria tersebut.

Setelah kami sampai di delta seberang, ternyata ada acara pernikahan. Peempuan ini menyarankan kami untuk ikut makan malam bersama mereka. Tentu saja kami menolak dengan halus. Mengingat kami mengenakan kaos dan celana pendek selutut, tidak sopan sekiranya kami ikut hadir dan makan malam. Salah seorang remaja pria menanyakan kami dengan kata “lapar?” dan “makan?”, lalu dia mengajak kami ke salah satu rumah tetua di situ.

Kebetulan sekali rumah tersebut sedang ramai dikunjungi ibu-ibu. Tak berapa lama, keluarlah seorang ibu tua yang dipanggil “Ibu Haji”. Remaja ini mengutarakan maksud kami dengan kata lapar dan makan. Ternyata, Ibu Haji ini mampu berbahasa Melayu cukup fasih.

Ibu Haji menawarkan cucu dan menantunya untuk mengantarkan kami ke rumah makan Muslim di bagian lain delta di Chau Doc, karena lokasi rumah makan tersebut lumayan jauh dari rumah Ibu Haji.

Selama menunggu cucu dan menantunya berganti pakaian, kami sempat berbincang-bincang mengenai kaum muslim di Chau Doc. Dia berkata bahwa kaum muslim di sini merupakan keturunan dari pendatang muslim dari Malaysia, Bugis maupun Jawa, sejak abad ke-17. Banyak keturunannya yang sebenarnya sudah tidak bisa berbahasa Melayu, Bugis maupun Jawa. Beliau pernah sekolah di Malaysia di masa mudanya, maka beliau masih bisa berbahasa Melayu.

Dua cucu beliau sekarang belajar agama Islam di Malaysia. Sekolah madrasah yang ada di Chau Doc hanya setingkat SMA. Untuk belajar agama Islam lebih tinggi, harus ke Malaysia. Malaysia lebih dekat juga dengan asal-usul mereka di masa lalu. Sayangnya tak satupun yang bersekolah di Indonesia.

Kaum muslim di Chau Doc, banyak yang meninggal saat perang Vietnam dulu. Saat itu banyak yang melarikan diri ke Thailand dan Malaysia. Setelah perang mereda, sebagian dari mereka kembali daerah mereka di Chau Doc, sebagian lagi menetap di Thailand dan Malaysia. Beliau teringat, masa perang dulu merupakan masa yang sulit. Mereka harus melarikan diri ke hutan untuk menyelamatkan diri. Percakapan kami terhenti, setelah cucu dan menantu beliau telah siap mengantarkan kami.

Dengan menaiki dua motor, kami diajak menuju delta lain yang lumayan jauh dengan melewati jembatan. Sekitar lima menit, kami sampai di rumah makan terbuka yang memiliki taman dan wifi gratis (canggih juga!). Kami memesan pho, mi rebus daging sapi khas Vietnam. Selama di Ho Chi Minh City, kami belum menemukan pho halal.

Selama menunggu pesanan kami datang, Abdul Rojak, cucu Ibu Haji dan menantunya, bercakap-cakap bersama kami. Sayangnya, Abdul Rojak tidak terlalu mengerti bahasa Inggris dan bahasa Melayu. Banyak pengunjung yang penasaran tentang kami. Mereka mendekati kami dan menanyakan beberapa hal dalam “bahasa tarzan” atau bahasa isyarat.

Mereka sangat gembira ketika tahu bahwa kami dari Indonesia, lalu menanyakan tujuan kami ke Vietnam. Mereka sungguh penasaran dengan pakaian kami berdua. Pengunjung di rumah makan itu yang perempuan memakai jilbab dan yang pria mengenakan sarung atau celana panjang dan kopiah warna putih. Kami hanya mengenakan celana pendek selutut dan kaos.

Untungnya, pesanan kami segera datang, dengan membayar 40.000 dong Vietnam, kami membawa dua bungkus pho daging sapi. Kami diantar hingga ke tempat penyeberangan feri untuk kembali di hotel.

Esok paginya, kami berkumpul di lobi hotel untuk menunggu kapal kayu yang akan membawa kami keliling Chau Doc untuk melihat keramba ikan gurame dan perkampungan muslim. Ada hal yang menarik. Pemandu wisata menjelaskan, dengan bahasa Inggris yang lumayan fasih, yang memiliki keramba ikan gurame adalah kaum miskin. Itu alasan mereka hidup di atas sungai bukan di daratan, karena harga tanah mahal.

Saat akan memasuki kampung muslim, dijelaskan bahwa pelajar di sekolah muslim mampu berbahasa Inggris dan Arab dengan baik. Kami berdua tertawa, karena kami tahu bahwa kemampuan pelajar muslim di Chau Doc dalam berbahasa Inggris sangat minim.

Kami mengelilingi delta yang kami sempat kunjungi malam sebelumnya. Kami mengucapkan salam kepada orang-orang muslim yang sempat kami temui. Kami pun melewati rumah makan yang sempat kami kunjungi. Kami pun harus meninggalkan kampung muslim di Chau Doc untuk menuju perbatasan Kamboja melalu Sungai Mekong.

http://ranselkecil.com/catatan/kampung- ... -chau-doc/
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Re: Vietnam : Muslim Mengalami Diskriminasi

Postby nap.bon » Sun Dec 30, 2012 9:08 am

mana Champa yg Hindu? Koq cuma Islam dan Buddha, katanya awalnya Hindu?
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Re: Vietnam : Muslim Mengalami Diskriminasi

Postby Laurent » Sun Dec 30, 2012 10:35 am

nap.bon wrote:Btw,
mana Champa yg Hindu? Koq cuma Islam dan Buddha, katanya awalnya Hindu?

untuk lebih jelasnya ke link ini

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Re: Vietnam : Muslim Mengalami Diskriminasi

Postby Laurent » Sat Mar 22, 2014 10:19 pm

Beda dengan negara2 di Asia Tenggara bahkan dengan tetangganya yaitu Kamboja, Vietnam merupakan satu2 negara Asia Tenggara yang tak bisa dikuasai Muslim bahkan populasi Muslimnya paling minim di antara negara Asean

Vietnam : Muslim Mengalami Diskriminasi
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