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Qur'an Tertua Ditemukan di Yaman

Sejarah penulisan Qur'an & Hadis, ayat2 Mekah & Medinah, kontradiksi Qur'an, tafsir Qur'an, dan hal2 yang bersangkutan dengan Qur'an.

Qur'an Tertua Ditemukan di Yaman

Postby Adadeh » Mon Jun 01, 2009 2:44 am



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Kota Sana'a, ibukota Yaman

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Tumpukan naskah Qur'an.

Di tahun 1972, saat perombakan mesjid besar di Sana'a, ibukota Yaman, para kuli menemukan kumpulan naskah dalam jumlah yang sangat besar di ruang atas dekat atap. Seluruh tumpukan naskah ini berada diantara tumpukan karung kentang. Tumpukan naskah itu tetap akan tidak diketahui jika saja Dr. Gerard Puin tidak datang ke tempat itu 7 tahun kemudian. Dr. Gerard Puin adalan ilmuwan Jerman yang ahli Qur’an.

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Naskah dibukukan.

Puin seketika menyadari pentingnya penemuan itu. Bekerja sama dengan ahli Qur’an lokal, dia menyusun dengan hati² naskah² tersebut dan membuat ribuan foto.

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Pecahan naskah Qur'an dan gambar mesjid.

Empat pecahan naskah menangkap perhatian Puin seketika, karena berisi bagian Sura terakhir Qur’an. Dan tidak seperti Qur’an² yang ada sekarang, naskah itu mencantumkan gambar mesjid. Hal ini merupakan bukti penting keaslian naskah tersebut.

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Dr. Gerard Puin:
Karena gambar ini dan pesan historisnya, kita bisa menentukan waktu sangat tepat bahwa Qur’an ini dibuat di jaman Al Walid, yakni tahun 705 - 715 M.

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Arab gundul.

Dengan begitu kumpulan naskah ini merupakan Qur’an tertua di dunia, yang dibuat 70 tahun setelah Muhammad mati. Dari kumpulan naskah diantara karung² kentang, Puin juga menemukan naskah² dari hampir 1000 Qur’an yang berbeda. Perbedaan jenis tulisan di naskah² Qur’an ini dengan tulisan di Qur’an modern sangatlah mencengangkan. Tulisan di naskah tanpa tanda baca koma atau titik sama sekali (Arab gundul). Hal ini berarti satu huruf bisa mengandung sampai 30 arti yang berbeda.

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Dr. Gerard Puin:
Banyaknya kemungkinan cara membaca Qur’an ini menunjukkan bahwa Qur’an ini tidak ditulis melalui pengimlaan per kata. Qur’an ini tidak bermakna sejelas seperti Qur’an versi Kairo.

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Hasil forensik menunjukkan tulisan² lain yang ditindihi tulisan baru.

Juga terdapat penemuan lain yang peting. Teknik forensik sederhana menunjukkan bahwa tulisan lain yang telah dihapus dan ditindihi dengan tulisan lain di atasnya. Meskipun tulisan yang tersembunyi itu menunjukkan makna yang tidak bertentangan dengan tulisan di atasnya, [color]tapi kata² telah diubah, dan ayat² dan seluruh Sura disusun ulang kembali.[/color]

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Dr. Patrick Sookhdeo

Dr. Patrick Sookhdeo:
Jika penelitian ini benar, terutama tentang tahunnya, maka ini berarti, berdasarkan fakta, Qur’an tidak tersusun sebagai satu rangkuman dan satu keseluruhan di tahun 650M, tapi dikembangkan lamaaa setelah itu, berdasarkan tumpukan tulisan di atas naskah tersebut.
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Re: Qur'an Tertua Ditemukan di Yaman

Postby umpu kakah » Mon Jun 01, 2009 8:32 am

kuran yang sekarang aja bisa bikin orang membunuh sesamanya demi agama,gimana yang ini ya????
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Re: Qur'an Tertua Ditemukan di Yaman

Postby walet » Tue Jun 02, 2009 4:01 am

Patrick Sookhdeo adalah seorang murtadin yang menjadi penasehat militer NATO tentang Islam. Dia sekarang mengepalai Barnabas Fund

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Patrick_Sookhdeo

Ketua:
Institute for the Study of Islam and Christianity
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Institute_for_the_Study_of_Islam_and_Christianity

dan
Barnabas Fund
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Barnabas_Fund

Patrick Sookhdeo was born in 1947 in British Guiana (now Guyana), to a couple who had migrated from Asia. His family migrated to England in the early 1960s. In 1965, as a student, Sookhdeo converted to Christianity and in 1964 he pursued studies at the London School of Theology and went on to obtain a Doctorate in Oriental and African studies. During that time Sookhdeo began exploring inter-faith dialogue and became increasingly concerned by the brutality being leveled at Christian minorities in Islamic nations, including death penalties for conversions from Islam.

During 1975 to 1978, Sookhdeo founded and led the "In Contact" organisation, largely based in the Plaistow and Whitechapel areas of London. "In Contact" was considerably involved in the various Christian movements in the East End, particularly Tower Hamlets Fellowship (one of the early house Churches), and had close links to many of the other East End churches and christian groups. During this period, Sookhdeo was also one of the organisers of the early "Greenbelt" Christian Arts Festivals.

In 1989, Sookhdeo created the London based Institute for the Study of Islam and Christianity, and this saw the creation of a global database on extremist movements and ideologies whose followers were persecuting religious minorities across the Muslim world . By 1991, Sookhdeo was predicting that an "Islamic storm" was on the horizon. He also runs the Barnabas Fund, a charity that supports persecuted Christian minorities around the world. He subsequently obtained a PhD in Islamic Studies at the University of London.

He has authored several books, including, "Global Jihad: The Future in the Face of Militant Islam" (reviews of which are accessible here[2][3][4]) and "Understanding Islamic Terrorism. A number of his books have been translated into German, and at least one book is translated into Norwegian (A Christian's Pocketguide to Islam/Den kristnes lommeguide til Islam).
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Re: Qur'an Tertua Ditemukan di Yaman

Postby Rainn Forestha » Tue Jun 02, 2009 6:01 am

Katanya wahyu langsung, 100 persen made in oloh. Lha kok tumpang tindih gini ?
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Re: Qur'an Tertua Ditemukan di Yaman

Postby Adadeh » Tue Jun 02, 2009 6:43 am

Rainn Forestha wrote:Katanya wahyu langsung, 100 persen made in oloh. Lha kok tumpang tindih gini ?

Hihihii....

Berkenaan dengan Qur'an Sana'a ini, berikut adalah tambahan komentar pak Gerard Puin, kafirun Jerman yang ahli text Qur'an:
http://www.theatlantic.com/past/issues/99jan/koran.htm
In a 1999 Atlantic Monthly article, Gerd Puin is saying:

My idea is that the Koran is a kind of cocktail of texts that were not all understood even at the time of Muhammad. Many of them may even be a hundred years older than Islam itself. Even within the Islamic traditions there is a huge body of contradictory information, including a significant Christian substrate; one can derive a whole Islamic anti-history from them if one wants. The Qur’an claims for itself that it is ‘mubeen,’ or clear, but if you look at it, you will notice that every fifth sentence or so simply doesn’t make sense. Many Muslims will tell you otherwise, of course, but the fact is that a fifth of the Qur’anic text is just incomprehensible. This is what has caused the traditional anxiety regarding translation. If the Qur’an is not comprehensible, if it can’t even be understood in Arabic, then it’s not translatable into any language. That is why Muslims are afraid. Since the Qur’an claims repeatedly to be clear but is not—there is an obvious and serious contradiction. Something else must be going on.

terjemahan:
Pendapatku adalah Qur'an itu bagaikan campur aduk berbagai tulisan yang tidak sepenuhnya dimengerti bahkan di jaman Muhammad. Banyak dari tulisan ini yang bahkan berusia ratusan tahun lebih tua daripada Islam itu sendiri. Bahkan dalam tradisi Islam sendiri terdapat jumlah sangat besoar akan keterangan yang bertentangan, termasuk bahasa Kristiani yang penting; jika mau, orang bisa mendapatkan seluruh keterangan sejarah yang bertolak belakang dengan Islam. Qur'an sendiri mengaku sebagai 'mubein' atau jelas, tapi jika kau mencoba membacanya, kau akan menyadari bahwa di setiap kalimat ke-5 atau selanjutnya tidak bisa dimengerti. Tentu saja banyak Muslim yang tidak akan mengakui begitu, tapi pada kenyataannya kalimat ke-5 ayat² Qur'an memang tidak bisa dimengerti. Hal ini menyebabkan penolakan terhadap usaha penerjemahan. Jika Qur'an sendiri tidak bisa dimengerti, bahkan tidak juga dalam bahasa Arab, maka tentunya Qur'an tidak bisa diterjemahkan dalam bahasa lain apapun. Itulah sebabnya mengapa Muslim ketakutan. Karena Qur'an mengaku sebagai tulisan yang jelas padahal tidak, maka terdapat kontradiksi yang jelas dan serius. Tentunya ada maksud terselubung di belakangnya.
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Re: Qur'an Tertua Ditemukan di Yaman

Postby walet » Tue Jun 02, 2009 11:42 pm

Sebelum ilang, didokumentasi dulu.

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Researchers with a variety of academic and theological interests are proposing controversial theories about the Koran and Islamic history, and are striving to reinterpret Islam for the modern world. This is, as one scholar puts it, a "sensitive business"

by Toby Lester

(The online version of this article appears in three parts. Click here to go to part two. Click here to go to part three.)

In 1972, during the restoration of the Great Mosque of Sana'a, in Yemen, laborers working in a loft between the structure's inner and outer roofs stumbled across a remarkable gravesite, although they did not realize it at the time. Their ignorance was excusable: mosques do not normally house graves, and this site contained no tombstones, no human remains, no funereal jewelry. It contained nothing more, in fact, than an unappealing mash of old parchment and paper documents -- damaged books and individual pages of Arabic text, fused together by centuries of rain and dampness, gnawed into over the years by rats and insects. Intent on completing the task at hand, the laborers gathered up the manuscripts, pressed them into some twenty potato sacks, and set them aside on the staircase of one of the mosque's minarets, where they were locked away -- and where they would probably have been forgotten once again, were it not for Qadhi Isma'il al-Akwa', then the president of the Yemeni Antiquities Authority, who realized the potential importance of the find.

Al-Akwa' sought international assistance in examining and preserving the fragments, and in 1979 managed to interest a visiting German scholar, who in turn persuaded the German government to organize and fund a restoration project. Soon after the project began, it became clear that the hoard was a fabulous example of what is sometimes referred to as a "paper grave" -- in this case the resting place for, among other things, tens of thousands of fragments from close to a thousand different parchment codices of the Koran, the Muslim holy scripture. In some pious Muslim circles it is held that worn-out or damaged copies of the Koran must be removed from circulation; hence the idea of a grave, which both preserves the sanctity of the texts being laid to rest and ensures that only complete and unblemished editions of the scripture will be read.

Some of the parchment pages in the Yemeni hoard seemed to date back to the seventh and eighth centuries A.D., or Islam's first two centuries -- they were fragments, in other words, of perhaps the oldest Korans in existence. What's more, some of these fragments revealed small but intriguing aberrations from the standard Koranic text. Such aberrations, though not surprising to textual historians, are troublingly at odds with the orthodox Muslim belief that the Koran as it has reached us today is quite simply the perfect, timeless, and unchanging Word of God.

The mainly secular effort to reinterpret the Koran -- in part based on textual evidence such as that provided by the Yemeni fragments -- is disturbing and offensive to many Muslims, just as attempts to reinterpret the Bible and the life of Jesus are disturbing and offensive to many conservative Christians. Nevertheless, there are scholars, Muslims among them, who feel that such an effort, which amounts essentially to placing the Koran in history, will provide fuel for an Islamic revival of sorts -- a reappropriation of tradition, a going forward by looking back. Thus far confined to scholarly argument, this sort of thinking can be nonetheless very powerful and -- as the histories of the Renaissance and the Reformation demonstrate -- can lead to major social change. The Koran, after all, is currently the world's most ideologically influential text.

Looking at the Fragments

The first person to spend a significant amount of time examining the Yemeni fragments, in 1981, was Gerd-R. Puin, a specialist in Arabic calligraphy and Koranic paleography based at Saarland University, in Saarbrücken, Germany. Puin, who had been sent by the German government to organize and oversee the restoration project, recognized the antiquity of some of the parchment fragments, and his preliminary inspection also revealed unconventional verse orderings, minor textual variations, and rare styles of orthography and artistic embellishment. Enticing, too, were the sheets of the scripture written in the rare and early Hijazi Arabic script: pieces of the earliest Korans known to exist, they were also palimpsests -- versions very clearly written over even earlier, washed-off versions. What the Yemeni Korans seemed to suggest, Puin began to feel, was an evolving text rather than simply the Word of God as revealed in its entirety to the Prophet Muhammad in the seventh century A.D.

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Yemeni Koran Fragments,
as they were found in 1972.
Photograph by Ursula Dreibholz

Since the early 1980s more than 15,000 sheets of the Yemeni Korans have painstakingly been flattened, cleaned, treated, sorted, and assembled; they now sit ("preserved for another thousand years," Puin says) in Yemen's House of Manuscripts, awaiting detailed examination. That is something the Yemeni authorities have seemed reluctant to allow, however. "They want to keep this thing low-profile, as we do too, although for different reasons," Puin explains. "They don't want attention drawn to the fact that there are Germans and others working on the Korans. They don't want it made public that there is work being done at all, since the Muslim position is that everything that needs to be said about the Koran's history was said a thousand years ago."

To date just two scholars have been granted extensive access to the Yemeni fragments: Puin and his colleague H.-C. Graf von Bothmer, an Islamic-art historian also based at Saarland University. Puin and Von Bothmer have published only a few tantalizingly brief articles in scholarly publications on what they have discovered in the Yemeni fragments. They have been reluctant to publish partly because until recently they were more concerned with sorting and classifying the fragments than with systematically examining them, and partly because they felt that the Yemeni authorities, if they realized the possible implications of the discovery, might refuse them further access. Von Bothmer, however, in 1997 finished taking more than 35,000 microfilm pictures of the fragments, and has recently brought the pictures back to Germany. This means that soon Von Bothmer, Puin, and other scholars will finally have a chance to scrutinize the texts and to publish their findings freely -- a prospect that thrills Puin. "So many Muslims have this belief that everything between the two covers of the Koran is just God's unaltered word," he says. "They like to quote the textual work that shows that the Bible has a history and did not fall straight out of the sky, but until now the Koran has been out of this discussion. The only way to break through this wall is to prove that the Koran has a history too. The Sana'a fragments will help us to do this."

Puin is not alone in his enthusiasm. "The impact of the Yemeni manuscripts is still to be felt," says Andrew Rippin, a professor of religious studies at the University of Calgary, who is at the forefront of Koranic studies today. "Their variant readings and verse orders are all very significant. Everybody agrees on that. These manuscripts say that the early history of the Koranic text is much more of an open question than many have suspected: the text was less stable, and therefore had less authority, than has always been claimed."

Copyediting God

By the standards of contemporary biblical scholarship, most of the questions being posed by scholars like Puin and Rippin are rather modest; outside an Islamic context, proposing that the Koran has a history and suggesting that it can be interpreted metaphorically are not radical steps. But the Islamic context -- and Muslim sensibilities -- cannot be ignored. "To historicize the Koran would in effect delegitimize the whole historical experience of the Muslim community," says R. Stephen Humphreys, a professor of Islamic studies at the University of California at Santa Barbara. "The Koran is the charter for the community, the document that called it into existence. And ideally -- though obviously not always in reality -- Islamic history has been the effort to pursue and work out the commandments of the Koran in human life. If the Koran is a historical document, then the whole Islamic struggle of fourteen centuries is effectively meaningless."

The orthodox Muslim view of the Koran as self-evidently the Word of God, perfect and inimitable in message, language, style, and form, is strikingly similar to the fundamentalist Christian notion of the Bible's "inerrancy" and "verbal inspiration" that is still common in many places today. The notion was given classic expression only a little more than a century ago by the biblical scholar John William Burgon.
The Bible is none other than the voice of Him that sitteth upon the Throne! Every Book of it, every Chapter of it, every Verse of it, every word of it, every syllable of it ... every letter of it, is the direct utterance of the Most High!
Not all the Christians think this way about the Bible, however, and in fact, as the Encyclopaedia of Islam (1981) points out, "the closest analogue in Christian belief to the role of the Kur'an in Muslim belief is not the Bible, but Christ." If Christ is the Word of God made flesh, the Koran is the Word of God made text, and questioning its sanctity or authority is thus considered an outright attack on Islam -- as Salman Rushdie knows all too well.

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A page from perhaps the world's
oldest extant Koran, from before
750 A.D. Ultraviolet light reveals
even earlier Koranic writing
underneath. Photograph by
Gerd-R. Puin.

The prospect of a Muslim backlash has not deterred the critical-historical study of the Koran, as the existence of the essays in The Origins of the Koran (1998) demonstrate. Even in the aftermath of the Rushdie affair the work continues: In 1996 the Koranic scholar Günter Lüling wrote in The Journal of Higher Criticism about "the wide extent to which both the text of the Koran and the learned Islamic account of Islamic origins have been distorted, a deformation unsuspectingly accepted by Western Islamicists until now." In 1994 the journal Jerusalem Studies in Arabic and Islam published a posthumous study by Yehuda D. Nevo, of the Hebrew University in Jerusalem, detailing seventh- and eighth-century religious inscriptions on stones in the Negev Desert which, Nevo suggested, pose "considerable problems for the traditional Muslim account of the history of Islam." That same year, and in the same journal, Patricia Crone, a historian of early Islam currently based at the Institute for Advanced Study, in Princeton, New Jersey, published an article in which she argued that elucidating problematic passages in the Koranic text is likely to be made possible only by "abandoning the conventional account of how the Qur'an was born." And since 1991 James Bellamy, of the University of Michigan, has proposed in the Journal of the American Oriental Society a series of "emendations to the text of the Koran" -- changes that from the orthodox Muslim perspective amount to copyediting God.

Crone is one of the most iconoclastic of these scholars. During the 1970s and 1980s she wrote and collaborated on several books -- most notoriously, with Michael Cook, Hagarism: The Making of the Islamic World (1977) -- that made radical arguments about the origins of Islam and the writing of Islamic history. Among Hagarism's controversial claims were suggestions that the text of the Koran came into being later than is now believed ("There is no hard evidence for the existence of the Koran in any form before the last decade of the seventh century"); that Mecca was not the initial Islamic sanctuary ("[the evidence] points unambiguously to a sanctuary in north-west Arabia ... Mecca was secondary"); that the Arab conquests preceded the institutionalization of Islam ("the Jewish messianic fantasy was enacted in the form of an Arab conquest of the Holy Land"); that the idea of the hijra, or the migration of Muhammad and his followers from Mecca to Medina in 622, may have evolved long after Muhammad died ("No seventh-century source identifies the Arab era as that of the hijra"); and that the term "Muslim" was not commonly used in early Islam ("There is no good reason to suppose that the bearers of this primitive identity called themselves 'Muslims' [but] sources do ... reveal an earlier designation of the community [which] appears in Greek as 'Magaritai' in a papyrus of 642, and in Syriac as 'Mahgre' or 'Mahgraye' from as early as the 640s").

Hagarism came under immediate attack, from Muslim and non-Muslim scholars alike, for its heavy reliance on hostile sources. ("This is a book," the authors wrote, "based on what from any Muslim perspective must appear an inordinate regard for the testimony of infidel sources.") Crone and Cook have since backed away from some of its most radical propositions -- such as, for example, that the Prophet Muhammad lived two years longer than the Muslim tradition claims he did, and that the historicity of his migration to Medina is questionable. But Crone has continued to challenge both Muslim and Western orthodox views of Islamic history. In Meccan Trade and the Rise of Islam (1987) she made a detailed argument challenging the prevailing view among Western (and some Muslim) scholars that Islam arose in response to the Arabian spice trade.

Gerd-R. Puin's current thinking about the Koran's history partakes of this contemporary revisionism. "My idea is that the Koran is a kind of cocktail of texts that were not all understood even at the time of Muhammad," he says. "Many of them may even be a hundred years older than Islam itself. Even within the Islamic traditions there is a huge body of contradictory information, including a significant Christian substrate; one can derive a whole Islamic anti-history from them if one wants."

Patricia Crone defends the goals of this sort of thinking. "The Koran is a scripture with a history like any other -- except that we don't know this history and tend to provoke howls of protest when we study it. Nobody would mind the howls if they came from Westerners, but Westerners feel deferential when the howls come from other people: who are you to tamper with their legacy? But we Islamicists are not trying to destroy anyone's faith."

Not everyone agrees with that assessment -- especially since Western Koranic scholarship has traditionally taken place in the context of an openly declared hostility between Christianity and Islam. (Indeed, the broad movement in the West over the past two centuries to "explain" the East, often referred to as Orientalism, has in recent years come under fire for exhibiting similar religious and cultural biases.) The Koran has seemed, for Christian and Jewish scholars particularly, to possess an aura of heresy; the nineteenth-century Orientalist William Muir, for example, contended that the Koran was one of "the most stubborn enemies of Civilisation, Liberty, and the Truth which the world has yet known." Early Soviet scholars, too, undertook an ideologically motivated study of Islam's origins, with almost missionary zeal: in the 1920s and in 1930 a Soviet publication titled Ateist ran a series of articles explaining the rise of Islam in Marxist-Leninist terms. In Islam and Russia (1956), Ann K.S. Lambton summarized much of this work, and wrote that several Soviet scholars had theorized that "the motive force of the nascent religion was supplied by the mercantile bourgeoisie of Mecca and Medina"; that a certain S.P. Tolstov had held that "Islam was a social-religious movement originating in the slave-owning, not feudal, form of Arab society"; and that N.A. Morozov had argued that "until the Crusades Islam was indistinguishable from Judaism and ... only then did it receive its independent character, while Muhammad and the first Caliphs are mythical figures. "Morozov appears to have been a particularly flamboyant theorist: Lambton wrote that he also argued, in his book Christ (1930), that "in the Middle Ages Islam was merely an off-shoot of Arianism evoked by a meteorological event in the Red Sea area near Mecca."

Not surprisingly, then, given the biases of much non-Islamic critical study of the Koran, Muslims are inclined to dismiss it outright. A particularly eloquent protest came in 1987, in the Muslim World Book Review, in a paper titled "Method Against Truth: Orientalism and Qur'anic Studies," by the Muslim critic S. Parvez Manzoor. Placing the origins of Western Koranic scholarship in "the polemical marshes of medieval Christianity" and describing its contemporary state as a "cul-de-sac of its own making," Manzoor orchestrated a complex and layered assault on the entire Western approach to Islam. He opened his essay in a rage.
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Re: Qur'an Tertua Ditemukan di Yaman

Postby walet » Tue Jun 02, 2009 11:43 pm

The Orientalist enterprise of Qur'anic studies, whatever its other merits and services, was a project born of spite, bred in frustration and nourished by vengeance: the spite of the powerful for the powerless, the frustration of the "rational" towards the "superstitious" and the vengeance of the "orthodox" against the "non-conformist." At the greatest hour of his worldly-triumph, the Western man, coordinating the powers of the State, Church and Academia, launched his most determined assault on the citadel of Muslim faith. All the aberrant streaks of his arrogant personality -- its reckless rationalism, its world-domineering phantasy and its sectarian fanaticism -- joined in an unholy conspiracy to dislodge the Muslim Scripture from its firmly entrenched position as the epitome of historic authenticity and moral unassailability. The ultimate trophy that the Western man sought by his dare-devil venture was the Muslim mind itself. In order to rid the West forever of the "problem" of Islam, he reasoned, Muslim consciousness must be made to despair of the cognitive certainty of the Divine message revealed to the Prophet. Only a Muslim confounded of the historical authenticity or doctrinal autonomy of the Qur'anic revelation would abdicate his universal mission and hence pose no challenge to the global domination of the West. Such, at least, seems to have been the tacit, if not the explicit, rationale of the Orientalist assault on the Qur'an.
Despite such resistance, Western researchers with a variety of academic and theological interests press on, applying modern techniques of textual and historical criticism to the study of the Koran. That a substantial body of this scholarship now exists is indicated by the recent decision of the European firm Brill Publishers -- a long-established publisher of such major works as The Encyclopaedia of Islam and The Dead Sea Scrolls Study Edition -- to commission the first-ever Encyclopaedia of the Qur'an. Jane McAuliffe, a professor of Islamic studies at the University of Toronto, and the general editor of the encyclopedia, hopes that it will function as a "rough analogue" to biblical encyclopedias and will be "a turn-of-the-millennium summative work for the state of Koranic scholarship." Articles for the first part of the encyclopedia are currently being edited and prepared for publication later this year.

The Encyclopaedia of the Qur'an will be a truly collaborative enterprise, carried out by Muslims and non-Muslims, and its articles will present multiple approaches to the interpretation of the Koran, some of which are likely to challenge traditional Islamic views -- thus disturbing many in the Islamic world, where the time is decidedly less ripe for a revisionist study of the Koran. The plight of Nasr Abu Zaid, an unassuming Egyptian professor of Arabic who sits on the encyclopedia's advisory board, illustrates the difficulties facing Muslim scholars trying to reinterpret their tradition.

Continued...

The online version of this article appears in three parts. Click here to go to part two. Click here to go to part three.

Toby Lester is the executive editor of Atlantic Unbound, the Atlantic Monthly Web site.
Illustration by Adam Niklewicz

Copyright © 1999 by The Atlantic Monthly Company. All rights reserved.
The Atlantic Monthly; January 1998; What is the Koran?; Volume 283, No. 1; pages 43-56.
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Re: Qur'an Tertua Ditemukan di Yaman

Postby just en idiot » Sun Sep 27, 2009 11:04 pm

Antek FFI bertanya :

Ketika Gerard Puin ingin meneliti lebih lanjut manuskrip quran tertua di Yaman, kenapa dia langsung diusir oleh pemerintah yaman? Bukankah ini merupakan kesempatan emas buat muslim utk membuktikan kalo quran tidak berubah, manuskrip quran di yaman ini = quran jaman skrg?

Muslim menjawab

Gerd A. Puin mengklaim bahwa dia telah menemukan manuskrip lama di Yaman yang kononnya mengandungi qiraah yang lebih awal dari qiraah tujuh yang terkandung dalam Mushaf Utsmani. Manuskrip tersebut mengandungi qiraah yang lebih banyak dari qiraah tujuh, sepuluh , atau empat belas .

Pendapat Puin tidak mempunyai landasan yang kokoh. Banyaknya qiraah yang terdapat dalam manuskrip itu tidak semestinya benar, karena qiraah tersebut sudah memuat qiraah yang qiraah yang syadh (ganjil, menyimpang) ataupun mawdu (palsu). Jadi, qiraah yang ada dalam manuskrip itu adalah lemah (daif).

Al-Quran bermula dari bacaan (qiraah) yang diperdengarkan, baru kemudian tulisan (rasm) mengikutinya. Prinsip yang telah disepakati para ulama Islam sepanjang masa adalah tulisan mengikuti periwayatan (al-rasm tabi li al-riwayah). Inilah syarat utama bagi sah dan diterimanya sesuatu qiraah , yaitu ia harus sesuai dengan riwayah.

Pengusiran Puin dari Yaman adalah sepenuhnya otoritas dari pemerintah Yaman. saya tidak bisa memberi komentar apa-apa mengenai hal ini.
Ini bisa jadi dilakukan untuk menghindari kontroversi yang bisa terus membesar dan ingat, ummat tidak lah seluruhnya dapat menerima perbedaan tanpa anarkisme, ada golongan garis keras yang tidak mentolerir beberapa hal yang kontroversial.

Puin pula yang melanjutkan pemikirannya dan mendakwa bahwa qiraah yang ditemukan dalam manuskrip Sana’a itu mempunyai nilai yang tinggi, karena semata-mata hal itu bersumber dari manuskrip lama, tanpa mempertimbangkan jalan periwayatannya.

Walaupun pada awal tulisannya Puin sendiri telah berputus asa menyerang Al-Quran melalui jalan periwayatan, namun kini ia mendapat senjata baru dengan ditemukannya manuskrip Yaman. Tapi kaum Muslimin tidak akan tersesat oleh tipu daya Puin selagi mereka berpegang teguh dengan tradisi yang dipertahankan para ulama Islam yang mu’tabar (diakui).

Mushaf Utsmani, teks tulisannya (rasm), bacaannya (qiraah), susunan ayat dan surahnya, serta kandungan ayat dan surahnya telah disetujui oleh semua Sahabat. Bahkan dalam pertentangan politik yang membawa peperangan antara pasukan Muawiyah dan pasukan Sayidina ‘Ali bin Abi Thalib (perang Siffin), ketika Mu’awiyah mengangkat Mushaf Utsman untuk berdamai, Sayidina ‘Ali tidak mempersoalkan mushaf Al-Quran itu.

Walaupun mereka berbeda dari segi faham politik, tetapi mereka masih bersatu dalam perkara asas agama Islam seperti kesepakatan mereka menerima Mushaf Utsmani.

Puin sendiri mengakui bahwa usahanya itu tidak membuahkan hasil yang baru terhadap kajian Al-Quran yang telah dirintis oleh para orietalis sebelumnya seperti Nldeke, Bergsträsser, Pretzl, Deim, Neuwirth, dan Getje.

Apa yang dikatakannya ‘baru’ dan ‘di luar dugaan’ mengenai susunan surah-surah Mushaf Utsmani itupun sebenarnya adalah isu lama. Penemuan manuskrip Al-Quran yang tidak lengkap dan mempunyai susunan surah-surah yang berbeda dengan Mushaf Utsmani menunjukkan itu bukanlah Al-Quran yang disetujui oleh para Sahabat, dan juga tidak akan disetujui oleh para ulama Islam kini. Kalau tidak percaya, coba saja mushaf itu diterbitkan. Nasibnya mungkin tidak akan berbeda dengan Venice Quran yang kini terasing dan hanya teronggok di Bibliotheca Marciana, Italia.

Fakta bahwa tidak ada para penyumbang dana yang ingin melanjutkan proyek penerbitan mushaf “Puin” itu, juga membuktikan bahwa beban sejarah dan muatan intelektual itu tidak akan tertanggung oleh Puin seorang diri.

Antek FFI menulis :


Meskipun sejarah quran begitu amburadul, bahkan dg bukti2 dr hadits sendiri, saya yakin, kalo anda akan tetep yakin quran is the best.

Dan meskipun anda tidak bisa memberikan motif, bukti, saksi apapun kalo taurat/injil telah diubah, anda akan terus menuduh. Intinya adalah buat muslim spt anda, apapun kenyataannya, taurat/injil palsuu terus, sedangkan quran asliii terus.


Muslim emenjawab :

Saya sudah memberikan bukti dan saksi tentang taurat/injil yang telah didistorsi. Lihat postingan saya tentang Spinoza diatas. Saya sengaja memberikan contoh bukti penyelewengan taurat dari tulisan Spinoza. karena Spinoza adalah seorang Yahudi.

padahal diluar sana, masih sangat banyak bukti penyelewengan taurat yang di telaah para cendekiawan lain.

Motif = untuk untuk memperoleh keuntungan untuk mereka sendiri. itu sudah Pasti.

Taurat dan injil yang beredar sekarang memang telah terdistorsi. Dan sudah dibuktikan, bahkan dari penganut yahudi/kristen sendiri.

Sejarah Al-qur’an menunjukkan Perbedaan pendapat para sahabat bukan terletak pada Isi dan kandungan Al-quran, melainkan versi bacaan terhadap al-Qur’an sesuai dengan Shuhuf yang berada di tangan para sahabat.

Sejarah Al-qur’an menunjukkanb bahwa kemurniannya tetap terjaga walaupun ada usaha-usaha penyelewengan yang dilakukan orientalis selama ratusan tahun.

Dan Al-qur’an telah membuktikan ke-otentikannya sejak di sampaikan oleh Nabi Muhammad SAW.

Terima kasih. Wassalam

sumber : postingan sdr Panda di answering-ff.org
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Re: Qur'an Tertua Ditemukan di Yaman

Postby walet » Sun Sep 27, 2009 11:27 pm

Atas

Mana bukti arkeologisnya.
Cuma main opini doang sih anak TK juga bisa.

Hubungannya sama injil apa ya?

Tahukah Anda Al Quran yang ANda baca itu made in 1924 di Kairo.
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Re: Qur'an Tertua Ditemukan di Yaman

Postby kapal_kertas » Sun Sep 27, 2009 11:54 pm

walet wrote:Tahukah Anda Al Quran yang ANda baca itu made in 1924 di Kairo.


Ini ada penjelasan dari Luthfi Assyaukanie, terlepas dari dia seorang JIL, tapi dia mengupas sejarah quran lumayan objektif.

http://islamlib.com/id/artikel/merenung ... h-alquran/

Cuplikan:

Tapi pencetakan tahun 1924 itu adalah ikhtiyar yang luar biasa, karena upaya ini merupakan yang paling berhasil dalam sejarah kodifikasi dan pembakuan Alquran sepanjang masa. Terbukti kemudian, Alquran Edisi Mesir itu merupakan versi Alquran yang paling banyak beredar dan digunakan oleh kaum Muslim.

Keberhasilan penyebarluasan Alquran Edisi Mesir tak terlepas dari unsur kekuasaan. Seperti juga pada masa-masa sebelumnya, kodifikasi dan standarisasi Alquran adalah karya institusi yang didukung oleh --dan menjadi bagian dari proyek-- penguasa politik. Alasannya sederhana, sebagai proyek amal (non-profit), publikasi dan penyebaran Alquran tak akan efektif jika tidak didukung oleh lembaga yang memiliki dana yang besar.

Apa yang telah dilakukan oleh pemerintah Saudi Arabia mencetak ratusan ribu kopi Alquran sejak tahun 1970-an merupakan bagian dari proyek amal yang sekaligus juga merupakan upaya penyuksesan standarisasi kitab suci. Kendati tidak seperti Uthman bin Affan yang secara terang-terangan memerintahkan membakar seluruh versi (mushaf) Alquran yang bukan miliknya (kendati tidak benar-benar berhasil), tindakan penguasa Saudi membanjiri pasar Alquran hanya dengan satu edisi, menutupi dan perlahan-lahan menyisihkan edisi lain yang diam-diam masih beredar (khususnya di wilayah Maroko dan sekitarnya).

Agaknya, tak lama lagi, di dunia ini hanya ada satu versi Alquran, yakni versi yang kita kenal sekarang ini. Dan jika ini benar-benar terwujud (entah kapan), maka itulah pertama kali kaum Muslim (baru) boleh mendeklarasikan bahwa mereka memiliki satu Alquran yang utuh dan seragam.
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Re: Qur'an Tertua Ditemukan di Yaman

Postby just en idiot » Tue Oct 27, 2009 1:50 am

Ini ada penjelasan dari Luthfi Assyaukanie, terlepas dari dia seorang JIL, tapi dia mengupas sejarah quran lumayan objektif.


ini nih klopir.
yg di anggap objektif itu nyang njelekin islam, xixixixi :green:
artikel nya tanpa ga ada referansi gitu di bilang objektif , xixiixi :lol:

masa artikel kontroversial gitu tanpa referensi? (terbukti klo anda ke webpagenya banyak yang g setuju)
aneh banget ga sih? :rolling:
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Postby up1234go » Tue Oct 27, 2009 3:42 am

idiot wrote:Pengusiran Puin dari Yaman adalah sepenuhnya otoritas dari pemerintah Yaman. saya tidak bisa memberi komentar apa-apa mengenai hal ini.


Memang sebagai muslim seharusnya begitu.
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Re: Qur'an Tertua Ditemukan di Yaman

Postby just en idiot » Wed Oct 28, 2009 5:50 pm

Memang sebagai muslim seharusnya begitu.

memang sebagai klopir seharusnya begitu (OOT).
xixiixiixixi :green:
:rolling:
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Postby ali5196 » Wed Oct 28, 2009 6:12 pm

sejarah-mana-mushaf-quran-yg-asli-bag-ii-t46/#274820

Kehebohan baru yang bakal mengguncangkan umat Islam datang dari Doktor Gerd R. Puin, seorang pakar filologi dan ahli bahasa-bahasa Semitis. Pada 1979, pakar kaligrafi Arab dan paleografi Alquran dari Universitas Sarre, Jerman, itu diajak Kadi Ismail al-Akwa, Ketua Dinas Purbakala Yaman, untuk meneliti sebuah bungkusan kuno yang ditemukan di Sana'a, ibu kota Yaman, pada th 1972. Bungkusan berisi perkamen (kulit kambing) dan kertas (suhuf) itu ditemukan saat pemerintah merenovasi masjid kuno di Sana'a, yang bocor akibat hujan lebat.

dst dst ...
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Re: Qur'an Tertua Ditemukan di Yaman

Postby ali5196 » Wed Oct 28, 2009 6:29 pm

just en idiot wrote:Pendapat Puin tidak mempunyai landasan yang kokoh. Banyaknya qiraah yang terdapat dalam manuskrip itu tidak semestinya benar, karena qiraah tersebut sudah memuat qiraah yang qiraah yang syadh (ganjil, menyimpang) ataupun mawdu (palsu). Jadi, qiraah yang ada dalam manuskrip itu adalah lemah (daif).


Mana landasan Puin yg tidak kokoh ? Sudah dihadapkan pada bukti fisik bahwa Quran yg tertua itu sangat berbeda dgn Quranyg beredar sekarang, kau masih saja bisa menyebut 'tidak kokoh.'

just en idiot wrote:Al-Quran bermula dari bacaan (qiraah) yang diperdengarkan, baru kemudian tulisan (rasm) mengikutinya. Prinsip yang telah disepakati para ulama Islam sepanjang masa adalah tulisan mengikuti periwayatan (al-rasm tabi li al-riwayah). Inilah syarat utama bagi sah dan diterimanya sesuatu qiraah , yaitu ia harus sesuai dengan riwayah.


Ini bukan bukti, ini KEPERCAYAAN. Sangat beda yah, bukti dgn kepercayaan. Muslim memang tidak diprogram utk sanggup melihat bukti.

Jelas Puin ditendang dari Yaman karena pemerintah Yemen takut Muslim yg nggak tahan bukti akan mencak2. Kalau emang Puin cuma omong kosong, Muslim juga ga ambil pusing. Muslim hanya akan mencak2 jika dihadapkan pada kebenaran. Lihat aja peristiwa kartun, Geert Wilders, Salman Rushdie dsb.
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Postby up1234go » Thu Oct 29, 2009 7:27 am

ali5196 wrote:Jelas Puin ditendang dari Yaman karena pemerintah Yemen takut Muslim yg nggak tahan bukti akan mencak2. Kalau emang Puin cuma omong kosong, Muslim juga ga ambil pusing. Muslim hanya akan mencak2 jika dihadapkan pada kebenaran. Lihat aja peristiwa kartun, Geert Wilders, Salman Rushdie dsb


Memang sebagai muslim seharusnya begitu.

Lagipula mereka bertiga layak dijuluki tokoh "kafir harby" ngetop yang darahnya halal disedot pakai pedang warisan Muhammad bermata dua.
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Re: Qur'an Tertua Ditemukan di Yaman

Postby just en idiot » Thu Oct 29, 2009 11:54 pm

Ini bukan bukti, ini KEPERCAYAAN. Sangat beda yah, bukti dgn kepercayaan. Muslim memang tidak diprogram utk sanggup melihat bukti.


pengahapal al qur'an itu bejibun bang. itu bukti nyang otentik. xixixi
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Postby ali5196 » Fri Oct 30, 2009 3:41 am

just en idiot wrote:pengahapal al qur'an itu bejibun bang. itu bukti nyang otentik. xixixi


Buktinya MANAaaaa ?????? Lagi2 kepercayaan yg tidak didukung bukti !Penghapal Quran diabad 7 ternyata hapalannya berbeda dgn penghapal Quran yg menghasilkan Quran abad 21 di Kairo itu tuh !! Buktinya ... tuh lihat aja mushaf qurannya, reFot amat :prayer: :prayer:
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Re: Qur'an Tertua Ditemukan di Yaman

Postby Duladi » Fri Oct 30, 2009 11:56 am

just en idiot wrote:pengahapal al qur'an itu bejibun bang. itu bukti nyang otentik. xixixi


Kalau benar ada orang yang hafal SELURUH ISI ALQURAN, tentu para penyalin di masa kalifah itu tidak memerlukan mushaf lagi.

Faktanya, mereka butuh mushaf untuk menulis ulang Alquran, sebagaimana dilaporkan dalam hadist-hadist berikut:

Hadis Sahih Bukhari, Volume 6, Buku 61, Nomer 509:
    Dikisahkan oleh Zaid bin Thabit:
    Abu Bakr As-Siddiq memanggilku ketika orang2 Yamama telah dibunuh (sejumlah pengikut sang Nabi yang bertempur melawan Musailama). (Aku pergi kepadanya) dan menemukan 'Umar bin Al-Khattab duduk dengannya. Abu Bakr lalu berkata (padaku), “Umar telah datang padaku dan berkata: “Banyak yang Qurra Qur’an (orang2 yang hafal Qur’an di luar kepala) yang tewas di Perang Yamama dan aku takut akan lebih banyak lagi Qurra yang akan tewas di medan perang lain, sehingga sebagian besar Qur’an bisa hilang. Karena itu aku menganjurkan kau (Abu Bakr) memerintah agar ayat2 Qur’an dikumpulkan.”

    Aku berkata pada ‘Umar, “Bagaimana kau dapat berbuat sesuatu yang Rasul Allah saja tidak lakukan?” ‘Umar berkata, “Demi Allah, ini adalah usaha yang baik.” ‘Umar terus saja membujukku untuk menerima usulnya sampai Allah membuka hatiku dan aku mulai menyadari kebenaran usul ini.”

    Lalu Abu Bakr berkata (padaku). ‘Kamu adalah anak muda yang bijaksana dan kami tidak curiga apapun padamu, dan kau biasa menulis Ilham Illahi bagi Rasul Allah. Maka kau harus mencari (ayat2 terpisah-pisah) Qur’an dan mengumpulkannya jadi satu buku.” Demi Allah, jika mereka memerintahkanku untuk memindahkan satu dari gunung2, ini tidak akan sesukar perintah mengumpulkan ayat2 Qur’an. Lalu aku berkata pada Abu Bakr, “Bagaimana kau dapat berbuat sesuatu yang Rasul Allah saja tidak lakukan?” Abu Bakr menjawab, ““Demi Allah, ini adalah usaha yang baik.” Abu Bakr terus saja membujukku untuk menerima usulnya sampai Allah membuka hatiku seperti Dia telah membuka hati Abu Bakr dan ‘Umar.

    Lalu aku mulai mencari ayat2 Qur’an dan mengumpulkannya dari (yang ditulis di) tangkai2 palem, batu2 putih tipis dan juga orang2 yang mengingatnya dalam hati, sampai aku menemukan ayat akhir dari Surat At-Tauba (Pertobatan) dari Abi Khuzaima Al-Ansari, dan aku tidak menemukan ayat ini pada orang lain. Ayatnya berbunyi: ‘Sesungguhnya telah datang bagimu seorang Rasul (Muhammad) dari antara kalian sendiri. Dia sedih melihat engkau harus menerima kecelakaan atau kesusahan … (sampai akhir Surat-Baraa’ (At-Tauba) (9.128-129). Lalu naskah2 (salinan) lengkap Qur’an disimpan Abu Bakr sampai dia mati, lalu disimpan ‘Umar sampai akhir hidupnya, dan kemudian disimpan Hafsa, anak perempuan ‘Umar.


Hadis Sahih Bukhari, Volume 6, Buku 61, Nomer 510:
    Dikisahkan oleh Anas bin Malik:
    Hudhaifa bin Al-Yaman datang pada Uthman pada saat orang2 Sham dan Iraq sedang mengadakan perang untuk menaklukkan Arminya dan Adharbijan. Hudhaifa takut akan perbedaan pelafalan Qur’an yang dilakukan mereka (orang2 Sham dan Iraq), lalu dia berkata pada ‘Uthman, “O ketua orang yang beriman! Selamatkan negara ini sebelum mereka bertentangan tentang Buku ini (Qur’an) seperti yang dilakukan orang Yahudi dan Kristen sebelumnya.” Lalu ‘Uthman mengirim pesan pada Hafsa yang isinya, “Kirim pada kami naskah2 Qur’an sehingga kami bisa mengumpulkan bahan2 Qur’an dalam salinan yang sempurna dan mengembalikan naskah2 itu padamu.”

    Hafsa lalu mengirimkannya pada ‘Uthman. ‘Uthman lalu memerintahkan Zaid bin Thabit, 'Abdullah bin AzZubair, Said bin Al-As dan 'AbdurRahman bin Harith bin Hisham untuk menulis ulang naskah2 itu menjadi salinan yang sempurna. ‘Uthman berkata pda tiga orang Quraish, “Andaikata kau tidak setuju dengan Zaid bin Thabit tentang isi apapun dalam Qur’an, maka tulislah Qur’an dalam dialek Quraish, agar Qur’an dinyatakan dalam bahasa asli mereka.”

    Mereka melakukan itu, dan ketika mereka telah menulis banyak salinan, ‘Uthman mengembalikan naskah2 yang asli pada Hafsa. Uthman mengirim satu salinan Qur’an ke setiap propinsi Muslim, dan memerintahkan semua tulisan2 Qur’an lain, baik yang ditulis di beberapa naskah atau seluruh buku, dibakar.

    Said bin Thabit menambahkan, “Satu ayat dari Surat Ahzab hilang dariku ketika kita menyalin Qur’an dan aku biasa mendengar Rasul Allah menceritakannya. Maka kami mencarinya dan menemukannya pada Khuzaima bin Thabit Al-Ansari. (Ayat ini berbunyi): ‘Diantara orang2 yang beriman ada orang2 yang menepati apa yang telah mereka janjikan kepada Allah.’ (33.23)

Jadi, klaim bahwa ada orang yang hafal SELURUH ISI ALQURAN adalah HOAX.
Buktinya orang-orang pada masa kalifah saja tidak ada yang hafal seluruh isi Alquran dan mereka membutuhkan MUSHAF untuk menulis ulang.
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Re: Qur'an Tertua Ditemukan di Yaman

Postby JCfollower » Fri Oct 30, 2009 12:17 pm

mati kutu...

:-"
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