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Medisin Yunani & Romawi

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Medisin Yunani & Romawi

Postby ali5196 » Tue Dec 11, 2007 2:48 am

http://www.open2.net/historyandthearts/ ... cine2.html

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Ukiran ttg sebuah farmasi jaman Yunani/Romawi kuno


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Peralatan bedah Yunani/Romawi

Orang Yunani mengkombinasikan medisin, bedah dan sistim diet dlm sistim pengobatan mereka. Keahlian bedah dikembangkan dari pengalaman medan perang, sementara pelatihan tentara dan kompetisi atletik (yi Pertandingan Olimpiade) menciptakan pakar2 yg memfokuskan diri pada olah raga, pemandian, teknik pijat dan peraturan ttg makanan dan minuman. Hippocrates menciptakan filosofi ‘menghindari penyakit lebih baik dari pengobatans’ dan kerajaan Romawi menerima konsep2 tsb sambil mempekerjakan dokter2 Yunani dan Mesir.

Dasar pengobatan Yunani adalah kemampuan alami tubuh utk memulihkan diri sendiri (pepsis), shg diet dan olah raga lebih penting ketimbang minum obat. Hippocrates dari Kos (450-370 SM), ‘ayah medisin’ yg menciptakan sekitar 60 teks medis (Corpus Hippocrates), mengajarkan bahwa lingkungan dan gaya hidup seseorang mempengaruhi ketidakseimbangan tubuh.

Sistim pengobatan religius, atau dikenal juga dgn nama 'cult Aesculapius
(dewa Yunani utk penyembuhan), dimulai di Yunani pada abad 3 SM dan segera tersebar ke Roma dan diseluruh kerajaan Romawi. Dng menyebarnya cult tsb, tersebar pula kompleks2 spa spt hostel, sauna, kolam renang, pemandian, gymnasia dan teater2 disekitar sumur air yg bisa menyebuhkan penyakit.

Orang Romawi khususnya mementingkan higiene dan membangun pemandian dan flush toilet (toilet yg dikucurkan dgn air spt sistim sekarang ini) di setiap kota dan benteng militer, serta memastikan suplai air bersih dari aquaduct, beberapa malah masih digunakan sampai sekarang.

Rumah2 sakit pertama adalah RS militer Romawi yg dibangung di benteng2 diseluruh wilayah kerajaan.

Mereka memanfaatkan obat2 buatan sendiri spt ramu2an utk sakit kepala, obat bagi luka2 tubuh. Dioscorides’ De materia medica memberikan detil ttg bgm memanen, mempersiapkan, menyimpan dan menguji ramu2an tumbuh2an dan malah terus digunakan sampai di jaman pertengahan (Renaissance).

Profesi bidan sangat terhormat dlm masy Romawi. Soranus’ Gynaecology,teks medis pertama ttg obstetrics, mencatat berbagai metode cara melahirkan bayi, meruntuhkan teori Yunani bahwa rahim wanita jalan2 keluar tubuh wanita shg mengakibatkan histeria, dan memperkenalkan penggunaan bangku utk melahirkan, bangku berkaki empat utk menopang punggung dan lengan dan sebuah lobang berbentuk bulan sabit bagi keluarnya bayi.

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Galen, dokter Yunani yg tinggal di Roma (129-200/210 M), dikenal sbg orang pertama yg menulis ttg anatomi.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Galen
Ke 129 karya Galen diterjemahkan kedlm bahasa Arab oleh Hunayn ibn Ishaq, dan pendekatan rasional Galen atas medisin, dijadikan dasar dari medisin Islam, yg dgn cepat tersebar diseantero kerajaan Arab. [OHHh begini toh ceritanya !!! Ternyata Muslim NYONTEK !!!]

Namun, dlm buku "Keraguan ttg Galen" oleh Muhammad ibn Zakarīya Rāzi (Rhazes) (wafat 925) dan tulisan Ibn al-Nafis, karya2 Galen tidak dicerna mentah2 namun dijadkan dasar penyidikan berikutnya. Razi, al-Majusi, Ibn Sina (Avicenna) dan Ibn al-Nafis (yg kemudian dicap sbg murtadin Islam dan karya2 mereka dihancurkan karena dianggap tidak islami) menghasilkan eksperimen2 baru dan membandingkannya dgn eksperimen Galen. Mereka menyebutnya 'JALINOS.'

Kemudian, Eropa di abad pertengahan menjadikan tulisan2 Galen ini menjadi dasar kurikulum universitas ; tapi kemudian menderita stagnasi intelektual. Th 1530, anatomis Belgia dan dokter Andreas Vesalius menerjemahkan karya2 Galen kedlm bahasa Latin. Karya Vesalius yg paling terkenal, De humani corporis fabrica, dipengaruhi oleh tulisan Galen.

Galen, memisahkan darah venous ? (merah gelap dan kental) dan darah arterial (lebih cerah dan cair), masing2 dgn fungsi2 terpisah. Darah venous diperkirakan berasal dari hati dan darah arterial dari jantung; darah mengalir dari organ2 itu ke semua bagian tubuh.

Teknik penyedotan darah ala Galen adalah obat bagi setiap penyakit dan berpengaruh sampai abad 19.

Lihat TOKOH SAINS Islam (7 tulisan) http://www.indonesia.faithfreedom.org/f ... c.php?t=43
Last edited by ali5196 on Tue Dec 11, 2007 4:31 am, edited 5 times in total.
ali5196
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Postby ali5196 » Tue Dec 11, 2007 2:49 am

http://www.open2.net/historyandthearts/ ... cine3.html

The pharmaceutical-rich shelves of modern Western chemists and hospitals filled with sophisticated technologies, like CAT and MRI scanners, which focus on the minutiae of human anatomy and physiology, seem far removed from the home remedies and medicines of the past, the shamans and healing shrines, but are modern medical technologies really so different?

Do the contents of the shelves in Boots have nothing in common with the 230 medicines found listed in an ancient Assyrian pharmacy? Is a pacemaker trusted with regulating the heartbeat so different from a heart scarab worn by an ancient Egyptian? We may not believe that illness is a curse of malevolent spirits, but we still seek specialist help to understand complex diseases.

Ancient medicine, particularly of Greece and Rome, has influenced many aspects of modern medicine. The Greek Hippocratic school developed the concept of the four humours to assist diagnosis of conditions; this seems to share many similarities with Far Eastern and Indian medical systems (such as the Chinese Five Elements), but these parallels may be coincidental. The four humours formed the basis of Western medicine throughout the Middle Ages and continued to influence it into the nineteenth century. Despite Galen having never dissected a human body, his anatomical texts went unchallenged until the sixteenth century, when Vesalius (1514-64) performed his own dissections and published his findings, highlighting Galen’s mistakes.

Surgical instruments, such as forceps, scalpels and rectal and vaginal specula, share startling similarities with their ancient Egyptian and Roman counterparts. Roman military hospitals are the precursors of modern hospitals, each treating both illness and injury and comparable in their basic architectural design. Leisure and fitness centres, with swimming pool, sauna, massage and beauty treatment rooms, gyms and athletics facilities, have a great deal in common with the Greek gymnasia and, particularly, the Roman bathing complexes. The Graeco-Roman propensity to maintain physical wellness, through regulated diet and exercise, is reflected in our enthusiasm for these centres as well as for healthy eating options and alternative therapies. This seems to represent a return to a more holistic approach to health, which goes hand-in-hand with a decline in patient confidence as awareness of the strains on the NHS increases. Decline in patient confidence has echoes of Plautus’ Roman comedy satirising the lack of trust in a Greek doctor’s skills, written in the 3rd century BCE!

Modern anatomical terms are a hybrid of the Greek and Latin languages, passed down to us from Hippocrates and Galen, via the Medieval Arab world to the Renaissance, and into current usage. So, ‘retina’ comes from the Latin réte (‘net’) because the Alexandrian Herophilus, when dissecting the eye, called one of its membranes ‘net-like’. ‘Caesarean’ is from the Roman Lex Caesarea (‘Caesar’s Law’), which stipulated that if a pregnant woman died, the foetus must be removed and buried separately. Modern medical symbols, such as the snake-entwined staff, also have their origins in Greek medicine (the snake was the symbol of Aesculapius).

The Hippocratic Oath immortalises the ethical relationship of doctor to patient but, whilst its essence remains today, it is no longer universally sworn by medical graduates. However, Hippocrates’ legacy survives. The Hippocratic Method, a process still used for treating a dislocation, is described in the Hippocratic Corpus:
“The patient must lie on his/her back on the ground while the person who will carry out the reduction sits on the ground on the side of the dislocation. S/he then takes the affected arm and pulls it, whilst pushing in the opposite direction with his/her heel in the armpit… a round ball of suitable size must be placed in the armpit hollow, because without this the heel cannot reach to the head of the humerus” (Hippocrates ‘On the Articulations’).

So, whilst technological advancements continue to be made in diagnostic methods and treatments, the legacy of ancient medicine remains with us in all areas of modern medicine.
ali5196
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Postby ali5196 » Tue Dec 11, 2007 2:50 am

ali5196
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Posts: 17308
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