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Budak Hitam, Tuan Arab & Pengalaman sbg Budak**

Sejarah Perbudakan dlm Islam & praktek sampai sekarang

Budak Hitam, Tuan Arab & Pengalaman sbg Budak**

Postby ali5196 » Fri Sep 01, 2006 9:18 pm

http://www.frontpagemag.com/Articles/Re ... p?ID=17747

BUDAK HITAM, TUAN ARAB
By Andrew G. Bostom
FrontPageMagazine.com | April 18, 2005

Protes besar di Washington, DC, tgl 5 April, 2005 mengedepankan nasib orang2 kulit hitam Mauritania (selama berabad2 sampai sekarang) yg diperbudak oleh para pemilik Arab. Dlm abad ke 20, dua abad terakhir menyaksikan jihad genocide, termasuk perbudakan massal oleh pemerintah Arab Muslim di Khartum terhdp orang2 hitam Kristen dan animis di Sudan Selatan sampai sekarang. Lihat : Darfur. Fenomena tragis ini menunjukkan warisan brutal jihad perbudakan.

Jihad Perbudakan

Hubungan antara jihad (institusi yg hanya terdpt dlm Islam) dan perbudakan ini, ditunjukkan dlm skala dan kelanjutan perbudakan di berbagai jajahan dan masyarakat Muslim. Bentuk2 “khusus” perbudakan ala Islami ini mencakup juga : perdagangan para eunuch (tahanan perang yg dijadikan jongos yg lalu dikebiri), tentara budak (khususnya bagi yg dibawah umur), perbudakan anak2 dlm bentuk lain dan perbudakan dlm harem. Jihad perbudakan dan berbagai manifestasinya menjadi instrument kuat bagi ekspansi Islamisasi dan kesinambungan masyarakat2 Muslim.

Pengesahan dan Peran Yuris dlm “Islamisasi”

Patricia Crone 1), dlm analisa baru2nya ini ttg asal usul dan perkembangan pemikiran politik Islam menunjukkan hubungan kuat antara penangkapan massal non-Muslim selama kampanye2 jihad dan peran pemaksaan dlm rangka Islamisasi. Setelah suksesnya sebuah kampanye jihad, katanya :

Tawanan Lelaki entah dibunuh atau diperbudak, tergantung dari agama mereka. Kaum Ahlul Kitab tidak dilindungi dibawah Hukum Islam, kecuali mereka setuju menerima status ‘dhimmi,’ yi status warga kelas dua yg tunduk pada Islam. Tawanan juga akan diberikan pilihan antara Islam atau mati, atau mereka mengucapkan kalimat Syahadat utk menghindari eksekusi : para hakim memutuskan bahwa perubahan status mereka ini harus diterima walau didasarkan pada rasa takut.

Anak2 dan wanita yg ditangkap biasanya diperbudak, terlepas dari agama mereka … Tentara Muslim sering menahan orang dlm jumlah besar ; mereka yg masuk Islam bisa menghindari eksekusi, ada yg dibebaskan dgn uang tebusan dan sisanya diperbudak. Biasanya sbg pembantu rumah tangga. Tersebar di rumah2 Muslim, budak2 itu selalu memeluk Islam karena ditekan atau didorong oleh tuan mereka, atau karena keinginan utk menjalin persahabatan dgn Muslim atau secara pelan2 terbiasa melihat hal2 dari kaca mata Muslim walaupun mereka mencoba utk menolak. Walaupun mereka akhirnya masuk Islam, adalah hal absurd utk menyatakan bahwa paksaan tidak memainkan peran penting.

Bagi Hindu yg penyembah berhala, yg diperbudak dlm jumlah besar dlm gelombang penjajahan jihad yg mencabik2 India selama lebih dari 500 tahun (dimulai dari abad 8AD), prinsip2 hukum Islam ttg nasib mereka secara tegas menuntut pemaksaan.


Jihad Perbudakan juga memberi sumbangan besar dlm pertumbuhan penduduk Muslim di India.

K.S. Lal 2) menjabarkan dua hal :

Orang Hindu yg menahan penjajahan Muslim dianggap pemberontak. Mereka juga dianggap mushrik shg tidak dapat diberikan status Kafir spt kaum Ahlul Kitab (Yahudi dan Kristen) … Hukum Islam menuntut jihad melawan penyembah berhala dlm bentuk pilih Islam atau mati (tidak ada pilihan menjadi dhimmi) … Tidak ada pilihan lain.

Begitu mereka mati di medan perang, anak2 mereka dijadikan budak, dan mereka bukan lagi Hindu … perbudakan di India adalah aktivitas misionaris Muslim yg paling sukses … Setiap Sultan, sbg pembela Islam, menganggapnya sbg keperluan politik utk mengembang biakkan penduduk Muslim diseluruh India bagi Islamisasi negeri itu dan menahan perlawanan penduduk asli.


Vryonis menggambarkan bgm Jihad Perbudakan spt dipraktekkan oleh Seljuk dan Ottoman, merupakan unsur Islamisasi yg paling penting di Asia Minor (Asia Kecil ?) selama abad 11 - 14:

Faktor2 lain yg mengakibatkan menurunnya jumlah penduduk Kristen adalah PERBUDAKAN. Sejak permulaan razzia2 Arab di tanah Rum, jarahan dlm bentuk manusia merupakan bagian yg paling penting dari barang rampasan. Bukti melimpah bahwa situasi ini tidak berubah saat tentara Turki Ottoman mengambil alih jihad di Anatolia. Mereka memperbudak lelaki, wanita dan anak2 dari semua pusat2 kota dan pedesaan dimana penduduk tidak dapat membela diri. Pd tahun2 sebelum penjajahan Turki mempengaruhi Anatolia, para budak dikirim ke Persia atau tempat lain, namun setelah pendirian daerah2 kekuasaan Turki Anatolia, budak2 dibiarkan di Anatolia guna melayani penjajah.

Setelah menjinakkan budak, sering cara2 brutal diberlakukan utk memaksakan Pajak agar anak tidak dijadikan ‘devshirme’ (budak anak). Akibatnya, penduduk asli Kristen berkurang karena mengungsi atau ditawan.




Dibawah Shah Abbas I (1588-1626 C.E.), teokrasi Shi’ah Safavid di Iran mengekspansikan razzia2 perbudakan ke daerah2 Kristen di kawasan2 Kaukasus, Georgia dan Armenia. Penduduk Georgia, Armenia, dan Circassia diperbudak dlm jumlah besar dan dipaksa masuk Islam Shi’ah. Para lelaki menjadi budak militer atau administratif, sementara para wanita dipaksa masuk harem.

Sebuah transisi terjadi antara abad 17 dan 18 shg perbudakan dari Caucasus berkurang, sementara jumlah yg lebih besar datang dari Teluk Persia, yg berasal dari Afrika.

Ricks 5) mencatat bahwa saat berlangsungnya kekuasaan Shah Sultan Husayn, jumlah penghuni istana memang meningkat dgn jumlah budak lelaki dan wanita, termasuk eunuch2 hitam dan putih. Menurut sejarawan, Shah Sultan Husayn (w. 1722) mengadkaan kebiasaan utk tiba di pasar2 Isfahan pada hari2 pertama tahun Baru Iran (Maret 21) dgn seluruh anggota istananya. Diperkirakan sekitar 5.000 lelaki dan perempuan, kulit hitam maupun kulit putih, termasuk ke 100 eunuch berkulit hitam tercakup dlm rombongan ini. 6)

Clement Huart dlm abad 20 (1907), menulis bahwa budak merupakan komponen penting dlm perampasan yg didapatkan selama kampanye2 atau razzia2 jihad 7) :

Belum lama ini sejumlah besar expedisi menyeberang Amoû-Deryâ, yi perbatasan selatan kawasan ‘steppe,’ dan menghancurkan kawasan2 timur Persia guna merebut budak; kampanye2 lain dilancarkan di jantung Afrika yg masih belum tereksplorasi, membakari kawasan2 penduduk dan MEMBANTAI MASAL penduduk animis yg damai yg tinggal disana.

Willis menyebutkan alasan abadi Islam ini bagi perbudakan animis Afrika yg “barbar,” sbb 8) :

… karena perlawanan Kafir terhdp Islam diakibatkan kecurigaan dan ketidaksukaan, wilayah para barbar menjadi ajang pemburuan favorit bagi “orang2 berpikir dan beriman” :shock: — perbedaan antara budak dan kafir tidak lagi nampak dlm sengitnya jihad. Setelah ditangkap ataupun dibeli, kafir masuk kekuasaan Muslim sbg budak, dan bukan sbg warga. Dan karena kondisi budak ini berasal dari status wilayah mereka, pilihan antara kebebasan dan perbudakan tergantung dari satu bukti tunggal : kalau ia Muslim, wilayahnya adalah wilayah Islam (darul-Islam); jika ia berhala, tanahnya adalah wilayah kafir (dar ul-kufr), dan penduduknya bisa dimasukkan kendl kategori perbudakan dlm hukum Muslim.

Karena perbudakan sama saja dgn fitnah (tidak-kesetiaan), …tanah2 direbut dari apa yg tertinggal dari desa2 kafir2 yg di-hancur-lebur-kan; wanita dan anak2 yg ditundukkan pada Islam harus menunggu penebusan dosa mereka …[menurut Yuris Muslim] al-Wanshirisi (d.1508), perbudakan adalah nasib buruk atas mereka yg tidak mengaku Kenabian, yg tidak menyatakan kesetiaan kpd hukum agama manapun. Lebih lagi, perbudakan adalah penghinaan yg berasal dari ketidaksetiaan.


Berdasarkan pengamatannya atas razzia2 perbudakan Muslim saat bertugas di Sudan selama jihad Mahdi pada akhir abad ke19, Winston Churchill menulis deskripsi ini (in 1899) 9) :

Semua [suku2 Arab di Sudan], tanpa kecuali, adalah pemburu manusia. Bagi pasar2 budak besar di Jeddah, arus panjang tahanan2 orang berkulit hitam mengalir selama ratusan tahun. Penciptaan bubuk senjata dan penggunaan senjata oleh Arab memudahkan lalu lintas ini …

Jadi situasi di Sudan selama beberapa abad bisa dirangkum demikian rupa : suku dominan para penjajah Arab meningkatkan penyebaran darah, agama, adat dan bahasa diantara penduduk setempat berkulit hitam, dan pada saat yg sama menyiksa dan memperbudak mereka …Suku2 perang Arab tidak henti2nya bertempur, cekcok dan bertengkar diantara mereka sendiri. Orang2 kulit hitam bergetar ketakutan karena penahanan, atau kadang2 menentang para penindas.


Semua elemen Jihad Perbudakan- pengesahan yuridisnya, penerapannya sbg Islamisasi Paksa (bagi non-Muslim pada umumnya dan bagi animis Afrika Sub-Sahara, khususnya), dan asosiasinya dgn devshirme-pajak bagi lelaki agar terhindar dari menjadi budak tentara- juga tampak sekali dlm jihad abad 21 yg sedang dilancarkan terhdp kaum animis dan Kristen di Sudan Selatan, oleh rejim yg didominasi Arab Muslim. 10)

Ekstensi dan Persistensi

Skala dan luas perbudakan Islam di Afrika bisa dibandingkan dgn perdagangan budak Trans-Atlantik di AS, dan spt diamati Willis 11);

Perbudakan oleh Islam melebihi Barat dlm panjangnya waktu. Tapi perkiraan kuantitatif bagi perdagangan budak trans-Atlantik (abad 16 sampai akhir abad 19) adalah 10.500.000 (12). Ini melebihi perdagangan perbudakan yg dilakukan Islam (sampai melebihi 50%). Angka Professor Ralph Austen bagi perdagangan budak Islam di trans-Sahara, Laut Merah dan Samudra Hindia, dari thn 650 - 1905 AD adalah ‘hanya’ 17.000.000. 13)

Nasib para budak2 animis yg datang dari Savannah dan hutan2 Afrika barat dan tengah bagi perdagangan budak trans-Sahara bisa dibandingkan dgn penderitaan yg dialami saudara mereka yg diperdagangkan bagi perbudakan trans-Atlantik. 14)

Perbandingan ini, walau penting, MELUPAKAN wilayah2 luas Jihad Perbudakan di :
Eropa (Mediteran) yg melibatkan Arab,
di Eropa Barat yg melibatkan Turki Ottoman dan
Tatar [Eropa Pusat dan Timur]);
Russia (ditindukkan pada kebiadaban Tatar);
Asia Minor (dibawah dominasi Seljuk dan Ottoman);
Persia, Armenia dan Georgia (korban kampanye jihad perbudakan yg sistimatis oleh Safavids Shi’ah, khususnya);
dan India (razzia2 dan jihad oleh Arab di abad ke 7 dan 8, dan kemudian penindasan dibawah Ghaznavid, selama kesultanan Delhi, Jihad Sultan Timur, dan dibawah kerajaan Mughal).

Sbg pendahuluan atas ekstensi Jihad Perbudakan diluar benua Afrika, tiga penjelasan pendek diperlukan : Penindasan kaum Seljuk di Asia Kecil (abad 11-12); kaum Ottoman di Balkan (abad 15); dan Tatar di Polandia Selatan dan Russia (pertengahan abad 15-17).

Penangkapan

Penangkapan Kristen di Asia Kecil oleh kaum Turki Seljuk sangat ekstensif selama abad2 11-12s. 15) Setelah pemberangusan Edessa, 16.000 orang diperbudak. 16) Michael the Syrian melaporkan bahwa ketika tentara Turkinya Nur al-Din dibawa ke Cilicia oleh orang Armenia, Mleh, mereka memperbudak 16.000 Kristen, yg mereka jual di Aleppo. 17) Sejumlah razzia besar di provinsi2 Yunani di Bagian Barat Asia Minor memperbudak ribuan orang Yunani (Vryonis percaya bahwa angka 100.000 mungkin angka yg dilebih2kan, dan menurut Michael the Syrian, mereka dijual di pasar2 budak sejauh Persia. 19) Selama razzia2 oleh Turki th 1185, 26.000 penduduk dari Cappadocia, Armenia, dan Mesopotamia ditangkap dan diberangkatkan ke pasar2 budak. 20)

Vryonis menyimpulkan 21) :

…sumber2 ini menunjukkan bahwa perdagangan budak memang subur. Malah, Asia Minor merupakan sumber budak utama dunia islam selama abad ke 14.

Sultan2 Ottoman, sesuai dgn Shari’ah, mempromosikan jihad perbudakan secara agresif di Balkan, khususnya selama kerajaan abad 15-nya Mehmed I (1402-1421), Murad II (1421-1451), dan Mehmed II (1451-1481). 22)

Alexandrescu-Dersca menyimpulkan ekstensi luas perbudakan ini dan dampak demografisnya 23) :

Kronikel2 Turki, Bizantin dan Latin sepakat bahwa selama kampanye yg dilakukan utk menyatukan Yunani dan Latin Romania dan kaum Balkan Slavic dibawah bendera Islam, dan juga selama razzia2 mereka pada wilayah Kristen, Ottoman mengurangi penduduk secara massal akibat perbudakan.

Kronikel Ottoman, Ašikpašazade, mengatakan bahwa selama expedisi Ali pasha Evrenosoghlu di Hungaria (1437), dan berlanjutnya kampanye Murad II terhdp Beograd (1438), jumlah tahanan melebihi jumlah tentara. Kronikler Bizantin, Ducas, menyatakan bahwa penduduk Smederevo, yg dijajah Ottoman, diperbudak. Hal yg sama terjadi ketika Turki Menteše menginvasi pulai Rhodes dan Cos dan juga selama ekspedisi kapal2 laut Ottoman ke Enos dan Lesbos. Ducas bahkan menyatakan : 70.000 penduduk dibawa ke perbudakan selama kampanye Mehmed II di Morée (1460).

Pendeta Franciscan Italia, Bartholomé de Yano (Giano dell’Umbria) berbicara ttg 60.000 – 70.000 yg ditangkap selama dua ekspedisi akinðis di Transylvania (1438) dan sekitar 300.000 – 600.000 tawanan asal Hungaria. 40 penduduk yg ditangkap Turki Menteše selama razzia di Rhodes, 7.000 penduduk dijadikan budak setelah serangan terhdp Thessalonika (1430) menurut John Anagnostes, dan 10.000 penduduk ditangkap selama penyerangan terhdp Mytilene (1462), menurut Metropolitan Lesbos, Leonard of Chios. Menurut Bartholomé de Yano, di Romania hampir 400.000 budak ditangkap selama 4 tahun, dari 1437 - 1443.


Walaupun kalau ada anggapan bahwa angka2 ini dilebih2kan, kita tidak dapat menampik bahwa perbudakan memainkan peranan demografis penting selama ekspansi Ottoman abad ke 15.

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Fisher 24 has analyzed the slave razzias conducted by the Muslim Crimean Tatars against the Christian populations of southern Poland and Muscovite Russia during the mid-15th through late 17th century (1463-1794). Relying upon admittedly incomplete sources (“…no doubt there are many more slave raids that the author has not uncovered” 25), his conservative tabulations 26 indicate that at least 3 million (3,000,000) persons- men, women, and children- were captured and enslaved during this so-called “harvesting of the steppe”. Fisher describes the plight of those enslaved: 27

…the first ordeal [of the captive] was the long march to the Crimea. Often in chains and always on foot, many of the captives died en route. Since on many occasions the Tatar raiding party feared reprisals or, in the seventeenth century, attempts by Cossack bands to free the captives, the marches were hurried. Ill or wounded captives were usually killed rather than be allowed to slow the procession. Heberstein wrote… “the old and infirm men who will not fetch much as a sale, are given up to the Tatar youths either to be stoned, or thrown into the sea, or to be killed by any sort of death they might please.” An Ottoman traveler in the mid-sixteenth century who witnessed one such march of captives from Galicia marveled that any would reach their destination- the slave markets of Kefe. He complained that their treatment was so bad that the mortality rate would unnecessarily drive their price up beyond the reach of potential buyers such as himself. A Polish proverb stated: “Oh how much better to lie on one’s bier, than to be a captive on the way to Tartary”

The persistence of Islamic slavery is as impressive and unique as its extent. Slavery was openly practiced in both Ottoman Turkey 28, and Shi’ite (Qajar) Iran 29, through the first decade of the 20th century. As Toledano points out, 30 regarding Ottoman Turkey, kul (administrative)/ harem slavery,

…survived at the core of the Ottoman elite until the demise of the empire and the fall of the house of Osman in the second decade of the 20th century.

Moreover, Ricks 31 indicates that despite the modernizing pressures and reforms culminating in the Iranian Constitutional Movement of 1905-1911, which effectively eliminated military and agricultural slavery,

The presence of domestic slaves, however, in both the urban and rural regions of Southern Iran had not ceased as quickly. Some Iranians today attest to the continued presence of African and Indian slave girls…

Slavery on the Arabian peninsula was not abolished formally until 1962 in Saudi Arabia, 32 and 1970 in Yemen and Oman. 33 Writing in 1989, Gordon 34 observed that although Mauritania abolished slavery officially on July 15, 1980,

…as the government itself acknowledges, the practice is till alive and well. It is estimated that 200,000 men, women, and children are subject to being bought and sold like so many cattle in this North African country, toiling as domestics, shepherds, and farmhands.

Finally, as discussed earlier, there has been a recrudescence of jihad slavery, since 1983 in the Sudan. 35

An Overview of Eunuch Slavery-the “Hideous Trade”

Eunuch slaves- males castrated usually between the ages of 4 and 12 (due to the high risk of death, preferentially, between ages 8 and 12) 36, were in considerable demand in Islamic societies. They served most notably as supervisors of women in the harems of the rulers and elites of the Ottoman Empire, its contemporary Muslim neighbors (such as Safavid Iran), and earlier Muslim dominions. The extent and persistence of eunuch slavery- becoming prominent within 200 years of the initial 7th century Arab jihad conquests 37, through the beginning of the 20th century 38- are peculiar to the Islamic incarnation of this aptly named “hideous trade”. For example, Toledano documents that as late as 1903, the Ottoman imperial harem contained from 400 to 500 female slaves, supervised and guarded by 194 black African eunuchs. 39

But an equally important and unique feature of Muslim eunuch slavery was the acquisition of eunuchs from foreign “slave producing areas” 40, i.e., non-Muslim frontier zones subjected to razzias. As David Ayalon observed, 41

…the overwhelming majority of the eunuchs, like the overwhelming majority of all other slaves in Islam, had been brought over from outside the borders of Muslim lands.

Eunuch slaves in China, in stark contrast, were almost exclusively Chinese procured locally. 42

Hogendorn 43 has identified the three main slave producing regions, as they evolved in importance over time, from the 8th through the late 19th centuries:

These areas were the forested parts of central and eastern Europe called by Muslims the “Bild as-Saqaliba” (“slave country”), the word saqlab meaning slave in Arabic (and related to the ethnic designation “Slav”); the steppes of central Asia called the “Bilad al-Atrak” (“Turks’ country” or Turkestan); and eventually most important, the savanna and the fringes of the wooded territory south of the Sahara called the country of the blacks or “Bilad as-Sudan”.

Lastly, given the crudeness of available surgical methods and absence of sterile techniques, the human gelding procedure by which eunuchs were “manufactured” was associated with extraordinary rates of morbidity and mortality. Hogendorn describes the severity of the operation, and provides mortality information from West and East Africa: 44

Castration can be partial (removal of the testicles only or removal of the penis only), or total (removal of both). In the later period of the trade, that is, after Africa became the most important source for Mediterranean Islam, it appears that most eunuchs sold to the markets underwent total removal. This version of the operation, though considered most appropriate for slaves in constant proximity to harem members, posed a very high danger of death for two reasons. First was the extensive hemorrhaging, with the consequent possibility of almost immediate death. The hemorrhaging could not be stopped by traditional cauterization because that would close the urethra leading to eventual death because of inability to pass urine. The second danger lay in infection of the urethra, with the formation of pus blocking it and so causing death in a few days.

…when the castration was carried out in sub-Saharan West and West-Central Africa…a figure of 90% [is] often mentioned. Even higher death rates were occasionally reported, unsurprising in tropical areas where the danger of infection of wounds was especially high. At least one contemporary price quotation supports a figure of over 90% mortality: Turkish merchants are said to have been willing to pay 250 to 300 (Maria Theresa) dollars each for eunuchs in Borno (northeast Nigeria) at a time when the local price of young male slaves does not seem to have exceeded about 20 dollars…Many sources indicate very high death rates from the operation in eastern Africa.. Richard Millant’s [1908] general figure for the Sudan and Ethiopia is 90%

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Notes
1. Patricia Crone. God’s Rule. Government and Islam. New York: Columbia University Press, 2004, pp. 371-72

2. K.S. Lal, Muslim Slave System India, New Delhi, Aditya Prakashan, 1994, pp. 46, 69.

3. Speros Vryonis, Jr. The Decline of Medieval Hellenism and the Islamization of Asia Minor, 11th Through 15th Century, 1971, Berkeley: University of California Press, pp. 174-175.

4. Vasiliki Papoulia. “The impact of devshirme on Greek society” in East Central European society and war in the prerevolutionary eighteenth century. Gunther E. Rothenberg, Béla K. Király and Peter F. Sugar, editors. Boulder : Social Science Monographs ; New York : Distributed by Columbia University Press, 1982, pp. 555-556.

5. Thomas Ricks. “Slaves and Slave Trading in Shi’i Iran, AD 1500-1900”, Journal of Asian and African Studies, 2001, Vol. 36, pp. 407-418.

6. Ricks, “Slaves and Slave Trading in Shi’i Iran”, pp. 411-412.

7. Clement Huart. “Le droit de la guerre” Revue du monde musulman, 1907, p. 337. English translation by Michael J. Miller.

8. John Ralph Willis. "Jihad and the ideology of enslavement", in Slaves and slavery in Muslim Africa- vol. 1. Islam and the ideology of enslavement, London, England; Totowa, N.J.: Frank Cass, 1985, pp. 17-18; 4.

9. Winston Churchill. The River War, Vol. II , London: Longmans, Green & Co., 1899, pp. 248-50.

10. John Eibner. “My career redeeming slaves”, Middle East Quarterly, December, 1999, Vol. 4, Number 4, http://www.meforum.org/article/449 . Eibner notes:

…based on the pattern of slave raiding over the past fifteen years and the observations of Western and Arab travelers in southern Darfur and Kordofan, conservatively puts the number of chattel slaves close to or over 100,000. There are many more in state-owned concentration camps, euphemistically called "peace camps" by the government of Sudan, and in militant Qur'anic schools, where boys train to become mujahidun (warriors of jihad).

11. John Ralph Willis. Slaves and slavery in Muslim Africa, Preface, p. vii.

12. This controversial topic is discussed here: Philip D. Curtin, Roger Antsey, J.E. Inikori. The Journal of African History, 1976, Vol. 17, pp. 595-627.

13. John Ralph Willis. Slaves and slavery in Muslim Africa, Preface, p. x.

14. John Wright. “The Mediterranean Middle Passage: The Nineteenth Century Slave Trade Between Triploi and the Levant”, The Journal of North African Studies, 1996, Vol. 1, p. 44.

15. Vryonis, The Decline of Medieval Hellenism, p.175, note 245.

16. Bar Hebraeus. The chronography of Gregory Abû'l Faraj, the son of Aaron, the Hebrew physician, commonly known as Bar Hebraeus; being the first part of his political history of the world, translated from the Syriac by Ernest A. Wallis Budge, Oxford University Press, 1932, Vol. 1, pp. 268-273; Michael the Syrian, Chronique de Michel le Syrien, Patriarche Jacobite d'Antioche (1166-1199), translated by J-B Chabot, 1895, Vol. 3, p. 331.

17. Michael the Syrian, Chronique, Vol. 3, p. 331.

18. Vryonis, The Decline of Medieval Hellenism, p.175, note 245.

19. Michael the Syrian, Chronique, Vol. 3, p. 369.

20. Michael the Syrian, Chronique, Vol. 3, pp. 401-402; Bar Hebraeus, The Chronography, Vol. 1, p. 321.

21. Vryonis, The Decline of Medieval Hellenism, p.175, note 245.

22. M-M Alexandrescu-Dersca Bulgaru. “Le role des escalves en Romanie turque au XVe siecle” Byzantinische Forschungen, vol. 11, 1987, p. 15.

23. Alexandrescu-Dersca Bulgaru, “Le role des escalves en Romanie turque au XVe siecle”, pp. 16-17.

24. Alan Fisher “Muscovy and the Black Sea Slave Trade”, Canadian American Slavic Studies, 1972, Vol. 6, pp. 575-594.

25. Fisher “Muscovy and the Black Sea Slave Trade”, p. 579, note 17.

26. Fisher “Muscovy and the Black Sea Slave Trade”, pp. 580-582.

27. Fisher “Muscovy and the Black Sea Slave Trade”, pp. 582-583.

28. Reuben Levy, The Social Structure of Islam, Cambridge University Press, 1957, p. 88.

29. Ricks, “Slaves and Slave Trading in Shi’i Iran”, p. 408.

30. Ehud Toledano. Slavery and Abolition in the Ottoman Middle East, Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1998, p. 53.

31. Ricks, “Slaves and Slave Trading in Shi’i Iran”, p. 415.

32. Murray Gordon. Slavery in the Arab World, New York: New Amsterdam, 1989, p. 232.

33. Gordon. Slavery in the Arab World, p. 234.

34. Gordon. Slavery in the Arab World, Preface, second page (pages not numbered).

35. Eibner, “My career redeeming slaves”.

36. Jan Hogendorn. “The Hideous Trade. Economic Aspects of the ‘Manufacture’ and Sale of Eunuchs”, Paideuma, 1999, Vol. 45, p. 143, especially, note 25.

37. Hogendorn. “The Hideous Trade”, p. 137.

38. Ehud Toledano. “The Imperial Eunuchs of Istanbul: From Africa to the Heart of Islam”, Middle Eastern Studies, 1984, Vol. 20, pp. 379-390.

39. Toledano. “The Imperial Eunuchs of Istanbul”, pp. 380-381.

40. Hogendorn. “The Hideous Trade”, p. 138.

41. David Ayalon. “On the Eunuchs in Islam”, Jerusalem Studies in Arabic and Islam, 1979, Vol. 1, pp. 69-70.

42. Hogendorn. “The Hideous Trade”, p. 139, note 5.

43. Hogendorn. “The Hideous Trade”, p. 139.

44. Hogendorn. “The Hideous Trade”, pp. 143, 145-146.
---------------------------------------------------------------------- ----------
Andrew G. Bostom, MD, MS is an Associate Professor of Medicine at Brown University Medical School, and regular contributor to Frontpage Magazine. He is the author of "The Legacy of Jihad."


Last edited by ali5196 on Thu Dec 06, 2007 9:37 pm, edited 3 times in total.
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Postby ali5196 » Fri Sep 01, 2006 9:22 pm

Diskusi di Islam dlm :
Gambar dan Berita Internasional,
SUDAN-GENOCIDE YG DAPAT KITA HENTIKAN BERSAMA

http://www.indonesia.faithfreedom.org/f ... sc&start=0
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