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Apa warisan budaya Cina Kuno ? Angka 0 salah satunya !

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Apa warisan budaya Cina Kuno ? Angka 0 salah satunya !

Postby ali5196 » Tue Dec 11, 2007 3:02 am

http://www.open2.net/whattheancients/chinese.html

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Kebudayaan Cina adalah kebudayaan yg paling lama bertahan didunia ini.

Orang2 Cina kuno menciptakan budaya unik, dan ciptaan dibidang teknologi, agrikultur, kedokteran (akupunktur, acupressure, ramu2an), sains, seni bela diri, meditasi, Feng Shui, zodiak SHIO dsb.

Mereka memberikan Barat bahan makanan PASTA dan bakmi bakso. Mereka juga menciptakan KERTAS, uang kertas, timbangan, kalkulator, sistim kanal, bendungan dan jembatan2 berlengkung (arched bridge), bahan mesiu, BOM, petasan dan layangan. Mereka menciptakan seismograph pertama dan double action piston bellow ? yg sangat efisien.

Mereka juga memberikan dunia kain sutera, pernis - atau plastik pertama didunia. Dan mereka juga menciptakan PERTANDINGAN SEPAK BOLA !
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Postby ali5196 » Tue Dec 11, 2007 4:46 am

http://inventors.about.com/od/chinesein ... powder.htm

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http://inventors.about.com/library/inve ... graph2.htm
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Chang Heng's seismoscope

The Chinese philosopher Chang Hêng [Chang Hêng is also referred to as Choko and Tyoko, modifications of the Japanese form of his name.] invented the earliest known seismoscope in 132 A.D. The instrument was said to resemble a wine jar of diameter six feet (Figure below). On the outside of the vessel there were eight dragon heads, facing the eight principal directions of the compass. Below each of the dragon heads was a toad, with its mouth opened toward the dragon. The mouth of each dragon held a ball. At the occurrence of an earthquake, one of the eight dragon-mouths would release a ball into the open mouth of the toad situated below. The direction of the shaking determined which of the dragons released its ball. The instrument is reported to have detected a four-hundred-mile distant earthquake which was not felt at the location of the seismoscope.

http://inventors.about.com/od/cstartinv ... ompass.htm
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The magnetic compass is an old Chinese invention, probably first made in China during the Qin dynasty (221-206 B.C.). Chinese fortune tellers used lodestones (a mineral composed of an iron oxide which aligns itself in a north-south direction) to construct their fortune telling boards.

The first person recorded to have used the compass as a navigational aid was Zheng He (1371-1435), from the Yunnan province in China, who made seven ocean voyages between 1405 and 1433.
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Postby ali5196 » Tue Dec 11, 2007 4:50 am

AGRIKULTUR: sistim yg diciptakan CINA

http://inventors.about.com/gi/dynamic/o ... ory/90.htm

Great Chinese Inventions

The World is forever in debt to China for its innovations. Ancient China was extreme advance and many of its discoveries are still in use today. This is what Robert Temple, the author of The Genius of China 3000 years of science, discovery and invention. The book is based on 11 main parts of Chinese innovation. Within these 11 categories, there are 3 main parts that contain the most significant inventions. Robert Temple concentrates the bulk of his examples in these three categories, agriculture, domestic and industrial technology, and engineering.

Temple’s examples were not limited to these fields of innovation. The Chinese excelled in many other areas, including mathematics, warfare and transportation, to name a few. Although Temple wrote about eleven fields of invention, I feel that these three sections contain the greatest examples of Chinese innovation, and the debt that the modern world owes China.

The first main area is the field of engineering. Within this
chapter, the development of iron and steel is the greatest achievement. The development of iron and steel led to other advances. By at least the 4th century the Chinese have developed blast furnaces to obtain cast iron from iron ore. This was 1200 years before the first blast furnace showed up in Europe.

The reasons that the author gave to explain the reasons why the Chinese developed this technology are simple. The Chinese had access to large amounts of clay, the key ingredient in making blast furnaces. The Chinese also figured out that by adding a substance they called ”Black Earth,” they could lower the melting point of iron.

Another major invention of the Chinese, that led to other achievements, is steel. The common belief today is that Henry Bessemer discovered the process of refining iron into steel. The fact is
Chinese had developed the process to refine iron into steel in the second century BC The Chinese learned that by injecting oxygen into the blast furnace, they could remove the carbon from the iron. The Chinese called this process the “hundred refinings method” since they repeated the process that many times. The finished product was highly prized in China for its strength and ability to hold an edge on a sword. The Chinese would weld the steel onto weaker iron thus creating a strong edge and a superior weapon. The Chinese iron and steel workers were the best at making different types of metals into modern times. But then, no one else could have done so at the time, since iron existed nowhere else but in China.

The Chinese invented the chain pump in the first century AD The chain pump allows water to the pumped from lower to higher elevations. The chain pumps were used for draining and pumping in civil
engineering, but what is more important is it was used for irrigation. Irrigation allows for greater and more intense farming, thus resulting
in a better crop yield. With the greater crop yields larger populations can be supported. The chain pump was exported to all parts of the world by way of visiting ambassadors and dignitaris. The first European chain pump appeared in the sixteenth century, and was a direct copy of the Chinese version.

The second area of great Chinese achievement is in domestic and industrial technology. The most recognized Chinese invention is in the field of domestic and industrial technology, paper. Paper was invented around the second century BC and was used as clothing. One might not believe that paper could be used as clothing, but the paper made at that time used thicker and tougher paper fibers. Not only was paper used for clothing, it was also used for military body armor. The Chinese found out that pleated sheets of paper could stop the penetration of arrows.

The paper armor was standard issue with Chinese land and sea units.
Paper’s writing property was not discovered till about one century after its discovery. The earliest example of writing on paper was found an abandon military post. The paper found dates back to 110 AD and contained two dozen readable characters.

The area that let China grow and expand was the innovations in
the area of agriculture. The greatest achievement in the field of
agriculture is row cultivation and intensive hoeing. In Europe, as with the rest of the world, they practiced scatter seed farming. Scatter seed farming is the practice of throwing the seed onto the fields at random. By throwing the seed randomly, half the seeds would not grow and make it impossible to weed the field. The Chinese on the other hand, planted individual seeds and rows, thus reducing seed loss. The planting of crops in rows also allowed for intensive hoeing, which in turn reduce weeds.

Another major advancement in the field of agriculture is the seed drill. The seed drill complements the row farming of the Chinese. The seed drill is a device that plants the seed into the ground. It replaces the farmer to plant the seeds by hand, thus allowing the farmer to plant more acreage. The first seed drill was introduced to Europe in sixteenth century, 3500 years after the Chinese had invented it.

In conclusion, I believe that the author has proved his original idea, that the modern world is in debt to China. The author has given many examples of Chinese innovation and intelligence that are seen in use today. Chinese innovation in agriculture has not only allowed the Chinese to grow, it has also allowed the modern world to grow. The growth of these other countries is directly linked to the inventions that they copied from the Chinese. Many of the Chinese engineering feats are still practiced today. The process of refining iron into steel is still used today, though the process has been refined. The suspension bridge, invented by the Chinese in the first century AD, is still the bridge of choice when one has to span a great distance. The greatest area of Chinese invention is in agriculture.

The Chinese excelled in farming, not only did they discover the seed
drill, they discovered row farming that is still used today.
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Postby ali5196 » Tue Dec 11, 2007 4:58 am

Lebih lengkap :

http://www.computersmiths.com/chinesein ... index.html

http://www.amoymagic.com/ChineseInventions.htm
Teknik percetakan/perstensilan dgn menggunakan huruf2 kayu, surat kabar, kertas toilet, kartu2 ucapan selamat tahun baru, kebon binatang, pengeboran bagi gas dan garam, es krim, parasut, ramuan teh dsb
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Postby ali5196 » Tue Dec 11, 2007 5:02 am

CINA menciptakan angka NOL !!! :lol: :lol: (BUKAN MUSLIM !!)

http://www.saxakali.com/COLOR_ASP/discoverof0.htm
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THE DISCOVERY OF THE ZERO

The zero is the mathematically defined numerical function of nothingness that is used not for an evasion but for an apprehension of reality. The "nothing" has been the exclusive territory of mystics and neocheaters. They thrive on "nothing", in nonreality, and create their mystical edifice of power and dominance upon "nothing" with "nothing".

The zero is the only "nothing" thus far conceived that is nonmystical, i.e., reality-based. It is a tool, a mathematical tool, for dealing with reality, and as such is integral to the whole context of reality qua reality. After the Renaissance, the monopolization of knowledge became broken and scientific knowledge flourished owing largely to the propagation of this mathematical "nothing", the zero -- to the increased computational capability among common people that was made possible solely by the widespread use of the zero concept and its counterpart -- the place-value numerical system.

...

Although in recorded history the place-value number systems have been developed four times (by the Babylonians, Mayans, Chinese, and Hindus), and the zero concept has been evolved three times (by the Babylonians, Mayans, and Hindus), none outside of the Hindus have devised such a complete system of numerical operation. Furthermore, none outside of the Hindus evolved the zero concept to the degree that it is used as the null-value in all facets of calculation.

Image In Sanskrit (the scholarly language of the Hindus), the word for the zero is "sunya", meaning "void", and there is little doubt that the zero concept originated as the written symbol for the empty column of the abacus. The abacus had been used around the world since antiquity to provide a facile means of accumulating progressive products of multiplication by moving those products ever further leftward, column by column, as the operator filled the available bead spaces one by one and moved the excess over ten into the successive right-to-left-ward columns.

Number products in even tens (such as the number 20 or 30) leave the first right hand column empty (void). When expert abacus users had no abacus available to them, they could remember and visualize the operation of the abacus so clearly that all they needed to know was the content of each column in order to develop any multiplication or division.

They then invented symbols for the content of each column to replace drawing a picture of the number of beads. Having developed symbols to express the content of each column, they had to invent a symbol for the numberless content of the empty column -- that symbol came to be known to the Hindus as "sunya", and sunya later became "sifr" in Arabic; "cifra" in Roman; and finally "cipher" in English.

Only an empty column of an abacus could possibly provide the human experience that called for the invention of the zero -- the symbol for "nothingness", and that discovery of the symbol for nothingness had an enormous significance upon subsequent humanity. The zero, the cipher, alone made possible humanity's escape from the 1700-year monopoly of all its calculating functions by the neocheating power structure operating invisibly behind their governments and religions.

It was also the power of nothingness, the zero, that raised the curtains of science during the Renaissance, which had been drawn by the master neocheaters since 200 B.C. (It is significant to realize that the positional numeration with the zero concept had been implicitly employed in the operation of the abacus almost in its entirety, including the zero being the null-value. The Hindu numeration was the written translation of that operation.)

Even if the zero with the place-value principle and its computation-facilitating capability had been discovered by the Alexandrian Greeks, by Archimedes or Apollonius, for instance, it would have been banished or even lost when the emperors of the Roman Empire amalgamated the vast power of the priesthood with their already-established military supremacy.

Historically, Roman numerals had been invented to enable completely illiterate people to keep "scores" of events occurring one by one. The more complex Roman numerals were those used by their superiors, keeping count by their fingers -- V for five (the angle between one's thumb and the other four fingers) and X for ten (representing one's crossed index fingers). Since one cannot see "no sheep" or "no person", the Roman world had no need for a symbol for nothing.

For science to evolve, there should be three basic socio-intellectual factors present:
A flourishing business climate that will provide an incentive to advance knowledge
An explicitly defined Aristotelian philosophy that will provide the metaphysical/epistemological foundation or context for valid scientific knowledge and the ethical/moral basis for productive living
Mathematical tools, such as the zero with the place-value principle, that will facilitate the advancement of science.

During the Renaissance all three of these factors were clearly present. Science did not develop in India after the discovery of the zero owing to the fact that no explicitly defined Aristotelian philosophy had ever been prevalent in India or had been known to the Hindus in general.
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Postby ali5196 » Tue Dec 11, 2007 5:10 am

http://www.andrews.edu/~calkins/math/bi ... iozero.htm

The oldest zero in history was in Babylon. The Babylonian mathematicians and astronomers developed a genuine zero to signify the absence of sexagesimal units of a certain order.

The original use of the zero was formed by the babylonians. They used the sunya(zero) in the medial position to represent a blank spot for that individual set. The Zero in betweeen nagative and positive numbers wasn't invented until later when the chinese invented negative numbers.

TAMBAHAN: Bgm angka nol bisa ditemukan Muslim kalau angka 0 aja tidak tercakup dlm alfabet Muslim ????

http://muslim-canada.org/ch15hamid.html
520. The ordinary Arabic alphabet consists of the following 28 letters - like the number of the mansions of the moon :shock: , and admirably suited to be employed as numerals up to one thousand - which write from right to left (with semetic sequence):

Image
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Postby telor » Sun Oct 19, 2008 4:39 pm

ali5196 wrote:http://www.andrews.edu/~calkins/math/biograph/biozero.htm

The oldest zero in history was in Babylon. The Babylonian mathematicians and astronomers developed a genuine zero to signify the absence of sexagesimal units of a certain order.

The original use of the zero was formed by the babylonians. They used the sunya(zero) in the medial position to represent a blank spot for that individual set. The Zero in betweeen nagative and positive numbers wasn't invented until later when the chinese invented negative numbers.

TAMBAHAN: Bgm angka nol bisa ditemukan Muslim kalau angka 0 aja tidak tercakup dlm alfabet Muslim ????

http://muslim-canada.org/ch15hamid.html
520. The ordinary Arabic alphabet consists of the following 28 letters - like the number of the mansions of the moon :shock: , and admirably suited to be employed as numerals up to one thousand - which write from right to left (with semetic sequence):

Image


Liii.. alii.... mengklaim kan boleh aja. Barangkali aja ada orang (****) yang percaya

hehehehe....
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Re:

Postby zephyrus » Sat Dec 12, 2009 2:51 pm

telor wrote:
Liii.. alii.... mengklaim kan boleh aja. Barangkali aja ada orang (****) yang percaya

hehehehe....


Saya ga bela Ali, tapi Kalau memang ali salah dengan statementnya, bisa buktikan ga kalau dia salah dengan memberikan bantahan yang sahih kalau angka nol berasal dari kebudayaan islam? O:)
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Re: Apa warisan budaya Cina Kuno ? Angka 0 salah satunya !

Postby Ahmadibejad » Sun Dec 13, 2009 1:19 am

Donatur FFI wrote:Semua keturunan adam, sejak lahir beragama Islam (berserah pada Allah SWT).
Bangsa China tanpa kecuali. Jadi kalaupun angka nol penemuan bangsa China, tetap saja mereka menyembah Allah SWT yang tauhid. \:D/

Klaim orang yang lagi kram perutnya.. :-"
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Re: Apa warisan budaya Cina Kuno ? Angka 0 salah satunya !

Postby abdulraharja » Sat Mar 20, 2010 11:00 pm

eh2 sebenernya claim2 penemuan itu gmana sih sistem nya ?
beginikah ?

misal si UDIN adalah seorang peneliti dan dia menemukan OBAT penyembuh AIDS dan kebetulan si UDIN beragama ISLAM.
terus pertanyaannya sekrang yg menemukan Obat itu si UDIN apa ISLAM ?

gw koq kadang denger2 claim gt, agak gmana gitu. maen selfproclaim aje.
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Re: Apa warisan budaya Cina Kuno ? Angka 0 salah satunya !

Postby Ahmadibejad » Wed Mar 24, 2010 11:37 am

abdulraharja wrote:eh2 sebenernya claim2 penemuan itu gmana sih sistem nya ?
beginikah ?

misal si UDIN adalah seorang peneliti dan dia menemukan OBAT penyembuh AIDS dan kebetulan si UDIN beragama ISLAM.
terus pertanyaannya sekrang yg menemukan Obat itu si UDIN apa ISLAM ?

gw koq kadang denger2 claim gt, agak gmana gitu. maen selfproclaim aje.

Maaf bro...Sok..mangga dilihat....di dunia ini..para ilmuwan2 terkenal, penemu2 terkenal, negara2 maju dan hebat..punya siapa? Pasti dr kaum kapir....
Makanya...timbulah apa yang dinamakan keirian hati oleh para "penentang kapir" (klo bole sya sebut muslim begini) Karena...Islam yang katanya agama sempurna..kok tidak bisa mencetak umat2 yang sempurna, Nabi yang katanya nabi sempurna..kok gk bisa menunjukkan mukjijat yang menjadi tred mark para nabi2 terdahulu..
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Re:

Postby bocor » Mon Dec 06, 2010 11:58 am

ali5196 wrote:http://www.andrews.edu/~calkins/math/biograph/biozero.htm

The oldest zero in history was in Babylon. The Babylonian mathematicians and astronomers developed a genuine zero to signify the absence of sexagesimal units of a certain order.

The original use of the zero was formed by the babylonians. They used the sunya(zero) in the medial position to represent a blank spot for that individual set. The Zero in betweeen nagative and positive numbers wasn't invented until later when the chinese invented negative numbers.

TAMBAHAN: Bgm angka nol bisa ditemukan Muslim kalau angka 0 aja tidak tercakup dlm alfabet Muslim ????

http://muslim-canada.org/ch15hamid.html
520. The ordinary Arabic alphabet consists of the following 28 letters - like the number of the mansions of the moon :shock: , and admirably suited to be employed as numerals up to one thousand - which write from right to left (with semetic sequence):

Image


tolong lihat lagi angka arab di atas bro, ada angka NOL nya koq

SISTEM ANGKA ARAB
Image

Angka Arab sudah lama dipergunakan sebagai simbolisasi penomoran atau penghitungan. Sistem ini terdiri dari 10 angka dengan bentuk yang berbeda-beda. Angka yang berada di sisi paling kiri punya nilai paling tinggi. Pada perkembangan selanjutnya, sistem angka Arab ini memakai pula tanda desimal serta tanda pengkalian dua, Al-Khawarizmi adalah salah satu penggagasnya. Pada bentuk yang lebih modern, sistem angka Arab dapat merepresentasi setiap angka rasional dengan 13 tanda (10 digit, tanda desimal, tanda bagi, tanda strip di depan untuk menandakan angka negatif dan sebagainya).

Secara keseluruhan, sistem angka Arab terbagi atas dua kelompok angka yakni sistem angka Arab Barat (west Arabic numerals) dan sistem angka Arab Timur (east Arabic numerals). Sistem angka Arab diakui sebagai salah satu yang paling berpengaruh pada bidang matematika. Para ahli sejarah sepakat bahwa angka tersebut berawal dari India. Terlebih setelah orang Arab sendiri menyebut angka yang mereka gunakan sebagai 'angka India' atau arqam hindiyyah.

Bukti sejarah mengemukakan angka 0 sudah dipergunakan pula di India sejak tahun 400 M. Kode angka Aryabhata telah menerangkan secara lengkap mengenai simbol angka 0. Juga pada masa pemerintahan Bhaskara I (abad 7 M) dasar sistem 10 angka sudah dipergunakan secara luas di negara tersebut serta pengenalan konsep angka 0.

Sistem angka India sampai ke Timur Tengah pada tahun 670. Ketika itu para ahli matematika Muslim yang banyak berkiprah di Irak, semisal al-Khawarizmi, sudah mengenal sistem angka Babilonia yang juga memakai 0 digit. Kemudian pada abad ke-10, ilmuwan Arab meningkatkan sistem angka desimal berikut pecahan, seperti tercatat dalam karya Abu'l-Hasan al-Uqlidisi tahun 952-953.

Jadi angka NOL sudah dipakai oleh arab, walaupun bukan arab yang menemukan


Bro..menarik nih, tapi kenapa link tentang angka 0 nya gak bisa di akses?

dipostingan punya bro gak ada yang menjelaskan mengenai angka NOL ditemukan oleh cina, bisa kasih linknya lagi?
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Re: Apa warisan budaya Cina Kuno ? Angka 0 salah satunya !

Postby kutukupret » Mon Dec 06, 2010 12:03 pm

@Bocor

Lha wong angka O (nol) di Arab itu artinya Angka 5 (lima), gimana bisa Arab jadi penemu angka 0 (nol) ?

jangan-jangan ente....murtadin ngaku Mualaf ya ?

bwakakakak :lol:
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Re: Apa warisan budaya Cina Kuno ? Angka 0 salah satunya !

Postby bocor » Wed Dec 08, 2010 7:50 pm

kutukupret wrote:@Bocor

Lha wong angka O (nol) di Arab itu artinya Angka 5 (lima), gimana bisa Arab jadi penemu angka 0 (nol) ?

jangan-jangan ente....murtadin ngaku Mualaf ya ?

bwakakakak :lol:

haha, yang bilang nemuin angka 0 itu orang arab siapa bro? coba baca dulu postingannya
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Re: Apa warisan budaya Cina Kuno ? Angka 0 salah satunya !

Postby kutukupret » Thu Dec 09, 2010 3:01 pm

kutukupret wrote:@Bocor

Lha wong angka O (nol) di Arab itu artinya Angka 5 (lima), gimana bisa Arab jadi penemu angka 0 (nol) ?

jangan-jangan ente....murtadin ngaku Mualaf ya ?

bwakakakak :lol:
bocor wrote:haha, yang bilang nemuin angka 0 itu orang arab siapa bro? coba baca dulu postingannya


udah Bro,

bukankah ente yang bilang, saya kutip lagee :lol:

bocor wrote:tolong lihat lagi angka arab di atas bro, ada angka NOL nya koq


jadi angka O (nol) di Arab itu artinya Angka 5 (lima) apa tetap angka NOL ?
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