Hukum Memelihara Anjing Dalam Islam
MUHAMMAD AND THE DOGS
Pernyataan Dalam Hadis Tentang Anjing
1) Membunuh Anjing-anjing
2) COMMERCE IN DOGS
3) LOSS OF REWARD OF GOOD WORKS FOR OWNING DOGS
4) DOGS ANNULLING PRAYER
5) Anjing Menghentikan Malaikat-Malaikat
TO OBEY OR NOT OBEY MUHAMMAD? – THAT IS THE QUESTION.
ARGUMENT 1: THE HADITH ARE FALSE – Variation 1.
ARGUMENT 1: THE HADITH ARE FALSE – Variation 2.
ARGUMENT 2: THE HADITH ARE MISUNDERSTOOD
BENEFITS OF DOGS AS PETS
BENEFITS OF DOGS AS PETS CONTINUED
DISCUSSION: THE BIGGER PICTURE
QUESTIONS AND TALKING POINTS
CHALLENGE TO THE MUSLIM
Muhammad made strange and harsh statements about dogs and these edicts affect dogs in a tragic way. His teachings may have come from cultural bias, Pagan concepts, or his own imagination, but wherever they came from they led to the cruel treatment of dogs.
None of the statements regarding dogs are found in the Quran but they abound in the various collections of traditions (hadith). These traditions are a primary foundation of Islamic theology and are the basis of many Islamic laws. They render dogs as "impure" and worse. Per Muhammad’s orders most dogs were to be killed and all dogs of a specific color (black) had to be killed.
Muhammad claimed to be a prophet of God and as such his word was to be obeyed. With the teeth of Islam biting worldwide it is vital that Muhammad’s teachings be scrutinized to determine if he were a nut or a prophet.
Pernyataan Tentang Anjing di Hadis
Below are a number of Hadith on various aspects involving dogs. All Hadith are from the Sahih collections of Bukhari and Muslim, or the Sunan of Abu Dawud. After the Quran, Bukhari's set of Hadith are regarded to be the second most important books in Islam, followed closely by the Hadith of Muslim. I quote from these sources to prove that these Hadith are not just a few isolated or unsupported cases. I have sorted Muhammad's statements concerning dogs into 5 categories. All of these illustrate different facets of his beliefs regarding dogs.
From Bukhari Vol. 4, #540
Narrated 'Abdullah bin 'Umar: Allah's Apostle ordered that the dogs should be killed.
From Abu Dawud #2839
Abd Allah B. Mughaffal reported the apostle of Allah as saying: Were dogs not a species of creature I should command that they all be killed; but kill every pure black one.
The Hadith's note for #2839 says, "The prophet did not order the killing of all the dogs, for some are to be retained for hunting and watching. He ordered to kill the jet black ones. They might be more mischievous among them.
From Muslim #3814
Ibn Mughaffal reported: Allah's messenger ordered the killing of dogs and then said, "what is the trouble with them (the people of Medina? How dogs are nuisances to them (the citizens of Medina)? He then permitted keeping of dogs for hunting and (the protection of) herds. ...[and for] for the protection of cultivated land.
From Muslim #Number 055
Ibn Mughaffal reported: The Messenger of Allah ordered killing of the dogs, and then said: What about them, i. e. about other dogs? and then granted concession (to keep) the dog for hunting and the dog for (the security) of the herd, and said: When the dog licks the utensil, wash it seven times, and rub it with earth the eighth time.
From Muslim #3813
Abu Zubair heard Jabir Abdullah saying: Allah's messenger ordered us to kill dogs and we carried out this order so much so that we also killed the dog roaming with a women from the desert. Then Allah's apostle forbade their killing. He said: "It is your duty to kill the jet-black (dog) having two spots (on the eyes) for it is a devil.
The note for #3814 says,
"The Hadith gives us an idea why the prophet commanded to kill dogs. There must have been an excess of stray dogs and thus the danger of rabies in the city of Medina and its suburbs. The prophet therefore ordered to kill them. Later on when it was found that his Companions were killing them indiscriminately, he forbade them to do so and told them that only the ferocious beasts which were a source of danger to life should be killed. The word "Devil" in the Hadith clarifies this point. Here devil stands for ferocious.
HOWEVER THE REASONING WITHIN THE NOTE ABOVE IS INCORRECT – READ BELOW.
From Muslim #5248
Maimuna reported that one morning Allah’s Messenger was silent with grief. Maimuna said: Allah’s Messenger, I find a change in your mood today. Allah’s Messenger said: Gabriel had promised me that he would meet me tonight, but he did not meet me. By Allah, he never broke his promises, and Allah’s Messenger spent the day in this sad mood. Then it occurred to him that there had been a puppy under their cot. He commanded and it was turned out. He then took some water in his hand and sprinkled it at that place. When it was evening Gabriel met him and he said to him: You promised me that you would meet me the previous night. He said: Yes, but we do not enter a house in which there is a dog or a picture. Then on that very morning he commanded the killing of the dogs until he announced that the dog kept for the orchards should also be killed, but he spared the dog meant for the protection of extensive fields or big gardens.
These Hadith tell the story of Muhammad's order to kill dogs. Muhammad said he would like to have all dogs killed. He wanted them killed, NOT because packs of dogs were tormenting the citizens of Medina, but rather, because a puppy stopped the mighty angel Gabriel. Muhammad’s solution was to kill the dogs. He first said he wanted all dogs killed but then made exceptions for dogs that are used for farming, hunting, or watching (outside). Further, he ordered that all black dogs be killed and called them "a Satan".
2) COMMERCE IN DOGS
From Bukhari Vol. 3, #299
Narrated 'Aun bin Abu Juhaifa: "My father bought a slave who practiced the profession of cupping. (My father broke the slave's instruments of cupping). I asked my father why he had done so. He replied, "The Prophet forbade the acceptance of the price of a dog or blood, and also forbade the profession of tattooing, getting tattooed and receiving or giving Riba, (usury), and cursed the picture-makers."
From Bukhari Vol. 3, #482
Narrated Abu Mas'ud Al-Ansari: "Allah's Apostle regarded illegal the price of a dog, the earnings of a prostitute, and the charges taken by a soothsayer."
From Muslim #3803
Abu Masud reported that Allah's messenger forbade the charging of price of the dog and earning of a prostitute and sweets offered to a kahin.
Muhammad believed that money made from the sale of a dog (for other than already mentioned purposes) was considered as evil as the money made from prostitution, witchcraft, or usury. Something about dogs disturbed Muhammad deeply.
3) LOSS OF REWARD OF GOOD WORKS FOR OWNING DOGS
From Bukhari Vol. 3, #515
Narrated Abu Huraira: "Allah's Apostle said, "Whoever keeps a dog, one Qirat of the reward of his good deeds is deducted daily, unless the dog is used for guarding a farm or cattle." Abu Huraira (in another narration) said from the Prophet, "unless it is used for guarding sheep or farms, or for hunting." Narrated Abu Hazim from Abu Huraira: The Prophet said, "A dog for guarding cattle or for hunting.""
From Muslim Number 3815:
Ibn Umar reported Allah's Messenger as saying: He who keeps a dog other than that meant for watching the herd or for hunting loses every day out of his deeds equal to two qirat.
From Muslim Number 2062:
Abu Huraira reported Allah's Messenger as saying: He who attends the funeral till the prayer is offered for (the dead), for him is the reward of one qirat, and he who attends (and stays) till he is buried, for him is the reward of two qirats. It was said: What are the qirats? He said: They are equivalent to two huge mountains. Two other narrators added: Ibn 'Umar used to pray and then depart (without waiting for the burial of the dead). When the tradition of Abu Huraira reached him, he said:" We have lost many qirats."
Having a dog as a pet is prohibited in Islam. In fact, if a Muslim keeps a dog as a pet God will take away some heavenly reward for his good deeds! Notice that the amount taken away changed from one to two qirats.
4) DOGS ANNULLING PRAYER
From Bukhari Vol. 1, #490
Narrated 'Aisha: "The things which annul the prayers were mentioned before me. They said, "Prayer is annulled by a dog, a donkey and a woman (if they pass in front of the praying people)." I said, "You have made us (i.e. women) dogs. I saw the Prophet praying while I used to lie in my bed between him and the Qibla. Whenever I was in need of something, I would slip away, for I disliked to face him.""
From Muslim Number 1032
Abu Dharr reported: The Messenger of 'Allah said: When any one of you stands for prayer and there is a thing before him equal to the back of the saddle that covers him and in case there is not before him (a thing) equal to the back of the saddle, his prayer would be cut off by (passing of an) ass, woman, and black Dog. I said: O Abu Dharr, what feature is there in a black dog which distinguish it from the red dog and the yellow dog? He said: O, son of my brother, I asked the Messenger of Allah as you are asking me, and he said: The black dog is a devil.
From Abu Dawud Number 0704:
Narrated Abdullah ibn Abbas:
Ikrimah reported on the authority of Ibn Abbas, saying: I think the Apostle of Allah said: When one of you prays without a sutrah, a dog, an ass, a pig, a Jew, a Magian, and a woman cut off his prayer, but it will suffice if they pass in front of him at a distance of over a stone's throw.
These hadith state that if a dog passes in front of people praying it annuls their prayer. Annul means, "to reduce to nothing", or "to make ineffective or inoperative". If a group of people are praying and a dog walks in-between them and the Kaba (in Mecca), then their prayer is made null and void.
5) DOGS STOP THE ANGELS
From Bukhari Vol. 4, #448
Narrated Abu Talha: "I heard Allah's Apostle saying; "Angels (of Mercy) do not enter a house wherein there is a dog or a picture of a living creature (a human being or an animal).""
From Bukhari Vol. 7, #843
Narrated Salim's father: "Once Gabriel promised to visit the Prophet but he delayed and the Prophet got worried about that. At last he came out and found Gabriel and complained to him of his grief (for his delay). Gabriel said to him, "We do not enter a place in which there is a picture or a dog.""
From Muslim, #5276:
Abu Huraira reported Allah's Messenger as saying: Angels do not accompany the travelers who have with them a dog and a bell.
From Muslim, #5279:
Abu Huraira reported Allah's Messenger as saying: "The bell is the musical instrument of Satan."
The story behind these hadith was mentioned earlier. A little puppy stopped an angel from entering the house because it was "unclean". Note that angels do not enter a place with a dog, or accompany people who travel with a dog.
The tomes also details the same aspects found in the traditions. We’ll start with the Reliance of the Traveler which is a compendium of Shafi’i law.
On filth, page 95
e14.0 FILTH (NAJASA)
e.14.1 Filth means:
(8) dogs and pigs, or their offspring
On purification, page 98
e14.7 Something that becomes impure by contact (def: below) with something from dogs or swine does not become pure except by being washed seven times, one of which (recommended not to be the last) must be with purifying earth (def: e12.1 (b)) mixed with purifying water, and it must read all of the affected area. One may not substitute something else like soap or glasswort in place of earth.
(n: The contact referred to is restricted, in the Shafi’i school, to contamination by traces of moisture from dogs or swing, whether saliva, urine, anything moist from them, or any of their dry parts that have become moist…)
On trade, page 382
k2.2 It is invalid to transact something that is impure in itself (najasa, def: e141) such as a dog or something affected with filth that cannot be purified (O: by washing), like milk or shortening, though if it can be, like a garment, then it may be transacted.
The Shorter Encyclopedia of Islam entry on dogs (Kalb).
Kalb, the dog, is also in Islam one of the "unclean beasts" (hence kalb as an abusive word, specially to unbelievers), primarily because its flesh may not be eaten (al-Nawawi ..) and further because, according to the Hadith, there are several special regulation regarding it. For example dogs render food which they lick impure and render unavailable water intended for ritual purifications…) Vessels, likewise, which have been licked by dogs, require to be cleaned several times including once with sand. In a certain way they render impure the whole room in which they are; for angels do not enter a house in which there is a dog and Muhammad had first to sprinkle the place on which a young dog had lain concealed with purificatory water before Djibril would appear to him….)
Dogs "cut off the salat", i.e. they make the salat worthless when they come into the immediate vicinity of the man at prayer (Ibn Madja, Ikama, bab 30), and one is all the more inclined to attribute this rule to the impurity of the dog as it also holds for menstruating women. The Arab commentators, however, explain it by saying that the dog frightens the worshipper and distracts him from his devotions (al-Sindi commentary on Ibn Madja as cited above). This is especially true of the black dog, for "he is Satan"). This saying is either to be interpreted literally as meaning that Satan occasionally appears in the form a black dog (cf. Faust) or it only means that black dogs in general are considered particularly dangerous. Dogs in general are considered noxious and should therefore be exterminated (al-Nasa’i, Said wa’l-dhaba’ih, bab 9-14_, but as "Allah does not create anything in which there is not a trace of His wisdom" (al-Sindi, commentary on this passage), this rule is applied only to black dogs.
It is only permitted to keep dogs for hunting, for herding and for watching (al-Nasa’i, op. cit.); whoever keeps a forbidden dog has to forfeit a portion of his possession daily (cf. Babylon. Talmud Shabbath, fol 63: "whoever possesses a dangerous dog keeps good fortune away from his house"). Dealing in dogs on the other hand is strictly forbidden (al-Bukhari, Buyu’ bab 25).
But in spite of its impurity and dangerousness the Arabs are able to appreciate the good qualities and services of the dog. Muhammad himself promises a woman a divine reward for a kindness which she had done a thirsty dog (al-Bukhari, Wudi, bab 33), and al-Kazwini (p. 403) characterizes the dog as "a particularly intelligent, very useful animal, patient in hunger an on the watch, whose cleverness and fidelity are shown in many ways". …
The tomes echo the hadith’s statements. That’s because the hadith’s statements are theological bedrock for Islam’s denigration of dogs, hence the scholars detail the rulings in their books of jurisprudence or theology. Islam has a formal, establish, legal position that dogs are unclean and it rejects dogs as pets.
There are many Muslim sites that discuss dog ownership. Real Muslims believe in obeying the Islamic law - the Sharia, which states that keeping dogs as pets is not permitted. Below are a few samples.
The Muslim Q&A site Albalgh answers a young Muslim’s question regarding keeping a dog as a pet:
Q.) I am a 15 year old Muslim American and my mother is buying a dog. I heard that if I touch the dog, I cannot pray. Is this true? What should I do?
Similarly Allah Taãla created the dog from among His creation. This does not mean that we should love the dog. It is perhaps the indoctrination of the Western culture that 'The dog is Man's best Friend'. The theory that 'dogs are very dependent on Human affection' is a myth - again culture and custom has helped to develop this unnatural behavior.
Allah Taãla the Creator of this Universe - having created the dog would surely have known that the dog requires Human affection and love to exist in this world. Rasulullah (Sallallaaahu Álayhi Wasallam) would have advised us to keep dogs as pets. On the contrary, we are instructed not to keep dogs as pets and 'love' them as exemplified by the non-Muslims. Remember our life is structured and bound by the Shariah i.e. The Noble Qurãn and the beautiful example of Rasulullah (Sallallaaahu Álayhi Wasallam). Consider these Ahaadith:
… Salaam) said that we, the group of Angels do not enter a house wherein there is a dog or pictures. (Sahih Muslim Hadith no.3928)
In the light of these Ahaadith and other narrations it is not permissible to keep dogs as pets. The household is deprived of the Mercy of Allah Taãla.
The website Islam-qa addresses a person’s question regarding owning dogs:
What is the ruling on raising dogs in the house?
It is not permissible for a Muslim to keep a dog, unless he needs this dog for hunting, guarding livestock or guarding crops.
Al-Bukhaari (2145) narrated that Abu Hurayrah (may Allaah be pleased with him) said: The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: "Whoever keeps a dog, a qiraat from his good deeds will be deducted every day, except a dog for farming or herding livestock."
Muslim (2978) narrated from Abu Hurayrah (may Allaah be pleased with him) that the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: "Whoever keeps a dog that is not a dog for hunting, herding livestock or farming, two qiraats will be deducted from his reward each day."
With regard to keeping dogs, this is haraam and is in fact a major sin, because the one who keeps a dog, except those for which an exception has been made, will have two qiraats deducted from his reward every day.
It is by the wisdom of Allaah that like calls to like and evil calls to evil. It is said that the kaafirs, Jews, Christians and communists in the east and the west all keep dogs, Allaah forbid. Each one takes his dog with him and cleans it every day with soap and other cleansing agents. But even if he were to clean it with the water of all the seas in the world and all the soap in the world, it would never become pure! Because its impurity is inherent, and inherent impurity cannot be cleansed except by destroying it and erasing it altogether.
But this is by the wisdom of Allaah, and the wisdom of Allaah is that like calls to like and evil calls to Shaytaan because this kufr of theirs is by the inspiration of the Shaytaan and the command of the Shaytaan, for the Shaytaan enjoins evil, immorality, kufr and misguidance. So they are slaves to the Shaytaan and to their whims and desires, and they are also evil and love vile things. We ask Allaah to guide us and them.
These Muslim sites are only stating what the Sharia teaches: You can’t own dogs. The site above says that not only is it not permissible for Muslims to own dogs, but that the dogs must be destroyed. And note that it ends with a denunciation of non-Muslims (kufr) and states that owning dogs comes from the inspiration of Satan and dog owners are slaves to Satan.